UML as a Modeling Tool for Developing an Agent-based Auction System Arnold Aribowo (Department of Computer Engineering, Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia) Maria Indrawan ( CSSE, Monash University, Australia) Outline Buying Model Negotiation Types UML Notations UML Activity diagrams for Auction Protocol Conclusion and future works Buying Model prepurchase Product identification Product selection negotiation Product consummation Order placement Payment authorization After sales services Product delivery Post purchase Negotiation Types Distributive Negotiation (win-lose) One issue is negotiated. Parties involved have opposing interests. Agreement does not need to satisfy joint gains for both parties. Integrative Negotiation (win-win) Multiple issues are negotiated. Parties involved have different preferences towards these issues. Agreement need to satisfy joint gains for both parties. Integrative vs Distributive Integrative Negotiation Distributive Negotiation Flow of information Create a free and open flow; share Conceal information, or use information openly it selectively and strategically Understandin g the other Attempt to understand what the other side really wants and needs Make no effort to understand the other side, or use the information to gain strategic advantage Attention to Emphasized common goals, commonalities objectives, interests and differences Emphasize differences in goals, objectives, interests Focus on solutions Search for solutions that meet own needs or even block the other from meeting their needs Search for solutions that meet the needs of both (all) sides Type of Auctions English Auction open cry auction Sealed-bid Auction single round or multiple rounds Dutch Auction What is Agent? Dictionary: Latin ‘agans” -> to act the producer of an effect, an active substance, a person or thing that performs an action, a representative, etc. Common characteristics: perform some task on our behalf (action) has responsibility access to some of our resources proactive/reactive Agent-based Auction Systems There are two roles in Agent based Auction System: Buying Agent. Selling Agent. These agents needs to interact and exchange information. Pre-defined set of rules during this communication process protocol UML to Model Agent Protocol in an Auction System UML has been proved to facilitate many software developers to express and exchange the idea about the design and specification of the software systems. The wide acceptance of UML as a modeling tools. The existing elements are sufficient in modelling agent-based auction systems. UML Activity Diagram Notations (1) Initial and final states Action state ActionState1 Transition UML Activity Diagram Notations (2) Decision Fork and Join UML Activity Diagram Notations (3) Swimlanes Partition1 English Auction Auctioneer Bidder Describe the item being sold Receive Price Define the rules Check Price Specify the type of auction Define Parameter Explain Starting Date and Time Send Price Send Proposal Check Proposal Announce the Current Bid Proposal Price >= Price ? Announce the winner Request Payment Make a payment Closing the bid Increase Price Goods Delivered Single Round Sealed Bid Auction A u c t io n e e r B id d er D e s c ri b e t h e i te m b e i n g so l d D e f i ne t h e r u l e s R e c e iv e P ri c e C h e c k P ri ce S p e c if y t h e t y pe o f a u c t io n D e f i ne P a ra m e t e r E x p l a i n s t a r t in g d a t e a n d t i m e S e n d th e I n i t i a l P r i c e S e n d P r o p os a l C h e c k P ro po s a l C l o s in g D a t e ? A n n o un c e t h e w i n n e r R e q u e s t P ay m e n t M a k e a p a ym e n t C l o s in g t h e b i d G o o d s D e l iv e r e d Multiple Round Sealed Bid Auction Auctioneer Bidder Describe the item being sold Receive Price Define the rules Check Price Specify the type of auction Define Parameter Explain starting date and time Send the Initial Price Send Proposal Check Proposal Closing Date ? Announce the winner Request Payment M ake a payment Closing the bid Include in T he current round ? Goods Delivered Announce the current highest bid Dutch Auction Auctioneer Bidder Describe the item being sold Define the rules Receive Price Check Price Specify the type of auction Define Parameter Explain starting date and time Send Price Send Proposal Announce the Current Bid Check Proposal Announce the winner Request Payment Proposal Price < Price ? Make a payment Closing the bid Decrease Price Price > Minimum Price Goods Delivered Conclusion UML has the ability on modelling agent interactions. The interactions modelled: • the flow of messages during the auction process. • the expected actions in different states of the auctions. Future works: defining the message format mapping the message into an existing Agent Communication Languages, such as FIPA ACL.