UML as a Modeling Tool
for Developing an
Agent-based Auction System
Arnold Aribowo
(Department of Computer Engineering, Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia)
Maria Indrawan
( CSSE, Monash University, Australia)
Outline
Buying Model
Negotiation Types
UML Notations
UML Activity diagrams for Auction Protocol
Conclusion and future works
Buying Model
prepurchase
Product identification
Product selection
negotiation
Product
consummation
Order placement
Payment authorization
After sales services
Product delivery
Post
purchase
Negotiation Types
Distributive Negotiation
(win-lose)
One issue is
negotiated.
Parties involved have
opposing interests.
Agreement does not
need to satisfy joint
gains for both parties.
Integrative Negotiation
(win-win)
Multiple issues are
negotiated.
Parties involved have
different preferences
towards these issues.
Agreement need to
satisfy joint gains for
both parties.
Integrative vs Distributive
Integrative Negotiation
Distributive Negotiation
Flow of
information
Create a free and open flow; share Conceal information, or use
information openly
it selectively and
strategically
Understandin
g the other
Attempt to understand what the
other side really wants and needs
Make no effort to
understand the other side, or
use the information to gain
strategic advantage
Attention to
Emphasized common goals,
commonalities objectives, interests
and
differences
Emphasize differences in
goals, objectives, interests
Focus on
solutions
Search for solutions that
meet own needs or even
block the other from
meeting their needs
Search for solutions that meet the
needs of both (all) sides
Type of Auctions
English Auction

open cry auction
Sealed-bid Auction

single round or multiple rounds
Dutch Auction
What is Agent?
Dictionary:


Latin ‘agans” -> to act
the producer of an effect, an active substance, a person
or thing that performs an action, a representative, etc.
Common characteristics:




perform some task on our behalf (action)
has responsibility
access to some of our resources
proactive/reactive
Agent-based Auction Systems
There are two roles in Agent based Auction
System:


Buying Agent.
Selling Agent.
These agents needs to interact and exchange
information.
Pre-defined set of rules during this
communication process
protocol
UML to Model
Agent Protocol in an Auction System
UML has been proved to facilitate many
software developers to express and
exchange the idea about the design and
specification of the software systems.
The wide acceptance of UML as a
modeling tools.
The existing elements are sufficient in
modelling agent-based auction systems.
UML Activity Diagram Notations (1)
Initial and final states
Action state
ActionState1
Transition
UML Activity Diagram Notations (2)
Decision
Fork and Join
UML Activity Diagram Notations (3)
Swimlanes
Partition1
English Auction
Auctioneer
Bidder
Describe the item being sold
Receive Price
Define the rules
Check Price
Specify the type of auction
Define Parameter
Explain Starting Date and Time
Send Price
Send Proposal
Check Proposal
Announce the Current Bid
Proposal Price >= Price ?
Announce the winner
Request Payment
Make a payment
Closing the bid
Increase Price
Goods Delivered
Single Round Sealed Bid Auction
A u c t io n e e r
B id d er
D e s c ri b e t h e i te m b e i n g so l d
D e f i ne t h e r u l e s
R e c e iv e P ri c e
C h e c k P ri ce
S p e c if y t h e t y pe o f a u c t io n
D e f i ne P a ra m e t e r
E x p l a i n s t a r t in g d a t e a n d t i m e
S e n d th e I n i t i a l P r i c e
S e n d P r o p os a l
C h e c k P ro po s a l
C l o s in g D a t e ?
A n n o un c e t h e w i n n e r
R e q u e s t P ay m e n t
M a k e a p a ym e n t
C l o s in g t h e b i d
G o o d s D e l iv e r e d
Multiple Round Sealed Bid Auction
Auctioneer
Bidder
Describe the item being sold
Receive Price
Define the rules
Check Price
Specify the type of auction
Define Parameter
Explain starting date and time
Send the Initial Price
Send Proposal
Check Proposal
Closing Date ?
Announce the winner
Request Payment
M ake a payment
Closing the bid
Include in T he current round ?
Goods Delivered
Announce the current highest bid
Dutch Auction
Auctioneer
Bidder
Describe the item being sold
Define the rules
Receive Price
Check Price
Specify the type of auction
Define Parameter
Explain starting date and time
Send Price
Send Proposal
Announce the Current Bid
Check Proposal
Announce the winner
Request Payment
Proposal Price < Price ?
Make a payment
Closing the bid
Decrease Price
Price > Minimum Price
Goods Delivered
Conclusion
UML has the ability on modelling agent
interactions.
The interactions modelled:
• the flow of messages during the auction process.
• the expected actions in different states of the auctions.
Future works:


defining the message format
mapping the message into an existing Agent
Communication Languages, such as FIPA ACL.
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UML as a Modelling Tool for Developing an Agent