ABC Book of Canada by Colton Bentley Alberta is located in western Canada, bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state (the others being New Brunswick and Yukon). It is also one of only two Canadian provinces that are landlocked (the other being Saskatchewan). Bluenose was a Canadian schooner from Nova Scotia, a celebrated racing ship (and hardworking fishing vessel) and a symbol of the province. The name "bluenose" originated as a nickname for Nova Scotians from as early as the late eighteenth century.[ The CN Tower, located in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a communications and observation tower standing 553.33 metres (1,815.4 ft) tall. It surpassed the height of the Ostankino Tower while still under construction in 1975, becoming the tallest free-standing structure on land in the world . In Canada a Dime is a coin worth ten cents. It is the smallest (in physical size) of the currently issued Canadian coins. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the 10 cent piece, but in practice the term dime is universal. It is nearly identical in size to the American dime, but unlike its counterpart, the Canadian dime is magnetic due to a distinct metal composition: from 1968-99 it was composed entirely of nickel, and since 2000 it has had a high steel content. The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. They are members of the Northwest Division in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL).The Oilers were founded on November 1, 1971, with the team playing its first season in 1972 as one of twelve founding franchises of the major professional World Hockey Association (WHA). Fort Henry (also known as Fort Henry National Historic Site) is located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada on Point Henry, a strategic point located near the mouth of the Cataraqui River where it flows into the St. Lawrence River, at the upper end of the Thousand Islands. The original fort was constructed during the War of 1812, when present-day Ontario was a British colony known as Upper Canada. The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth. The House of Commons is the name of the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada and historically was the name of the lower houses of Ireland and North Carolina. In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the upper house of parliament (the House of Lords and the Senate, respectively). The leader of the majority party in the House of Commons usually becomes the prime minister. Inuit is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland, and Alaska. The Inuit language is grouped under Eskimo-Aleut languages. Jarome Iginla (born July 1, 1977) is a Canadian professional ice hockey player for the Calgary Flames of the National Hockey League (NHL). A fivetime NHL All-Star, he is the Flames' all-time leader in goals, points, and games played. The immigration to and for gold prospecting, along the Klondike River near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada after gold was discovered there in the late 18th century. In total, about 12.5 million ounces of gold (about 390 tonnes) have been taken from the Klondike area in the century since its discovery. The Common Loon has a black-and-white checkered back with shiny black head, dark pointed bill, white belly and wing lining, and a necklace of vertical white stripes and a horizontal black bill. Manitoba is a prairie province in Canada and has an area of 649,950 square kilometers. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territory of Nunavut to the north, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. The Niagara Falls are voluminous waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. The falls are 27 km north-northwest of Buffalo, New York and 120 km south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York. Ottawa is the capital of Canada and a municipality within the Province of Ontario. Located in the Ottawa Valley in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario, the city lies on the southern banks of the Ottawa River, a major waterway forming the local boundary between the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Polar Bear is a bear native largely within the Arctic circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is the world's largest carnivore species found on land. It is also the largest bear, together with the omnivore. Quebec is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level. Regina is the capital of Saskatchewan, Canada. The city is the second largest in the province (after Saskatoon), and is a cultural and commercial metropolis for both southern Saskatchewan and adjacent areas in the neighboring American states of North Dakota and Montana. St. John's is the provincial capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and located on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland. St. John's is the most populous Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) in the province. Terrance Stanley "Terry" Fox, (July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian humanitarian, athlete, and cancer treatment activist. He became famous for the Marathon of Hope, a cross-Canada run to raise money for cancer research, which Fox ran with one prosthetic leg. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization UNESCO protects natural and cultural properties around the world. Canada has 13 UNESCO World Heritage sites & several UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement fought as part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War. The main combatants were the Canadian Corps against three divisions of the German Sixth Army. Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada. Winnipeg is the primary municipality in the Winnipeg Capital Region, which is home to more than sixty percent of Manitoba's population. The name Winnipeg comes from the Cree words meaning muddy water, referring to Lake Winnipeg. Extreme Temperature: The average temperatures of Canada vary across the country; the table below shows the temperature of various cities across Canada. City January (Avg. Low) January (Avg. High) July (Avg. Low) July (Avg. High) Winnipeg, MB -22.8 °C -12.7 °C 13.3 °C 25.8 °C Saskatoon, SK -22.3 °C -11.8 °C 11.4 °C 24.9 °C Regina, SK -21.6 °C -10.7 °C 11.8 °C 25.7 °C Quebec City, QC -17.6 °C -7.9 °C 13.4 °C 25.0 °C Edmonton, AB -16.0 °C -7.3 °C 12.1 °C 22.8 °C Ottawa, ON -15.3 °C -6.1 °C 15.4 °C 26.5 °C Calgary, AB -15.1 °C -2.8 °C 9.4 °C 22.9 °C Montreal, QC -14.7 °C -5.7 °C 15.6 °C 26.2 °C Halifax, NS -10.7 °C -1.2 °C 13.5 °C 23.6 °C St. John's, NL -8.6 °C -0.9 °C 10.5 °C 20.3 °C Toronto, ON -7.3 °C -1.1 °C 17.9 °C 26.4 °C Vancouver, BC 0.5 °C 6.1 °C 13.2 °C 21.7 °C Yellowknife, NT -32.0 °C -24.0 °C 12.0 °C 21.0 °C Iqaluit, NU -30.6 °C -22.5 °C 3.7 °C 11.6 °C Moncton, NB -14.3 °C -3.6 °C 12.6 °C 24.5 °C Charlottetown, PEI -12.6 °C -3.3 °C 13.8 °C 23.2 °C Whitehorse, YK -22 °C -13.3 °C 7.7 °C 20.5 °C York University is a university located in Toronto, Ontario. It is Canada's third-largest university and has produced several of the country's top leaders across the humanities and in sciences such as chemistry, meteorology and space science Canada is divided into six time zones and ranks fifth among countries with respect to number of time zones, after Russia (eleven), the United States (nine), Australia (nine) and the United Kingdom (eight).