构建生动有效课堂,促进教师职业发展
陈则航
北京师范大学外国语言文学学院英文系
构建生动有效课堂
 课前准备
 课堂实施
 课后反思
课前准备
 解读教材
 设定目标
 设计程序
设定目标
教学目标的特点
• 可检测
• 清楚明白
• 具体化
• 描述行为
教学设计原则

Aim: realistic goals of a lesson.

Variety: a number of different types of activities
to maintain interest and motivation

Flexibility: extra or alternative tasks

Learnability: within the learning capacity,
neither beyond nor below students’ coping ability

Linkage: stages and steps are linked with one
another
教学设计中常见问题
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Coherence – how tasks/activities
are linked together
Adequacy of input
Opportunities for students to
internalise the newly learned
language and information
Focus on language study
Assessment of students’ learning in
a lesson.
教学程序
3P:
presentation, practice, production
ESA:
engage, study, activate
PWP:
pre-, while-, post-
课堂实施策略
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Activate learning
Scaffold learning
Stimulate active thinking
Support participation
Facilitate autonomy
Provide feedback
听说教学
听说课常见问题
1)
听力常常停留在“听懂”的层面上,忽略提取
信息的活动;
2)
忽略听力的语境(如课文中说话人的关系);
3)
听力活动的设计未能关注意义,而是个别词语;
4)
未能利用听力的素材学习语言(词汇、功能、
语法);
5)
听说脱节,缺少模仿活动;
6)
听后的说没有围绕落实听中学到的语言展开。
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听过的内容会很快忘记;
说话者的语速过快,听者无法控制;
知道的词却听不懂;
听到的内容无法在脑中组成有意义的信息;
听懂了词义但不理解隐含的信息;
因为思考前一句的意思而错过后一部分内容;
不同说话者的口音不同;
无法重听.

Spontaneity(同步): 从未听过的内容

Context(情境): 对话双方都熟悉的情境

Visual clues(视觉线索): 面对面的交流


Listener’s response(听者回应): 听者可以打断
并给出回应
Speaker’s adjustment(说者调整): 说者会依
据听者的反应对自己的说话方式和内容作出调整

注重听力过程;

注重意义的理解;

采用听前活动来激发学生背景知识;

将听力与其它语言技能相结合;

培养学生的听力策略;

鼓励学生通过非语言线索推测意义。
录像片段
video clip 12a
video clip 12b
比较两种听力活动
活动 1
Listen to the life story of an inventor and answer the following
questions.
1. What is the name of the inventor?
2. Where was he from?
3. When did he start working in Boston University?
4. What invention did the inventor make that is still used today?
5. How do people remember him now?
活动 2
活动 2
第一步
第二步
第三步
听力教学的模式
 The
 The
bottom-up model
top-down model
 The Pre-, While-, Post- model
听力教学的模式

The bottom-up model
In the bottom-up model, listening
comprehension is believed to start with sound
and meaning recognitions. This process
expects the listener to have a very effective
short-term memory as they have to make
sense of every sound in order to figure out the
meaning of words, phrases, and structures.
听力教学的模式
The top-down model
In the top-down model, listening for gist,
making use of the contextual clues (knowledge about
the speaker, the setting, the topic and the purpose of
the talk) to construct meaning are emphasized.
In other words, listening involves “knowledge
that a listener brings to a text, sometimes called ‘inside
the head’ information, as opposed to the information
that is available within the text itself” (Hedge,
2000:232).
听力教学的模式
The Pre-, While-, Post- model
听前活动目的
激活背景知识
 交代听力目的
 提供语言铺垫

听前活动举例
头脑风暴:激活背景知识:
 预测:使学生带着目的听;
 预教生词:扫除部分障碍;
 围绕话题展开讨论:激发已有知识,
语言铺垫。

听中活动目的
获取、加工、重组信息
 检测理解
 在情境中学习语言
 内化语言

听中活动举例
检查预测
 听主旨大意
 连线/配对
 完成表格/段落
 排序
 记笔记
 判断对错
 回答问题
 抓关键词

听后活动目的
新旧知识融合
 语言运用

听后活动举例
回答问题
 讨论
 角色扮演
 访谈
 辩论

口语教学
口语的特点
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less complex syntax
short cuts, e.g. incomplete sentences
fixed conventional phrases / chunks
using fillers, hesitation device to give time to think
before speaking.
口语教学原则
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练习时,在流利度和准确度之间找到
平衡点
创设情境进行口语练习
联系学生实际或个人生活展开口语活
动
使有意义的交际最大化
帮助学生树立信心
帮助学生发展口语交际策略
成功的口语活动具备以下特点
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最大限度使用英语
学生参与度比较均衡
学生有较强的表达欲望
适合学生水平
口语活动的设计

控制性练习
信息沟活动;

半控制性练习
解决问题式活动;
讨论;
角色扮演;

半交际化练习
新闻发布会;
访谈;
小项目.

交际化练习
阅读教学
如何理解“阅读素养”?
以培养阅读素养为目标的教学将超越对一
般阅读能力的培养,使阅读不是仅仅停留
在对文本表面文字的理解,而是强调读者
为了不同的目的而阅读,强调他们对文字
信息的理解、使用和反思,强调读者通过
积极主动的思考和与文本的互动来获取信
息,不论是为个人还是为公众事业,为学
习还是为工作,他们为自己成为积极的公
民和终身学习者而进行阅读。
目标:是阅读能力还是阅读素养?
阅读能力是指我们对文字所传递
的信息的正确理解和把握。
阅读素养是指对我们对文字材料
的理解、使用和反思。 其目的是为了
实现个人目标,发展个人知识和潜能,
更好地参与社会活动。
阅读过程
- 阅读理解的五个层次
关键词:
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理解事实性信息
Retrieving information
理解整体意义
Broad understanding
发展诠释能力
Developing an interpretation
反思与评价所读内容-理解深层含义
Reflecting on content
反思与评价文体与特征
Reflecting on form
获取信息、
理解、
诠释、
反思、
评价
阅读教学原则
读前可以预教词汇或激活背景知识;
 阅读任务应以发展学生阅读策略为目标而
非测试阅读理解;
 教师应逐渐减少指导,帮助学生最终成为
独立的阅读者。

阅读教学中经常出现的问题
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以教师为中心,以讲解为主;
侧重词汇讲解而非文章的理解;
测试阅读理解而非教给学生如何阅读;
不关心学生是否愿意读、喜欢读;
忽视对学生阅读技巧和策略的培养;
…
阅读教学模式

The Bottom-up Model

The Top-down Model

The Interactive Model
阅读策略

skimming
 scanning
 predicting
 guessing meaning from
the context
 understanding details
 understanding text
organizations


distinguishing main
ideas from supporting
details
distinguishing facts
from opinions
 understanding
reference
 making inferences
 evaluating the author’s
attitude and opinions
阅读教学三个阶段
 Pre-reading
 While-reading
 Post-reading
典型活动
(1)
利用图片或问题激活学生与话题相关的背景知识;
(2)
对阅读内容进行预测;
(3)
通过略读或扫读获取文章大意;
(4)
预教重点生词或结构以帮助学生获取文章大意。
看片段,思考教师读前
活动的安排
video clip 2&3
COMPLICATED
TRANSITION
INPUT
DEVICE
复杂的语言输入
信息转换机制
REORGANISED &
INTERNALISED
OUTPUT
经过整合和内化
的语言输出
Reading A Para.3 [《会议手册》第13页]
Read the passage and find out important events in the different
periods of Google’s history. Write down these events.
Period
Events
1996
Google began as Larry Page’s research project.
1998
Page and Sergey set up the company and registered the
Google.com.
The search engine grew quickly and it began to sell
advertising on the website.
Google has acquired YouTube.com and continues to add
new features.
2000
Recently Google has also owned Blogger and other hot websites
and become the leader in terms of ad-based revenue
on the web.
Pictures
Drawings
Maps
Tables
Subtitles
Notes
Pie charts
Bar charts
Flowcharts
Sequencing
Tree diagrams
Cyclic diagrams
角色扮演
制作海报
讨论
做小调查
小项目
制作广告
短剧
制作计划/手册
创作故事
做访谈
复述
制作地图/图片
总结:阅读教学关注点
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让学生获得“阅读理由”,激发对课文的情感
回应;(学生为什么要读这篇文章?是为了回
答别人提的问题和做几个练习吗?学生喜欢这
篇文章吗?学生想/能获得什么知识呢?)
让学生“为理解而读”,鼓励对文章的更深层
次解读;(学生阅读仅仅是为了发展或应用阅
读技能吗?阅读的本质是什么?)
让学生“感受阅读的快乐”。
阅读教学中的词汇
词汇有多重要?
Without grammar very little can be
conveyed, without vocabulary nothing
can be conveyed.
—David Wilkins
录像片段
video clip 6
video clip 8
[IT] video clip 1
What does it mean to know a word?
• Denotative meaning (本义)
• Connotative meaning(隐含的意思)
• Collocations
• Synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms(下位
词)
What does it mean to know a word?
(1) its pronunciation and stress (发音和重读);
(2) its spelling and grammatical properties
(拼写和词性);
(3) its meaning (词义);
(4) how and when to use it to express
the intended meaning (语用);
(5) knowing more than just one word
(e.g. give up, ups and downs) (词组);
(6) knowing its collocations (e.g. see,
look, and watch; heavy rain but not
heavy wind) (词语搭配).
如何呈现新词汇

尽可能通过视觉冲击或肢体语言直观地呈现词
义,如图片,照片,录象片段,模仿,手势等。

通过描述情境来呈现词意,然后请学生说出词
义。

用同义词或反义词来解释词义。

通过同类词来表现单词之间的关系及其意思,
比如 cook: fry, boil, bake, grill等。

遇到专业词汇或具有抽象意义的词汇,可以采
用翻译和举例的方式。
如何呈现新词汇 (续)

通过构词法和常用前后缀,在已有词汇的基础
上构建新的词汇。

把词汇放在套语(chunks)中去教.Chunks 指
成段的短语和固定表达法,如:Just a moment,
please.To tell you the truth,……

思考词汇在真实生活中可能用到的情境.将新
学语言与学生的真实生活相联系起来,以提高
学习兴趣。

考虑提供不同的情境来呈现新单词。
无论是遗忘曲线还是实证研究都表明,
复现是英语词汇学习非常重要的手段,
学生至少需要与词汇接触5-16次才有可
能真正掌握该词汇(Nation, 1990)。
教师应当通过各种方式推动学生的工作
记忆,对词汇进行加工和理解(比如让
学生将词汇与图片或实物建立联系,学
生将新学词汇与已知词汇建立联系,形
成有意义的词汇关系网等),使之尽快
成为长时记忆的内容。
如何巩固词汇
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Labeling
Spot the
difference
Describe and
draw
Play a game
Using word series
Word bingo

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Word association
Find synonyms and
antonyms
Use categories
Use word network
Use the Internet
resources for more
ideas
词汇教学案例 教学过程中的词汇学习
听前
Pre-teach key vocabulary in context
读前
预教生词
听中
Understand vocabulary in context
读中
在语境中理解词汇
Use the vocabulary in context
听后
读后
运用所学词汇进行表达
Focused vocabulary study
词汇学习与巩固
阅读教学中的提问
Comprehension text and questions (1)
Read the text and answer the following
questions.
Yesterday I saw the palgish
flester gollining begrunt the
bruck. He seemed very
chanderbil, so I did not jorter
him, just deapled to him quistly.
Perhaps later he will besand
cander, and I will be able to
raengel to him.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What was the flester doing,
and where?
What sort of a flester was he?
Why did the writer decide not
to jorter him?
How did she deaple?
What did she hope would
happen later?
Comprehension text and questions (2)
Read the text and answer the following
questions.
Yesterday I saw the new
patient hurrying along the
corridor. He seemed very
upset, so I did not follow him,
just called to him gently.
Perhaps later he will feel better,
and I will be able to talk to him.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is the problem described
here?
Is this event taking place indoors
or outside?
Did the writer try to get near the
patient?
What do you think she said when
she called to him?
What might the job of the writer
be?
Why do you think she wants to talk
to the patient?
阅读问题的设置



Closed vs. open
封闭式
vs. 开放式
唯一答案
不同答案
已知答案
未知答案
Display vs. genuine
展示性
vs. 真实性
Lower-order vs. higher-order
低层次
vs. 高层次
信息回忆
分析
事实记忆
评价
Bloom’s taxonomy questioning

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

Knowledge:
recalling facts, terms, and basic concepts
Comprehension: understanding facts and ideas by
organizing, comparing, translating,
interpreting, describing, and stating the
main ideas
Application:
applying acquired knowledge, facts,
techniques and rules in a different
context
Analysis:
identifying relationships, causes or
motives, and finding evidence to support
main ideas
Synthesis:
combining elements in a different way
and proposing alternative solutions,
creative thinking
Evaluation:
present and defend opinions by making
an informed judgement about
information or ideas based on a set of
获知、
理解、
应用、
分析、
综合、
评价
写作教学
录像片段
video clip 14
写作教学中常见问题

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
关注语言使用的准确度.
练习某个目标结构.
写作之前准备不充分.
缺乏读者意识.
缺乏真实性。
观点是被给予的而非自己的
鲜有机会做创作性写作.
A process approach to writing
Brown (1994:320-21)
Focus on the process of writing that leads
to the final written product;
 Help student writers understand their
own composing process;
 Help them build repertoires of strategies
for prewriting, drafting, and rewriting;
 Give students time to write and rewrite;
 Place central importance on the process
of revision.

A Process approach to writing
Before writing
creating a motivation to write
 brainstorming
 mapping
 free writing
Writing
 outlining
 drafting
After writing
 editing
 revising
 proofreading
 conferencing
Before writing

Motivating interests

Reading samples

Languages preparation

Discussing topics

Brainstorming, mind mapping
Dear
Fang Lan
Greeting
,
comma
学习范文,语言准备
This is Wang Ying. Remember me? We were friends in
primary school…
Introduction
Questions
What are you doing now? Are you working?
At the moment I’m studying medicine at a university…I
don’t like pop music any more—I prefer classical music
now.
Information
Well, I must finish here because I’ve got an exam
tomorrow.
Reason to finish
Sign off
All the best
Wang Ying
24th October
Dear Fang Lan,
This is Wang Ying. Remember me? We were friends
in primary school. We haven’t seen each other for about
10 years—right?
Anyway, how are you? I got your address from Chen
Xiaohong. What are you doing now? Are you working? I
remember you always wanted to be a police officer!
At the moment I’m studying medicine at a university.
Do you remember Xie Jun? He’s on the same course as
me! I think I’ve changed a lot over the years. I don’t
like pop music any more------I prefer classical music
now.
Well, I must finish here because I’ve got an exam
tomorrow. Write back soon and tell me all your news.
All the best
Wang Ying
24th October
Dear Fang Lan,
This is Wang Ying. Remember
Remember me? We were friends
in primary school. We haven’t seen each other for about
—right?
10 years—right?
Anyway,
Anyway, how are you? I got your address from Chen
Xiaohong. What are you doing now? Are you working? I
remember you always wanted to be a police officer!
At the moment I’m studying medicine at a university.
Do you remember Xie Jun? He’s on the same course as
me! I think I’ve changed a lot over the years. I don’t like
pop music any more—I prefer classical music now.
Well,
Well, I must finish here because I’ve got an exam
tomorrow. Write back soon and tell me all your news.
All the best
Wang Ying
思维导图
history
population
things to see
introduce
a place
things to do
climate
location
Writing

Outlining

Drafting
After writing

Peer and self editing

Revising

Proofreading

Conferencing
Examples of peer-editing sheet
学习效果评价
同伴姓名:
评价内容
文章思路清晰、内容完整
目标词汇、定语从句使用正确
单数第三人称和人称代词正确
语言拓展
总分:
5’
4’
3’
2’
1’
Group evaluation form
1=ok
Members
2= good 3= excellent
A
B
C
D
Contents
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Organization
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Linking words
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Grammar
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Spelling
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
课后反思——行动研究
发现问题
提出假设
初步调查
确认问题
制定行动方案或改进措施
在教学中实施这个方案
在实施中根据观察和反馈调整计划
分阶段有计划地收集数据
分析数据、反思过程、评价效果
撰写行动研究报告
(王蔷,2002)
如何提出假设?
• 从学生方面分析原因
• 从教师方面分析原因
• 从教材、环境等其它方面分析原因
如何验证假设?
问卷、访谈、课堂观摩、
教师日志、学生成绩等
行动计划
Activities
Weeks
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12
Getting to know each Weather forecast
※
other
Forfeits
※
Search for someone
※
who…
How often…
※
Bridging gaps
Predicting similarities
※
I am you
※
staying positive
How strong I am
※
Crazy compliments
※
I enjoyed, I enjoyed
※
Building up team spirit Inter-class quiz league
※
Data collection
Questionnaire
Observation
Teacher log


    

   



不断调整研究设计和研究方法
监控行动实施过程、评价行动效果、调整行动
方案
不断收集数据
Action
Reflection
发现问题 提出假设 初步调查
确认问题
制定行动方案或改进措施
在教学中实施这个方案
发现自己教学中的困惑或者问题
制定行动方案,考虑解决办法
反思实施效果,调整方案
在实施中根据观察和反馈调整计划
分阶段有计划地收集数据
分析数据、反思过程、评价效果
反思数据收集的可靠性等
反思整个过程的收获及问题
撰写行动研究报告
Action Research
“对某个问题进行主动的、反复的、严
肃的、持续不断的深思” 。
——杜威(John Dewey), 1933
反思性教学:教师对自己已经发生的教
学实践进行回顾和思索,强调对自己走
过的路所做的“回顾”。
——舍恩/萧恩(Donald,A.
Schon),1983
行动研究的过程完整吗?
数据收集的方式是否切合研究问题,是否提供
了足够有用的信息?
对于我来说,这次行动研究过程中最重要的方
面是什么?什么是研究过程中的亮点?什么是
最大的困难或挑战?什么是最重要的教训和过
程中的转折点?
......
什么是我 的行动的后果(结果)?
(self)对于我自己,和我的价值观,我了解了什
么?我对于我作为个体了解了什么,作为一个专
业人士了解了什么?我是否在任何方面有所成长?
我是否对原有的信念更加坚定?我是否改变了我
们的地位?为了未来的行动研究,我学到了什么
东西?
(the other)对于我的学生/我的环境(情境)
/我的教学/行动研究,我知道了什么?我有什
么力量去影响我的环境?什么是构成我教学情境
的社会,文化,政治,经济因素?
Zeichner & Liston (1987)



技术层面 (technical)
情境层面 (Situational and institutional)
教育价值层面 (moral and ethical)
Griffiths and Tann (1992: 78-79); Schon (1983)
• Reflection-in-action
Rapid reaction/Repair
• Reflection-on-action
Review
Research/Retheorizing
反思案例
“[…] 学生不积极参加课堂活动。他们好像什么都
不在乎。我试过改变授课的速度,我试过改变自己
的语调,甚至试过改变他们的座位。 我尝试使用个
人化的话题,我让他们做独立活动,对子活动,四
人一组互动,他们好像都无动于衷。我觉得他们知
道我想要的效果,但就是不配合。我不知道问题出
在哪儿。我感到有点沮丧。是不是我的期望太高?
学生说多少才算积极呢? 后来我和其他老师谈,才
认识到我把 “课堂参与”与“说话”看成同义词。
他们不说话不一定意味着他们没有积极学习。”
 撰写研究报告的重要性
 行动研究报告的结构
 撰写研究报告需要注意的问题
记录过程
分析结果
反思
提炼结论
发现问题与提出假设
初步调查与问题确认
行动方案及数据收集方法
行动研究
报告
行动方案实施
数据分析与研究结果
结论与反思
参考书目
课堂观摩
(一)关注课堂整体
1. 要关注整节课的教学目标。
2. 要关注整节课的过程步骤。
3. 要关注整节课的课堂气氛。
(二)关注教师教学
1. 要关注教师的教学语言。
2. 要关注教师对教材及其它教学资
源的使用。
3. 要关注教师的课堂管理能力。
4. 要关注教师教态。
(三)关注学生学习
1. 要关注学生情绪、状态和学习态度。
2. 要关注学生课堂主体地位的体现。
3. 要关注学习活动的形式。
4. 要关注学生主导的课堂学习。
5. 要关注学生学习的质量。
优点
建议
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ELT Methodology