オーストラリア研究(英語) Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164) [email protected] ・http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess November 4th (Tuesday) Attended by over 100,000 race-goers… The Melbourne Cup “The race that stops a メルボルン・カップnation™” １８６１年に第１回が行われ た南半球で最も歴史があり最も賞金の高い Public Holiday in レース。国際ＧＩでは珍しくハンデ戦で行われ る。開催日は11月の第１火曜日で、メルボル Melbourne & some parts ンでは「カップ・デー」として祝日になり、豪州 of Victoria の国民的行事。日本馬は（2005年）にアイ ポッパーが初挑戦したが、１２着だった。（讀 (known as ‘Family and 賣新聞 2006/08/11 p.23） Community Day’ in ACT, 2007~2009) Melbourne Cup (２００８・１１・０７) HANSON: BACKGROUND • 13 years of Labour government (‘83-96) • Mabo (92) & Wik (96) Judgments • Growing Criticism of ‘Multiculturalism’ • Rise in Asian Migration/Asianisation of Australia ５０％ 白豪主義 廃止 ベトナム難 民受け入れ ３４％ ５３％ （７５％留学生） オーストラリアのアジア化 30% 26.7% 25% 20% 人口の％ 15% 10% 10% 7.4% 5% 0.3% 0.4% 1945 1966 0% 1991 2003 2020 THE RACIST REACTION… AFL player Nicky Winmar making a stand against racism (April 17 1993) “I said I was black and I was proud” (AFL racial code of conduct implemented in 1995) Hanson: Profile • • • • 100% British descent Twice married and divorced Parent of 4 children Ex fish n’ chip shop owner Hanson: The Rise… • 1994: Won a seat on the Ipswich Town Council as an Independent • 1996: Pre-selected as Liberal Candidate for Oxley; lost Liberal support after writing anti-Aboriginal letter to newspaper • 1996: Won Oxley as Independent in Federal Election (record 20% swing) • 1997: Founded ‘One Nation’ Party • 1998: One Nation wins 11 seats in Queensland state elections (24% of 1st preferences) Hanson’s Policies • Abolish multiculturalism “to treat all Australians equally and abolish divisive and discriminatory policies, such as those attached to aboriginal and multicultural affairs” • Attacked ethnic ghettos (少数民族居住地 区) and spending public money on ethnic groups who refuse to integrate Criticised spending on Aborigines “How can we expect this race to help themselves when governments shower them with money, facilities, and opportunities that only these people can obtain no matter how minute the indigenous blood that flows through their veins, and this is what is causing racism.” Reverse Wik decision Stop Asian Migration “Immigration must be halted in the shortterm so that our dole queues are not added to by, in many cases, unskilled migrants not fluent in the English language” “I, and most Australians, want our immigration policy radically reviewed and that of multiculturalism abolished. I believe that we are in danger of being swamped by Asians.” Anti-Globalisation • Nationalism/Anti-UN – Stop all foreign aid immediately – Support, don’t sell, Australian companies, banks, and media (e.g. Telstra) – Restrict foreign ownership of Australia (e.g. Qantas) – Restore tariff protection on imports “We must look after our own before lining the pockets of overseas countries and investors at the expense of our living standards and future. “ Just an Ordinary Australian… “I consider myself just an ordinary Australian… Of course, I will be called racist but, if I can invite whom I want into my home, then I should have the right to have a say in who comes into my country.” Clip 1 • Talk-back Radio – 司会者が一般の聞き手からの電話を通し様々 なテーマについて討論や意見交換をしたり提案、 問題提起を受けるなどして進めていく双方向ラジ オ番組 • Returned Services League (帰還兵士同盟) – 保守的なロビー団体として政治的影響力を持つ – 各地方市町に設けられたクラブハウスが地元の 唯一の社交場として機能するなど、地方の暮らし に欠かせない存在となっている VIDEO (clip 2) Hanson: The Fall… • 1998: Failed to win the seat of Blair in the national election (One Nation won 9% of vote nationally, but only one seat) • 1999: Fined for breaking electoral law • 2003: Failed to win senate seat in NSW • 2003: Sentenced to 3 years in jail for electoral fraud (released after 11 weeks on appeal) • 2004/07 Failed in bid for Queensland senate Comeback? Howard’s Reaction • Refrained from condemning Hanson – 5 former prime-minister’s condemned Hanson – Looked to Hanson’s support base of ‘battlers’ (生計をたてるのに大変苦労している人々) • Move to the right? – Shunned multiculturalism and ‘political correctness’ – Reduced no. family migrants (unemployed) – Stopped welfare to migrants in 1st 2 years – Curtailed Aboriginal Land Rights (Wik) Hanson: The Fall… • 1998: Failed to win the seat of Blair in the national election (One Nation won 9% of vote nationally, but only one seat) • 1999: Fined for breaking electoral law • 2003: Failed to win senate seat in NSW • 2003: Sentenced to 3 years in jail for electoral fraud (released after 11 weeks on appeal) • 2004/07 Failed in bid for Queensland senate • 2009 (March) Launches 8th election campaign March 2009: Launches her eighth election campaign in Queensland state election Daily Telegraph (March ’09) Fails to win seat, but does get 20% of popular vote (March ’09) Feb. 2010: Announces plans to emigrate to UK… UK too full of immigrants, says Pauline Hanson PAULINE Hanson has abandoned plans to move to Britain, after discovering it's not the racially pure utopia she was hoping for. After returning a fortnight ago from an extended holiday in Europe, the former One Nation leader has told The SunHerald she's back in Australia for good and considering yet another return to politics. "I love England but so many people want to leave there because it's overrun with immigrants and refugees” November 2010 Hanson runs for office again... March 2011 • Runs in NSW Upper House state poll but narrowly fails to win • Challenges results, in court but case of electoral fraud collapses… “Redhead you can trust”: Pauline Hanson's back • CALLING herself the "redhead you can trust" Pauline Hanson has rejoined One Nation, the “determination to control and stamp party she founded, and will stand out the influx of as its NSW Senate candidate in illegal immigrants the next federal election. swamping our shores” • Ms Hanson has unsuccessfully stood six times for state and federal elections since being elected for one term as a member for Oxley in Queensland in 1996. June 2013 The Comeback? Rejoins One Nation & Runs for NSW Senate Seat in September 2013 Election • Preference deals saw Hanson come very close to being elected to the NSW senate… Easy to Criticise Australian ‘Racism’…but what about Japan? Australia Japan 国籍（出身地）別構成比の推移 White Australia… Yellow Japan? 平成 ２3年 6月 法務省入国管理局 外国人労働者受け入れるか？ • 国連の予想によると、労働人口を安 定させるためには、2050年まで毎年 日本は60万人の外国人労働者を 「輸入」しないといけない （United Nations 2000) 毎年２０万人の移民受け入れ 政府が本格検討開始 • Populate or Perish? 「人口を増やさ なければオー ストラリア(日本 ?!?）は消滅す る」 産経ニュース 2014/03/13 Homework: Dear Prime-Minister Abe… Using the Australian case to support your arguments, write a letter to Prime Minister Abe expressing your views on migration to Japan: should the doors be opened to migrants or not? (日本に外国人をもっと受け入れるか、または受 け入れを拒否するか、どちらか自分の考えを決 めて、オーストラリアの状況を参考に、安倍首相 に手紙を書く) 英語・日本語でもＯＫ オーストラリア研究(英語) Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164) [email protected] ・http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess Koalas 'extinct within 30 years' after Chlamydia outbreak • Overdevelopment, disease, climate change, and sexual disease are killing off the species. • The Australian Koala Foundation has urged the government to list the species as vulnerable after it found there may be as few as 43,000 of the tree-dwelling animals left on the mainland (2003 survey estimate: 100,000) Julia Gillard launches a new policy document “Australia in the Asian Century” at the Lowy Institute, in Sydney, October 28, 2012 “Ambitious Asia plan to Power Australia” • Confirms Australia’s future lies with Asia – “becoming a competitive force in the region” • Aimed at maximising links with booming China and other Asian economies thereby powering Australia into world’s top 10 wealthiest nations by 2025 • Japan, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, and US “Australia’s key partners” • Asian languages in schools key focus… OPINION: 'Australia in the Asian Century' or lost in Asia? Kuala Lumpur/The Jakarta Post | Asia News Network • “The paper reeks of Austro-centrism where most of the points made in the document are written with the expectation that Australia will win out of closer ties with Asia without necessarily giving much back in exchange… • One of the paramount barriers Australia has to overcome is the deep set belief that its own cultural values are not necessarily universally accepted across the region. • It's not about learning Asian languages but about understanding different points of view, approaches, and "mindsets". Austrocentrism must take a back seat in relationships around the region for Australia to be seriously considered a member of the region. • The white paper is still haunted by Australia's past. Maybe it's time for Australia to release the US security blanket a little and become a mature and independent nation within the Asian region.