语法复习课
(Revision of the Passive Voice)
A.熟记结构
1.被动语态的结构为“助动词be+及物动词 的过去分词
(p.p)”。
Be动词的五种变化形式:
原 形
be
现在时
am ,is ,are
过去时
was , were
现在分词
being
过去分词
been
(不及物动词或不及物短语动词不可用于被动语态
这类动词有:happen(发生), take place(发生) , break
out(爆发), die(死亡), become(成为), appear(出现),
disappear(消失), last(持续), set out(出发)等。)
He is regarded as a brilliant.
√
This
book
was
written
in
1969.
他被认为很有才气。
√
这本书是1969年写成的。
The broken bike is being repaired now.
2.各种时态结构被动语态的不同时态是通过be的时态变化来表示的,其
那辆坏了的自行车正在被修理。
人称和数方面应与主语保持一致。其具体变化为:
He told us the cat was being washed when
一般现在时: am / is / are done
we called was
him./ were done
一般过去时:
The pen has been used for several years.
他告诉我们打电话时他正在给猫洗澡。
现在进行时:
am factory
/ is / are had
beingbeen
done opened .
He
said
the
这支钢笔已经用了几年。
过去进行时:
was / were being done
他说这家工厂已经开张。
现在完成时:
have / has been done
√
过去完成时: had been done
The work will be finished in three hours.
一般将来时: shall / will be done ; be going to
The
baby must be looked after well.
工作将于三小时后完成。
be
done
这孩子必须被好好照顾。 can / must /
当句中含有情态动词时,句子结构为
have to…be done
3.例如:
① Chinese ______ by the largest number of people.
A.speak B.is speaking C.speaks D.is spoken
(选D。考查一般现在时的被动语态)
② The boy ______ to get supper ready after school
last night.
A.were told B.is telling C.was told
D.tells
(选C。考查一般过去时的被动语态)
③ A lot of new roads ______ built in the west of
China.
A.must B.must be C.Has D.have
(选B。考查含情态动词的被动语态)
B.明确用法
被动语态常用于以下两种情况:
1.不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作
的执行者;
2.强调动作的承受者。例如:
这棵树是那个男孩砍断的。
was ______
cut by that boy.
The tree ______
歌诀:谁做的动作不知道,说出谁做的没有
必要;动作承受者需强调,被动语态运用到。
主动句 The naughty boy
主语
broke
the window
谓语
宾语
yesterday.
状语
1
2
被动句The window
主语
3
was broken by the naughty boy yesterday.
谓语
介宾
状语
步骤一 原宾变主主格变。
被动语态be字变,过去分词跟后面.
步骤二
谓语动词break改为被动形式:be + 过去分词。
步骤三
原主变宾by后见(有时by短语可以省略)。
教你一招
宾变主,
主变宾,
by短语后面跟。
谓语动词变被动,
be后“过分”来使用
常见语态转换
(一)一般现在时和一般过去时的被动语态。
引入练习1。请将下列主动语态变成被动语态
1.Lucy bought some fruit.
was bought
by Lucy.
Some fruit _____
______ _____
2.Uncle Wang waters the flowers every day.
are _______
watered ____
by Uncle Wang every day.
The flowers ___
3.Did they build the bridge in 1998?
Was the bridge _____
built in 1998?
____
4.When did Lu Xun write these books?
were
written ____
by Lu Xun?
When _____these
books _______
5.The farmers don’t grow apples on the farm.
Apples aren’t
_____ grown
_____ on the farm.
6.They didn’t clean the classroom yesterday.
wasn’t ________
cleaned yesterday.
The classroom _______
小结:
be 形 是关键,_______永不
1、被动语态的转换,在be+过去分词中,确定_____
过去分词
变。
主动时态
被动主语
2、Be的时态由_______________确定;be的单/复数由____________确定。
be
be动词 否定________后加not.
3、问句提前__________;
(二)一般现在时带情态动词的被动语态。
引入练习2。请将下列主动语态变成被动语态。
1.You can do the work all by yourself.
The work can
_____ _____
_____
be
done all by yourself.
2.We must plant more trees.
must _____
be ________.
planted
More trees _____
3.We should dig a large hole.
be _____.
dug
A large hole should
_____ ____
4.Can we put our bikes here?
_____
Can our bikes ____
be _____
put here?
5.You mustn’t throw rubbish here.
Rubbish mustn’t
______ _____
be ______
thrown here.
6.We can’t see many stars.
can’t ______
be
seen
Many stars ______
_______
.
小结:
情态动词+be (永远是原形)+过去分词
1.含情态动词的被动结构: ______________________
.
情态动词
2.疑问句提前_____________;
否定句:___________+not.
情态动词
D.注意特例
将主动语态变被动语态应注意几个
特殊情况:
1.含双宾语的主动结构变为被动
结构时,有两种方法:
①将间接宾语(sb)变为主语,直接
宾语保持不变;
②将直接宾语(sth)变为主语,间接
宾语用介词to或for引导。
提示(必背)
a. 把直接宾语(sth)变为主语后,间接宾语(sb)
前通常要加上介词to的有:
write ,pass,give,lend,sell,show,hand等。
b.把直接宾语(sth)变为主语后,间接宾语(sb)
前通常要加上介词for的有:
有make,buy,find,draw等。
练习3例:
1.Her mother gave her a new pen.
was ______
given ______
to
A new pen ______
her by her
mother.
2.She wrote us a letter.
A letter was written to us.
3.She made her son a pair of new shoes.
A pair of new shoes was made for her son by her.
4.He found Jim a seat.
A seat was found for Jim.
5. He bought me a computer.
→ A computer was bought for me.
2.短语动词的被动语态:在变为被动语态时,要
将短语动词视为一个整体,其后的介词或副词不能
省去。例如:
① This dictionary mustn‘t ______ from the
library.
A.take away B.taken away
C.are taken away D.be taken away
② She will take good care of the
children.(变被动语态)
be
taken ______
good
The children will ______
______
care
of
______ ______
(by her).
√
动词短语的被动语态。
练习4
改正下列转换中的错误:
1.People often talk about the film.
误:The film is often talked.
正:
The film is often talked about.
2.Lily looked after the baby.
误:The baby was looked by Lily.
正:
The baby was looked after by Lily.
3.We shouldn’t give up the work.
误:The work shouldn’t be given .
正:
The work shouldn’t be given up.
4.We can’t work out the problem.
误:The problem can’t be worked.
正:
The problem can’t be worked out.
5.We must take good care of young trees.
误:Young trees must be taken good care.
正: Young trees must be taken good care of.
6.We must write to him.
误:He must be written.
正: He must be written to.
小结:动词短语在转换成被动语态时,
介词或副词
不能丢掉其中的_____________。
3.含有复合宾语的主动结构变被动结构时,通常
将宾语变为被动句的主语,而宾语补足语就成为
主语补足语。注意:省略to的不定式作宾补时,
不定式符号to必须补上。例如:
Someone saw him swim in Qianling Lake
yesterday.(变被动语态)
He ______
swim in Qianling
was ______
seen ______
to
Lake yesterday.
4.不定式的被动结构:动词不定式的被动语态为
“to be +过去分词”。例如:
C
The radio says a wild animal zoo is to ______
in our city.
A.be building B.build
C.be built D.built
请将下列主动语态变成被动语态。引入练习5。
1.The farmer made the horses work the whole day.
were _____
made ___
to _____
work the whole day.
The horses______
2.Mum asks the twins not to swim in the lake.
are _______
asked ___
not ___
to _______
swim in the lake.
The twins ____
3.I saw a mouse run into the room.
was _____
seen ____
to ____
run into the room.
A mouse _____
4.I often hear him sing English songs.
He ____
is often _____
heard ____
to ____
sing English songs.
5.I saw Lucy playing in the park just now.
was _____
seen _______
playing in the park just now.
Lucy ____
6.They watched the children sing that morning.
The children _____
were ________
watched ___
to _____
sing that morning.
小结:1.主动语态中省略to的宾补在被动中应___________.
补上to
如以
1、3、4、6
上 ___________题.
不变
2、5
2.其它形式的宾补在被动中______.如以上________题。
5.以疑问代词开头的疑问句转换成被动句
时要注意词序:应将主动句中的疑问代词改
为介词by的宾语,但仍然放在句子开头。
例如:
Who has broken the cup?→
By whom has the cup been broken?
6.有的动词的主动形式可以表示
被动意义
1)感官动词 ( taste ; feel ; smell ; sound ; look ) 用主动形
式表示被动。
How sweet the music sounds !
Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth .
2) write、read、sell、keep、prove、weigh、number、
drink、wear、pay、wash、open常用主动形式表被动意义。
尤其是有副词 well, easily时。
The book sells well .
( 这本书销路很好。 )
The door will not open .
( 这扇门就是打不开。 )
This dress washes better . ( 这衣服较好洗。 )
The sign reads as follows . ( 这牌子告示如下。 )
E.注意区别
被动语态和过去分词作表语的区别:
1)含义不同:被动语态强调动作,重点说明动作由谁完成、
怎样完成;而过去分词作表语通常用来描写情景,叙述人或
事物的特征及所处的状态。试比较:
The window is broken.窗子破了。(系表结构)
The window is broken by him.窗子被他打破了。(被动语
态)
2)用法不同:过去分词作表语时可以被 so,very,too等程
度副词修饰,而被动语态则不能用so,very,too修饰,而需
用much,very much,so much,too much修饰。试比较:
He was very interested in science.他对科学有极大兴趣。
(系表结构)
I was so much surprised at the scene that I didn‘t know
what to do.我被那种场面搞得大吃一惊,不知所措。(被
动语态)
F.相关句型
与被动语态相关的句型有:
1.be covered with被……覆盖
2.be made of由……制作(发生物理变化)
be made from由……制作(发生化学变化)
be made in由(某地)制造
be made by被(某人)制造
3.be used for被用来……
be used as被当作(作为)……来使用
be used to do sth.被用来做某事
4.It is said that...据说……
It is hoped that...希望……
It is well known that...众所周知……
例如:
B
①—Your coat looks nice.Is it ______
cotton?
—Yes.It‘s ______ Shanghai.
A.made of;made by
B.made of;made in
C.made for;made by
D.made for;made in
A
② This machine is used ______
the room wet.
A.for keeping B.as keeping
C.keep
D.to keeping
③ 据说在南京长江上又在建一座桥。
It
is
said thatanother
bridge is being
______
______
______
______ ______
built over the Changjiang River in Nanjing.
______
2把下列句子变为被动句:
1.They asked me to come a little later.
→I ___ _______ to come a little later.
2.Women often talk about food and clothes.
→Food and clothes ____ often _____ about by women.
3.Do they make this kind of truck in Nanjing?
→ ___this kind of truck _____ in Nanjing?
4.We must clean our teeth twice a day.
→Our teeth must ___ ____ twice a day.
5.Can I answer this question in simple English?
→ _____this question __ ______ in simple English?
6.You may clean the room after work.
→ The room may _____ _______ after work.
7.We use brooms for sweeping the floor.
→ Brooms___ ___for sweeping the floor.
8. They built quite a few tall buildings in their hometown last year.
→ Quite a few tall buildings ___ _____ in their hometown last year.
9. You must not put the bike there.
→ The bike ___ ____ _____there.
10. Can you see the stars in the daytime?
→ Can the stars _____ __in the daytime?
•在下列情况下要使用被动语态:
1. 行为主体不明确,不必说出或者无法说出动作的执行
者时。
如:Football is played all over the world.
2. 不易找到或根本就不可能找到动作的执行者时。如:
My bike was stolen.
我的自行车被盗了。
3. 汉语中含有“据说、据悉、有人说、大家说”等时。
如:
It is said that one day he climbed to the top of a house and
dropped some money down a chimney.
据说,有一天他爬到一所房子的顶上,往烟囱下面扔了一些
钱。
4. 汉语中含有“被、由”等词时。如:
Wei Hua is asked to come by Lin Tao.
魏华是被林涛叫来的。
5. 汉语中没有“被、由”等词,而在原句中试加这类词且
句意通顺时。如:
These songs are usually sung by boys.
这些歌曲通常是男生唱的。(在“是”后面可以加上
“由”)
6. 某些句子习惯上用被动语态。如:
He was born in October, 1989.
7. 表示礼貌时。如:
You are friendly invited to come to our English
party at 8:00 p.m. tomorrow.
敬请您明天晚上8:00光临我们的英语晚会。
在以下10种情况下均不能使用被动语态:
1. 不及物动词不能用于被动语态。如:
正:The story happened in London.
误:The story was happened in London.
2. 表示状态的动词,如have,cost,fit,last,own,
hold,become等往往不能用于被动语态。如:
正:The shirt fits him very well.
误:He is fitted very well by the shirt.
3. 某些“不及物动词+介词”构成的短语动词,如listen
to,walk into,fall off等,往往不使用被动语态。如:
正:He walked into the room.
误:The room was walked into by him.
4. 祈使句一般没有被动语态。如:
正:Look at the blackboard, please.
误:The blackboard is looked at by you.
5. 宾语和主语所指的对象相同时不能用于被动语态。如:
正:We must help each other.
误:Each other must be helped by us.
6. 某些及物动词的宾语表示处所、地点、组织时不能用于被动语态。
如:正:He joined the League in 1998.
误:The League was joined by him in 1998.
7. 动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语时不能用于被动语态。如:
正:They like to watch TV.
误:To watch TV is liked by them.
正:He enjoys listening to the radio.
误:Listening to the radio is enjoyed by him.
8. 主动句中有表示数量、长度、大小或程度的单词或短语作宾语时
往往不使用被动语态。如:
正:She pays three yuan for the tomatoes.
误:Three yuan is paid for these tomatoes by her.
9. 由“动词+名词”构成的英语习语(如make faces,make
friends,take place等)一般不可改为被动语态。如:
正:The boy make faces in class.
误:Faces are made by the boy in class.
10. 反身代词在句中作宾语时,不能用被动语态。如:
正:You must look after yourself.
误:Yourself must be looked after.
Exercises
1. Both my brother work at the power
station that ___ in my hometown.
A. has set up
B. has been set up
C. was set up
D. is set up
2. ---_____ the sports meet will be put off.
A. I’ve been told
B. I’ve told
C. I’m told
D. I told
3. All the preparations for the task ____,
and we’re ready to start.
A. completed
B. complete
C. had been completed
D. have been done
4. ---- How long ____ at this job?
---- Since 1990.
A. were you employed
B. have you been employed
C. had you been employed
D. will you be employed
5. When and where to go for the onsalary holiday ____ yet.
A. are not decided
B. have not been decided
C. is not being decided
D. has not been decided
6. Betty___ injured since last Saturday.
A. has been
B. was
C. is
D. has
7. That book _________into at least 20
foreign languages.
A. has said to be translated
B. has been said to have translated
C. is said that it had been translated
D. is said to have been translated
注:该句的句型是:It is said that…/people
(they) said that…/that book is said
to …根据句意是已经被译成了20 多种文字
所以要用现在完成时的被动语态。
8. –Hi, Tom, you look tired.
-- Of course. I ___ the living room
all day.
A. had painted
B. painted
C. have been painted
D. have been painting
9. --Did you move into the new house?
-- No. The rooms ___ yet.
A. were being painted
B. are painting
C. have not painted
D. have not been painted
10. Great changes___ in my hometown
and a lot of factories ___.
A. have been taken place;
are being set up
B. have taken place; have been set up
C. are taken place; had been set up
D. took place; will set up
11. It’s said that this book___ into Chinese.
A. had translated B. has translated
C. was translated D. has been translated
12. You can’t move in .The house _____.
A. is painting
B. is being painted
C. has painted
D. has been painted
13. Millions of pounds’ worth of
damage___ by a storm which swept across
the north of England last night. (2005重庆)
A. has been caused
B. had been caused
C. will be caused
D. will have been cause
14. Have you ever___ to the exhibition
which ___for three weeks?
A. gone; has been shown
B. visited; shown
C. been; has been on show
D. went; lasted
15. ---How long ago ___ these eggs___?
--- Perhaps 15 days.
A. will; hatch
B. did; hatch
C. were; hatched
D. have; been hatched
16.Millions of pounds’ worth of
damage_____ by a storm which swept
across the north of England at night.
A. has been caused
B. had been caused
C. will be caused D. will have been
caused
17. ---The window is dirty.
---I know. It_____ for weeks. [2004高考Ⅲ]
A. hasn’t cleaned
B. didn’t clean
C. wasn’t cleaned
D. hasn’t been
cleaned
18. Hundreds of jobs _____ if the factory
closes. (01 北京春)
A. lose
B. will be lost
C. are lost
D. will lose
19. Rainforests _____ and burned at such a
speed that they will disappear from the
earth in the near future. (2002上海春季)
A.cut
B.are cut
C.are being cut D.had been cut
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被动语态