ISO TC 37 Standards
Basic Principles of Terminology
Networked Knowledge Organization
Systems/Services
NKOS
Sue Ellen Wright
Institute for Applied Linguistics,
Kent State University
Standards for the Language Industry
Translation & localization, multilingual text
representation, Internet content, multilingual
content management
 See:

http://appling.kent.edu/ResourcePages/LTStandards/Chart/Lang
uageTechnologyStandards.htm
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ISO TC 37 Terminology and other
Language Resources
Standards for the basic principles of
terminology management
 Standards for layout and lexicography
 Standards for computerized terminology
management
 Standards for natural language processing
applications
 Metadata registry for all of the above

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Language Codes
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ISO 639:1988 Code for the representation of names of
languages
ISO 639-2:1998 Code for the representation of names of
languages - Part 2: Alpha-3 code
ISO CD 639-3:2003 Code for the representation of names of
languages - Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage
of languages
ISO NWI 639-4:2003 Code for the representation of names of
languages - Part 4: Implementation guidelines and general
principles for language coding
ISO NWI 639-5:2003 Code for the representation of names of
languages - Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and
groups
ISO NWI 639-6:2003 Code for the representation of names of
languages - Part 6: Alpha-4 code [for dialects]
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Core TC 37 Standards
ISO 704:2000 Terminology work - Principles
and methods
 ISO 860:1996 Terminology work Harmonization of concepts and terms
 ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology work Vocabulary - Part 1: Theory and application
 ISO 1087-2:2000 Terminology work Vocabulary - Part 2: Computer applications
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Terminological View
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Objects
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Concepts
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perceived or conceived, concrete or abstract
abstracted or conceptualized into concepts
depict or correspond to a set of objects based on a
defined set of characteristics
represented or expressed in language by designations or
by definitions
organized into concept systems
Designations



represented as terms, names (appellations) or symbols
designate or represent a concept
attributed to a concept by consensus within a special
language community
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Fundamental Activities

Identifying concepts and concept relations;
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Analyzing and modeling concept systems on the
basis of identified concepts and concept relations;
Establishing representations of concept systems
through concept diagrams;
Crafting concept-oriented definitions;
Attributing designations (predominantly terms) to
each concept in one or more languages; and,
Recording and presenting terminological data,
principally in terminological entries stored in
print and electronic media (terminography).
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Frege, Peirce, Ogden & Richards
Unit of Thinking (Concept)
(Unit of Thought,
Unit of Knowledge)
Designation
(Symbol, Sign,
Term, Formula
etc.)
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Referent
(Concrete Object,
Real Thing,
Conceived Object)
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A Concept
A mental image used for thinking &
communication
 Question of psychological primes and
prototypes
 Conditioned by:
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Language & culture
Individual point of view & experience
Time, space
The blind man and the elephant
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Properties and characteristics
 Property:
any quality, attribute, or
feature of an object
 Characteristic: essential features that
determine the identify of the concept
associated with the object
 The significance of properties varies
with:
 The
object in question, its function
 Point of view
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Characteristics

Characteristics used for:
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Essential characteristics

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Analyzing concepts
Modelling concept systems
Formulating definitions
Forming designations.
Comprise the intension of the concept
Delimiting characteristics

Characteristic that distinguishes the concept
from related concepts
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Properties vs. Characteristics
object/visual representation
concept:
abstraction
based on:
designation
(term):
lead pencil
one of the set of all lead pencils
(extension)
category
property
characteristic
level of
abstraction
concreteness
made of a long, thin piece of
graphite
wood casing surrounds graphite
casing is yellow
at one end there is an eraser
other end sharpened to a point
graphite&casing sharpened for use
graphite is writing medium
used for writing or making marks
concreteness
graphite core
composition
colour
composition
shape
usage
medium
function
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graphite core is encased in wood
casing may be any colour
one end may have an eraser
one end may be sharpened to a point
graphite & casing sharpened for use
graphite is writing medium
used for making marks
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Concept Relations
 hierarchical
relations
 superordinate
concept + subordinate
concepts
 generic
relations
 generic
 partitive
concept + specific concepts
relations
 comprehensive
concept + partitive
concepts
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Concept Relations
 associative
relations
raw material – product
action - equipment/tool
material - property
material - state
concrete item - shape
matter/substance
concrete item - material
target, action
quantity - unit
action. typical agent
place/location
action - actor
Compare: related term
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Modeling Concept Systems
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Select the concept field, the preliminary
designations and concepts to be treated by taking
into account the subject field, the user group and its
needs.
Analyze the intension and extension of each concept.
Determine the relation and position of these concepts
within the concept system.
Formulate and evaluate definitions for the concepts
based on the concept relations.
Attribute designations [terms or other forms of
representation] to each concept.
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Tree Diagram (Generic)
plant
1
flowering
plant
1.3
bush
1.1
tree
1.2
evergreen
1.2.1
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deciduous
1.2.2
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Bracket Diagram (Partitive)
tree (comprehensive concept)
trunk
crown branch twig
bark
core
sapwood root
(partitive concepts)

Limited in its representational scope

Difficult to include details
Not widely accepted in the US
 Useful for representing mixed generic /
meronymic systems
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Concept Systems & Thesauri
Broader term
Hypernym
Parent
Superordinate concept
Narrower term
Hyponym
Child
Sibling
Subordinate concept
Use / Use for
Preferred / Deprecated
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Coordinate Concept
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Significant Differences
Principle of term autonomy: although some terms
may be identified as preferred or deprecated, there is
no assignment of synonyms or related words to a
“use/use for” system as in controlled vocabularies. All
terms are defined with the same degree of detail.
 Terms qualified with respect to term status:

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Preferred terms
Admitted terms
Deprecated terms
Obsolete terms
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Terminological Entry
Concept
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
(All terms associated with a single concept; compare to concept of
the synonym ring, + multilingual equivalents.)
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Terminological Entry
 rattle
 Subject
Field: snakes
 Definition: The tail structure of the
poisonous North American genera
Crotalus and Sisturus which has been
modified into a series of horny, loosefitting structures that produce a buzzing
sound when vibrated.
 Equivalent terms (other languages) ...
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Form of Definitions

Preferably intentional definitions

The statement of a superordinate or broader
concept followed by a statement of the essential
characteristics making up the intension of the
concept, with emphasis on the delimiting
characteristic(s) that differentiate that concept
from similar concepts

Always defined with reference to a specific
subject field
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Intensional Definitions
plant (superordinate concept; generic concept)
A living thing which grows in earth, in water or on
other plants.
Note: It usually has a stem, leaves, roots and flowers and produces seeds and
can make its own food. Trees are plants, but the word is mainly used for those
plants which are smaller than trees.
tree (subordinate concept; specific concept)
A tall plant which has a wooden trunk and branches that grow from
its upper part
bush (subordinate concept; specific concept)
A plant with many small branches growing either directly from the
ground or from a hard woody stem, giving the plant a rounded shape
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An Implied Sentence
Implied
subject:
Implied
verb (copula):
[An account is] a user ID and disk area
restricted for the use of a particular
person, which is usually password
protected.
(The definition itself is a predicate.
Note: DIN allows for the repetition of the subject within
the definition.)
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Components of the Definition

Subject (the designation)

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Copula

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The term as an implied subject
In place of the implied verb “is”
Colon, dash, carriage return
Predicate

Statement of genus & listing of essential
and delimiting characteristics
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Leveraging ontological information
from terminology resources
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Using the concept of well-formed definitions to use
automatic parsing routines for:
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Compilation of intelligent enhanced corpora (marking up
intelligent, intranet-bounded corpora)
Information extraction
Terminology mining
Automatically creating draft concept systems
Leveraging back and forth across different kinds of
information resources: terminological concept systems,
thesauri, taxonomies, and rule-based ontologies
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For More Information
Sue Ellen Wright
Institute for Applied Linguistics
Kent State University
109 Satterfield Hall
Kent, Ohio 44242, USA
[email protected]
[email protected]
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