Georgia Cataloging
Summit
Dr. Barbara B. Tillett and Judith A. Kuhagen
Policy and Standards Division, Library of Congress
Library of Congress RDA Workshop for Georgia Cataloging
Summit
9-10 August 2011
FRBR: Things You Should
Know, But Were Afraid To
Ask
Presented by
Dr. Barbara B. Tillett
Chief, Policy & Standards
Division
Library of Congress
August 9, 2011
2
FRBR
 What is FRBR?
 Why do we need it?
 Where and how can we use it?
3
What is FRBR?
 Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records
 IFLA publication 1998
 FRBR Review Group
4
Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records (FRBR)
 Entity-relationship model
• Entities: Group 1, 2, 3
• Relationships
• Attributes
 User tasks
•
•
•
•
Find
Identify
Select
Obtain
 National level record
elements (mandatory & optional data)
5
Bibliographic Universe
Books
Serials
Maps, globes, etc.
Manuscripts.
Musical scores
A-V
 sound recordings
 motion pictures
 photographs,
slides
 Multimedia
 “Remote” digital
materials
 Etc.






What’s a conceptual
model?
 Abstract depiction of the universe of
things being described
 The things in that universe (entities)
 Identifying characteristics of those
entities (attributes)
 The relationships among the entities
7
FRBR’s Entity-Relationship
Model
 Entities
 Relationships
 Attributes (data elements)
relationship
One Entity
Another Entity
8
Work
Person
FRBR’s Entity-Relationship
Model
created
was created by
Shakespeare
Hamlet
9
FRBR Entities
Group 1:Products of intellectual &
artistic endeavor = bibliographic
resources
 Work
 Expression
 Manifestation
 Item
10
Work
is realized through
Expression
Intellectual/
artistic content
Physical recording of
content
Manifestation
Item
is embodied in
is exemplified by
Vocabulary
“Book”
–Door prop
(item)
–“publication”
at bookstore
any copy
(manifestation)
12
Vocabulary
“Book”
–Who translated?
(expression)
–Who wrote?
(work)
13
Group 1
Work
is realized through
Expression
is embodied in
Manifestation
recursive
one
many
is exemplified by
Item
Elements to Describe Resources
 Work




ID
Title
Date
etc.
 Expression





ID
Form
Date
Language
etc.
 Manifestation
 ID
 Title
 Statement of
responsibility
 Edition
 Imprint (place,
publisher, date)
 Form/extent of
carrier
 Terms of availability
 Mode of access
 etc.
 Item




ID
Provenance
Location
etc.
Examples
1. Leatherbound autographed copy in
Rare Books Collection? Item
2. Digitized version of the Oxford
University Press text published in
2008? Manifestation
3. French translation? Expression
4. London Symphony Orchestra 2005
performance? Expression
5. Hamlet? Work
16
Family of Works
Equivalent
Descriptive
Derivative
Free
Translation
Edition
Microform
Reproduction
Simultaneous
“Publication”
Abridged
Edition
Copy
Revision
Exact
Reproduction
Translation
Facsimile
Reprint
Original
Work - Same
Expression
Variations
or Versions
Illustrated
Edition
Summary
Abstract Dramatization
Digest
Novelization
Screenplay
Libretto
Casebook
Criticism
Evaluation
Change of Genre
Parody Annotated
Imitation Edition
Expurgated
Edition
Arrangement
Review
Same Style or
Thematic Content
Commentary
Slight
Modification
Adaptation
Same Work –
Cataloging Rules New Work
New Expression
Cut-Off Point
Relationships
Work
Expression
Manifestation
Item
Whole-Part
Derivative
Sequential
 Inherent among the
Group 1 entities
 Content relationships
among
works/expressions
 Structural
Accompanying
FRBR Entities
Group 2: Those responsible
for the intellectual & artistic
content = Parties
 Person
 Corporate body
 Family
19
Work
Group 2
Expression
Manifestation
Item
is owned by
is produced by
is realized by
is created by
Person
Family
Corporate Body
many
Relationship vs. Element
Work
Created by
Creates
Person
Shakespeare
Hamlet
21
Subject Relationship
Work
Created by
Creates
Person
Concept/Topic
22
FRBR Entities
Group 3:Subjects of works
 Groups 1 & 2 plus
 Concept
 Object
 Event
 Place
Subject relationship
23
Work
Work
has as subject
Expression
Manifestation
Item
has as subject
Person
Family
Corporate Body
Concept
has as subject
Object
Group 3
Event
Place
many
Why do we need FRBR?
 Improve the user experience in
locating information
 Guide systems designs for the future
 Guide rule makers
 Cut costs for the description and
access to resources in our libraries
 Position information providers to
better operate in the Internet
environment and beyond
25
Applications of the Conceptual
Model
 FRBR is conceptual
model
 No application is
prescribed
 Opportunities for
the future in new
systems designs
 Natl. Lib. Australia
 Variations3, etc.
 Keep user foremost
in mind
26
FRBR Benefits
 Collocation
Better organization to catalog
More options to display
 Identifying elements
 Pathways
☑ Simplify cataloging
enabling links and
re-use of identifying elements
27
Collocation
Objectives of a
catalog: display
 All the works
associated with a
person, etc.
 All the
expressions of the
same work
 All the
manifestations of
the same
expression
 All items/copies
of the same
manifestation
Shakespeare
Hamlet
English
Romeo and
Juliet
French
German
Swedish
Stockholm
2008
Library of Congress
Copy 1
Green leather binding
Pathways to Related Works
Shakespeare
Stoppard
Hamlet
Rosencrantz & Guildenstern
Are Dead
Text
English
Movies
…
Romeo and
Juliet
French
German
Swedish
Stockholm
2008
Library of Congress
Copy 1
Green leather binding
Collocation by Works
 Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.
+
+
+
+
+
+
All’s well that ends well
As you like it
Hamlet
Macbeth
Midsummer night’s dream
…
30
Collocation by Family of
Works and Expressions
 Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.
Hamlet.
+ Texts
+ Motion Pictures
+ Sound Recordings
31
Collocation by Expressions
 Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.
Hamlet.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Texts – Danish
Texts – Dutch
Texts – English
Texts – French
Texts – Spanish
Motion Pictures – English
Sound Recordings - English
32
Collocation of Manifestations
 Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.
Hamlet.
- Motion pictures – English
+
+
+
+
+
+
1964
1990
1990
1992
1996
2000
Director,
Director,
Director,
Director,
Director,
Director,
Bill Collegan
Kevin Kline, Kirk Browning
Franco Zeffirelli
Maria Muat
Kenneth Branagh
Campbell Scott, Eric Simonson
33
FRBR Display - Serial
 Atlantic monthly





Atlantic
Atlantic
Atlantic
Atlantic
Atlantic
monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1993)
(Boston, Mass. : 1981)
monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1971)
(Boston, Mass. : 1932)
monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1857)
34
FRBR Display - Serial
 Atlantic monthly
 Atlantic monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1993)
 Online
 Paper
 Microfilm




Atlantic
Atlantic
Atlantic
Atlantic
(Boston, Mass. : 1981)
monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1971)
(Boston, Mass. : 1932)
monthly (Boston, Mass. : 1857)
35
FRBR Benefits
Circulation: Place holds at “Work”
or “Expression” level rather than
only at manifestation level
(VTLS and OCLC demonstrate this)
Hamlet
English
36
Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records (FRBR)
 Entity-relationship model
• Entities: Group 1, 2, 3
• Relationships
• Attributes (Elements)
 User tasks
•
•
•
•
Find
Identify
Select
Obtain
 National level record
elements (mandatory & optional data)
37
FRBR–Based Systems
Person
Concept
Work
Person
Expression
Manifestation
Manifestation
Item
Corporate body
Item
Item
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FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid to Ask”