Foreign Language Accommodation:
Incorporating Evidence-Based Practices
Under the AHEAD Documentation
Guidance
Association on Higher Education and Disability
July 11, 2013
Sally Scott, Ph.D.
Director, Disability Resources
Associate Professor of Education
University of Mary Washington
[email protected]
Manju Banerjee, Ph.D.
Vice President and Director
Landmark College Institute for
Research and Training
Landmark College
[email protected]
Session Overview
Common misconceptions about foreign language
learning
Complexities of foreign language accommodation
decision-making
From theory to practice – foreign language
accommodations on different campuses
Underlying constructs for learning a language
Types and sources of evidence
Linking evidence to accommodation – tipping points
Case Studies
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Common Misconceptions about Foreign
Language (FL) Learning
 FL disability is a distinct disability category under the
ADA AA
 Learning Disability implies FL difficulty …. Or does it?
 Traditional accommodations (e.g. x-time, note-taker)
should be able to address any FL learning difficulty
 There are specific tests (e.g., MLAT) which can
diagnose a foreign language disability
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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FL Accommodations on Your Campus
In your group please discuss:
 What accommodations are available in foreign language
courses on your campus?
 What is the protocol for decision-making?
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation on
Different Campuses
 FL coursework, but no FL requirement
 General accommodations available in all classes
 Accommodations specific to foreign language
 Course substitutions/waivers
 Decisions by ODR, academic dean, FL committee
 Other?
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Complexities of FL Accommodation
Decision-Making
 Not based on diagnosis alone
 Language learning demands are varied across different
languages
 Instructional approaches may differ across institutions
and classrooms
 Traditional accommodations don’t address frequent
barriers
 Other?
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Components of Language Competence
From L2 literature
Language Competence
(Kormos & Smith, 2012)
Grammatical
Competence
Phonology/
Orthography
Textual competence
(written and spoken)
Vocabulary
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
Syntax/
Morphology
7
Broad Underlying Constructs in Learning a
Language from LD literature
 Decoding the sound/symbol system
 Phonology
 Orthography
 Syntax
 Semantics
 Information processing
 Auditory processing
 Working memory
 Processing speed
 Automaticity/fluency in decoding
Scott & Banerjee, July 2012
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Three Basic Steps in Accommodation
Decision-making
1.
• Is the disability covered under the ADA AA?
2.
• Are the impairment(s) substantially limiting to
warrant disability status under the ADA?
3.
• What are appropriate and reasonable
accommodations?
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Mining Documentation for Evidence
Objective
Evidence/AHEAD
Tertiary
• Objective evidence is
information that is
independently verifiable. In
other words, any qualified
individual reviewing the
evidence can independently
interpret the information that
is reported and arrive at the
same conclusion.
• Example: Standardized test
and subtest scores
Authentic
Evidence/AHEAD
Secondary
• Authentic evidence is
observed and/or field based
information.
• Reported evidence from
actual or perceived
experience
• Example: Self-reported
information, IEP/504 Plan
report of FL accommodation
or waiver
Relevant
Evidence/AHEAD
Primary
• Relevant evidence is
information that has
particular bearing or
significance on the
accommodations requested.
• Example: A personal letter
from student about FLL
experience, accommodation
letter from another
institution, study strategies
and supports used previously
in FLL
Banerjee & Shaw, 2007
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Rationale for request: Unable to learn a foreign language (FL)
despite multiple attempts; difficulty speaking another language;
cannot remember; was exempted/struggled with (FL) in high
school
Objective Evidence
Auditory Processing
Working Memory
Phonological awareness
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Foundational
literature for
Objective Evidence:
Auditory Processing
(Hodge 1998;Tallal et al. 1996; Prevatt et al. 2003)
Speed of Auditory Processing
(Tallal, 2000)
Auditory Discrimination
(Dinklage, 1971)
Documentation Markers
Tests of Auditory Processing:
WJ-III NU – Sound Blending (phonetic coding and synthesis); Auditory
Attention; Incomplete Words (phonetic coding/analysis)
Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT)- (sustained attention,
processing speed, auditory information processing)
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Verbal Memory
(Torgesen et al. 1994)
Auditory Memory
Foundational
literature for
Objective Evidence:
(Prevatt et al. 2003)
Short term memory
(Papagno, Vatentine, Baddeley, 1991)
Phonological Awareness, Syntax, Semantics
(Ganschow, Sparks, Javorski, 1998; Sparks, 2006;
Aidinis & Nunes, 2001)
Vocabulary
(Barr, 1993)
Documentation Markers
Tests of Memory:
WJ-III NU – Memory for Words; WAIS –Working Memory Index; Digit Span
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML)
Test of Memory and Learning 2 (TOMAL)
& Banerjee, July 2013
California Verbal Learning Test Scott
(CVLT)
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Foundational
literature for
Objective Evidence:
Phonological Awareness, Syntax, Semantics
(Ganschow, Sparks, Javorski, 1998; Sparks, 2006;
Aidinis & Nunes, 2001)
Vocabulary
(Barr, 1993)
Tests of Phonological Awareness:
WJ-III NU –Spelling of Sounds; Sound Awareness
Comprehensive Test of phonological Processing (CTOPP)
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) – Pseudo word (phonetic)
Decoding
Tests of Language Learning
Test of Language Competency (TLC-2) - Ambiguous Sentences; Listening Comp.
WIAT-II - Listening Comprehension
MLAT - Phonetic coding; grammatical sensitivity, rote learning
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Findings across research studies: A difference in aptitude for
learning a second language will likely have affected native
language learning (“cross linguistic transfer”)
Foundational
literature for
Authentic and
Relevant Evidence:
Dinklage (1971) early case studies from Harvard
Downey & Snyder (2000) 10 yrs of interviewing students at
Univ of Colorado)
Sparks, Patton, Ganschow, & Humback (2009) 10 yr
longitudinal study
Sparks, Patton, & Ganschow (2012)
Prevatt, et al, (2003)
DiFino & Lombardino (2004)
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Foreign Language Accommodation
Authentic Evidence
Documentation Markers
Rationale
for request: Unable to
learn a foreign language (FL)
Developmental history
Early hearing or speaking difficulty
despite multiple attempts;
difficulty speaking another language;
Family link
cannot remember; was exempted/struggled with (FL) in high
Early
learning history
Difficulty learning to read (phonics, sound
school
discrimination, syllabication)
Difficulty with spelling
Educational intervention in elementary school
HS learning history
Poor grades in English
Weak written and oral language skills
HS foreign language
Waiver
Two years of two different languages
Grades alone are not good predictors!
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Compiling Salient Information
Foreign Language Case Review (handout)
- Developmental history
- Early learning history
- FL learning history
- Standardized testing
Sources of Information (AHEAD’s primary, secondary
and tertiary sources)
The role of campus-based decision-making
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Linking Evidence to Accommodation –
Tipping Points
1.
• Is there evidence from multiple sources?
2.
• Is there a consistent pattern of evidence over
time (cross validation)?
3.
• Is there past history? If not, is there an
explanation?
Adapted from Banerjee & Shaw, 2007
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Case Study Applications
Group break outs:
Case 1: Sarah
Case 2: David
In your group please consider:
- What are your sources of documentation?
- Is there a pattern of evidence over time?
- Is the documentation compelling?
- Recommendations?
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Other Alternatives and Supports
If not a substitution or waiver…. Then what? (see
handout)
- Programmatic options
- Additional supports
- Administrative accommodations
- Instructor supports
- Creating additional programmatic options
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Audience Q and A
Scott & Banerjee, July 2013
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Determining Commonly Requested Accommodations: …