WHAT IS LATIN? Latin is a language which was spoken by the ancient Romans and the people they conquered for more than 1000 years, from approximately the 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century A.D. Roman Empire How the Latin Language Spread Roman soldiers occupied the lands they conquered, set up governments, and married the native women. The new speakers of Latin were often illiterate, and their perceptions of the Latin language varied from country to country. Eventually the Latin these people spoke evolved into Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Rumanian. Although few people speak Latin today, the language is, however, very much alive. Chemical Elements Most chemical elements have Latin or Latinate names. Au-gold (aurum=gold) Pb-lead (plumbum=lead) Fe-iron (ferrum=iron) The signs of the Zodiac are Latin words as are the names of constellations. Anatomical Words The names of most muscles and bones are Latin words. Lawyers use many Latin words. • • • • • • • pro bono nolo contendere amicus curiae et uxor habeas corpus in re in loco parentis Even English teachers use Latin expressions when discussing literature: – in medias res – deus ex machina – magnum opus – dramatis personae Some Latin words have come into English in the same form as they were in Latin: – actor – millennium – radius – alibi – addendum – formula – nucleus – exit You probably use Latin expressions, too. • • • • • • • et cetera (etc.) annō domini (a.d.) circa (ca.) in memoriam post scriptum (p.s.) ante meridiem (a.m.) post meridiem (p.m.) Why should you study Latin? • Latin will help your English vocabulary. • 60% of the words in English derive from Latin. Latin will help you with your understanding of language and grammar because you can see the grammatical markers. Cornelia et Marcus sub arbore sedent et legunt. (Cornelia and Marcus sit under the tree and read.) • Latin will give you a headstart in learning most European languages. The roots of the vocabualry words are the same in the Romance languages— Spanish, French, Italian, etc.—and the grammatical structure is the same as German. • • • • Latin – currere / liber / nomen / centum French – courir / livre / nom / cent Spanish – correr / libro / nombre / cien Italian – correre / libro / nome / cento • Latin will teach you to think and reason as you learn to reason out the structure of a Latin sentence which has its own clues Canis magnum os habet. Canes magnum os habent. You will learn a great deal about Roman history Roman senators approaching to assassinate Julius Caesar. literature, Scene from the Aeneid by Vergil and mythology. Narcissus staring at his reflection while Echo looks on. WELCOME TO LATIN! SALVETE! What will I be able to do? • Understand and respond to short Latin classroom commands, comprehension questions and greetings • Read and answer simple questions in Latin • Read simple Latin passages and analyze for content • Read simple Latin passages aloud with novice proficiency What will I be able to do? • Identify English derivatives from Unit vocabulary • Summarize the content of Latin passages using cartoons, English, and short Latin phrases. • Write simple Latin sentences. How is this class different? • We will focus on reading, writing and listening. • Our speaking component will consist of greetings, commands and basic sentences. • We will focus more on grammar than other foreign languages. • We will also learn about Greek and Roman mythology. How will I be assessed? • • • • • Performance tasks Projects Tests Rubrics Self (you will check your progress as well) Formative vs. Summative • Formative (assessment for learning) – how I’ll assess where we are in terms of learning. – Used to make decisions on where to go next – Includes exit tickets, warm ups, discussions, practice assignments, etc. – Not graded for accuracy • Summative (assessment of learning) – Takes place after chunks of learning – Includes projects and tests 5 C’s • Communication – Includes Interpersonal, Interpretive and Presentational • • • • Culture—Greek and Roman Connections—Latin & other subjects Comparisons—Latin & our own Communities—global society Communication • Interpersonal: Person-to-Person Communication** – informal, one-on-one or small group conversations about everyday topics. • Interpretive: Listening and Reading – Students hear or see the message and respond based on their interpretation. These messages could be about any topic and come from a wide variety of sources and media • Presentational: Speaking and Writing – Includes preparing information to be shared with an audience, formal or informal Proficiency Levels • Novice – Low, mid, high • Intermediate – Love, mid, high • Advanced – Low • By the end of Latin I, you should be at NH for Interpretive Rdg, NM for Presentational Writing, NL for Presentational Speaking and Interpretive Listening • Interpersonal Communication is not a focus, but we will do a little bit Questions/Concerns???? • Questions/Concerns???? • Let’s take a look at the little bit of interpersonal communication that we’ll use.