Intro to Info Tech
System Development
This presentation can be viewed on line at:
http://web.fscj.edu/Janson/cgs1060/wk12.SystemDev.ppt
Copyright 2003
by Janson Industries
1
Objectives
▀
Explain
♦
♦
▀
The System Development Cycle
The Program Development Cycle
Introduce technologies used to
create systems
♦
♦
♦
♦
Programming languages
Development tools
Scripting languages
Application generators
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System Development
▀
Need a defined process to create
a complex info system
♦
▀
System Development Cycle
♦
♦
▀
If you were building a skyscraper
you would follow a process
As in "the life-cycle of the NA otter"
Cycle = Process
Many steps and many people
involved
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SDC
▀
In general, broken into five
phases
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
Planning
Analysis
Design
Implementation
Operation/Support
Each phase further broken down
into activities
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SDC Participants
▀
Users
♦
People who will use the system
► Customers,
♦
employees
Provide the system requirements
► What
the system should do
► How it should work
▀
IT employees
♦
Create/install the system from
system specifications
► Programmers,
DBAs, Web Masters,
Security experts, Network Designers
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SDC Participants
▀
System Analyst(s)
♦
Designs the system
♦
Acts as liaison between users and IT
♦
Converts user requirements into
technical specifications
► Diagrams,
reports, pseudo-code
► Acts as a blueprint of the system
♦
Must have excellent communication
skills and understand both the
business and technical sides
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SDC Organization
▀
▀
Selected users, systems analysts, and
IT staff grouped into a project team
One person assigned as project leader
♦
Creates a project plan
► Defines
all activities and time/cost
estimates for each
► Schedules and assigns activities
♦
♦
Reports on plan progress to steering
committee/management
Represents the project to outside orgs
► Auditors,
Finance, Interfacing systems
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SDC
▀
Usually starts with a user request
♦
▀
However, external events can cause
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
RSS – request for system services
New legal requirement
Company merger
Y2K
New technology: Web, handheld
devices
Initiates the 1st phase, Planning
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Planning
▀
Broken into four activities
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
Review
Prioritize
Allocate resources
Create project team
The initial review:
♦
♦
♦
Essentially triage (No, Must, Maybe)
Done on a periodic basis (quarterly)
By a senior IT member
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Planning
▀
Senior staff then:
♦
♦
♦
▀
Estimates resources for must dos
Prioritizes/estimates maybes
Presents results to steering
committee
Committee
♦
♦
♦
Reviews priorities and estimates
Thumbs up and down
Approves and allocates resources
► Creates
project team, buys
equipment, approves overtime, etc.
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Phase 2: Analysis
▀
Broken into two activities
♦
♦
▀
Preliminary Investigation
Detailed Analysis
Preliminary Investigation
♦
Purpose: clearly define the change
► Interview
the user(s)
► Examine existing documentation
♦
Conduct a feasibility study
► Confirm
♦
that project should be done
Create and present feasibility report
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Phase 2: Analysis
▀
Feasibility report should contain
♦
♦
Short description of problem
For each possible solution:
► Benefits
(quantifiable)
► Costs
► Factors
that may affect
► Operational feasibility
• how well it solves problem
► Schedule
feasibility
• can it be done
► Technical
feasibility
• are needed resources available
♦
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Recommendation
12
Phase 2: Analysis
▀
If approved detailed analysis is begun
▀
Detailed analysis' purpose is to create
♦
A logical model of the new system
♦
A system proposal
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Phase 2: Analysis
▀
▀
Logical model describes what has to
be done not how
Create by:
♦
♦
▀
Investigating how the current system
works
Incorporating the desired change
How do you find out how current
system works?
♦
Several techniques
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Logical Model
▀
Review documentation
▀
Questionnaire
▀
Interview
♦
JAD (Joint Application Design)
▀
Observation
▀
Advantages and disadvantages?
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Logical Model
▀
Describes the flow of data through
the new system
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
▀
What data is required as input
What is the source of that data
How data is transformed into info
What info is stored
Does not dictate what is automated
or manual
Does not indicate technologies to be
used
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Customer
CC#
Item Denied
Qty
Order
entry
Status
Inventory File
Visa
On hand qty
Status
Ord #
Inventory
Item Qty
Status
Ord #
Ord #
Item Qty
Status
Order File
Ord info
Status
Customer File
Shipping
Cust info
Logical Model Example
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Bill of
lading
Customer17
System Proposal
▀
List alternatives for implementing
♦
♦
♦
H/W
S/W
Technologies
► Database
► Network
► Programming
♦
♦
language
Buy vs. build
Who?
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System Proposal
▀
Buy vs. build
♦
Prepackaged apps
– can be used across
different industries
► Horizontal
• Word, Excel, etc.
► Vertical
– specific to an industry
• Desktop publishing, MRP system
♦
Custom apps
► Build
in house
► Outsource
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System Proposal
▀
▀
Buy vs. build adv and disadv?
What's the advs and disadvs to
building your own car?
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Cost?
Time?
Meet requirements?
Repairs/modify?
Quality?
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Phase 3: Design
▀
Two activities:
♦
♦
Acquire h/w and s/w
Detailed design of new system
▀
Can be done simultaneously
▀
To get h/w and s/w
♦
♦
♦
♦
Define technical specs
Get vendor proposals
Evaluate proposals
Make decision
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Phase 3: Design
▀
List technical specs
♦
Analyst fleshes out the details (or
hire IT consultant to do)
♦
How "fleshy" depends on the type of
proposal
– great detail, asking for a price
(quote)
► RFP – not great detail, let vendor come
up with how and a price
► RFI – great detail, get specs of their
products for comparison to needs
► RFQ
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Phase 3: Design
▀
▀
Send out requests and get vendor
proposals
Lots of different types of vendors
♦
♦
♦
H/W
S/W
VAR (value added reseller)
► Company
sells a particular type of h/w
or s/w and bundles with the other
required pieces
► IBM business partners
• Sell IBM equipment with non-IBM s/w
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Phase 3: Design
▀
Evaluate proposals
♦
♦
Speed in MS
♦
▀
Research online, mags,
white papers
Talk to customers already
using
Benchmark test evaluation
copies
Make decision
♦
Tally all the findings
► Weighted
checklist
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Detailed Design
▀
▀
Also called the physical design
All details specified
♦ Input and output sources and
targets
► How
many digits for a phone number
► Validity checks for dates
♦
♦
DB and tables defined
User interface mockups
► Windows,
♦
menus, web pages, reports
Individual programs defined
► pseudocode,
flowcharts
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Detailed Design
▀
CASE (computer aided software
engineering) s/w
♦
▀
▀
Prototyping used to get user
input
Quality review
♦
♦
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Helps analyst generate program
and documentation
Read and verify the design is valid
and complete
Users, analysts, IT personal
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Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Most time consuming and costly phase
▀
Comprised of
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
Creating programs
Testing and installing
Training users
Converting to new system
Again, some of these can be done
simultaneously
♦
Training can be done while testing
► Can even use training as testing
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Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Create programs
♦
♦
Lots of things to do
Follow the Program Development
Cycle
► Will
explain later
► Just realize PDC is part of SDC
▀
Test and install
♦
♦
Create test data
Create and execute test scripts
► Developed
models
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from logical and physical
28
Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Lots of different kinds of testing
♦ Unit testing – individual program
works
♦ Functional – new programs work
together
♦ Integration – new programs work
with other applications
♦ Performance – functions are timely
and consistently available
♦ Beta – pre-install for users to verify
29
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Phase 4: Implementation
▀
User training
♦
♦
Classes, computer- or web-based training
Should include:
► Step-by-step
instructions
► Hands on with system
► Realistic data
♦
▀
Manuals, documentation
Conversion
♦
Some activities can be done before hand
► Copy
data to new database
► Install h/w
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30
Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Conversion types
♦
Direct (or Big Bang)
► Stop
using the old, use the new
► Advs:
• Minimal transition costs
• Fast
► Disadvs:
• Possibility of catastrophic failure if
new system does not work
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Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Conversion types
♦
Parallel
► Run
both
► Advs
• Any probs in new, continue to use old to
run business and fix probs
• Can compare new to old to make sure it's
working correctly
► Disadv
• Costly – paying for duplicate h/w, s/w
• Time consuming – users must perform all
functions twice
• Must maintain two systems
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Phase 4: Implementation
▀
Conversion types
♦
Phased
► Functional
• Implement finance, then marketing
then inventory
► Geographical
• Pilot location, then region, then nation
► Advs
• No catastrophic failure
► Disadv
• Longer time to install
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Phase 5: Support
▀
Comprised of :
♦
♦
♦
Maintenance
► Enhancements, fixes
Monitor performance
► Insure availability and timeliness
Monitor security
► Review security reports
• # of unauthorized sign on attempts
• Who attempted to access the payroll file
► Update
security s/w
• Install latest version of firewall, antivirus s/w
▀
Continues for the life of the system
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Program Development Cycle
▀
Requirements analysis
♦
▀
Solution design
♦
▀
Coding
Test the program
♦
♦
▀
Copyright 2015 by Janson Industries
Review the program design
Design implementation
♦
▀
How the program will be structured
Design validation
♦
▀
Understand the analysts design
Code review – compare code to design
Programmer tests
Document the program
35
Program Development Cycle
▀
Example, the logical design says:
♦
Users enter the amount of heating oil being
purchased and the cost of oil is displayed
♦
The cost is determined by the amount that is
ordered
♦
The first 150 gals costs $2.25 per gal
♦
Qtys over that get charged $2.10 for the
next 100 gals
♦
Anything more gets billed at $1.99
36
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Program Development Cycle
▀
▀
To make absolutely clear, programmer
translates the requirements into a
diagram and/or pseudocode
♦
Most common diagram is a flowchart
♦
Pseudocode also called Structured English
Both tools must be able to show
♦
Sequence – order actions/instructions are
performed
♦
Selection – conditional instructions
♦
Iteration – repeated instructions
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37
Flowchart
▀
Insert
key
Sequence shown with an arrow
Put
into
reverse
Turn
key
▀
Selection shown with a diamond
True
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Step
on gas
pedal
Step
on brake
Is light
red?
False
Maintain
speed
38
Flowchart
▀
Another form of selection is the Case
♦
Condition can have many values
Light
color is
Red
Step
on brake
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False
Yellow
Green
Punch
it
Maintain
speed
39
Flowchart
▀
Iteration (aka looping, repeating)
True
Lather
Rinse
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Is hair
dirty?
False
Get out of
shower
40
Pseudocode
▀
Use subset of words consistently
▀
Indentation shows looping & selection
Enter shower
Turn water on
If body = dirty Then
Get soap
Lather body
Rinse body
EndIf
While hair = dirty
Get shampoo
Lather hair
Rinse hair
EndWhile
Turn water off
Leave shower
Get towel
Dry hair
Dry body
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41
Flowchart
▀
There are additional symbols
♦
Input/Output operations indicated
with a parallelogram
Display “Enter
first number”
Get firstNumber
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Flowchart
▀
Data stored/held in variables
♦
firstNumber is an example of a
variable
Get firstNumber
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Flowchart
Display “Enter
first number”
Get firstNumber
doubledNum =
firstNumber * 2
Display firstNumber,
“doubled = “, doubledNum
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In Class Assg
▀
Create a flow chart for the Oil Calc
program
♦
▀
Solution
Create pseudocode for the Oil Calc
program
♦
Solution
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Alternative Resource
▀
▀
Code.org
Uses videos and games gets
across the basic programming
structures
♦
http://learn.code.org/hoc/1
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You can skip the video and go
straight to the instructions
Once done with
instruction, close window
and try exercises
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The first puzzle will start
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When puzzle finished will
allow you to continue to the
next one or you can click to
skip ahead
There may be more
instructions, click
X's to close
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Click Continue to go
to next puzzle
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Click Continue to go
to next puzzle
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If you can't figure it out, scroll
down and click the help links
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Code.org
▀
▀
If you go through all twenty
puzzles they will greatly help you
understanding the concepts of
♦
Sequential processing
♦
Selection
♦
Iteration
There's several sets of lessons at
http://learn.code.org/
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Unplugged activites have the
theory – good to read first
Then tackle the puzzles
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PDC
▀
Flowcharts/pseudocode are reviewed
♦
▀
Compared to analysts specs
Coding is done
♦
Code review – compare code to design
// OilCalc.java
import java.io.*;
public class OilCalc {
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader
(System.in));
int amount = 0;
double cost = 0;
String amtString = "";
System.out.print("Amount of oil is? ");
amtString = dataIn.readLine();
amount = Integer.parseInt(amtString);
if (amount <=
{cost = amount
♦ 100)
Programmer
tests* 2.25;}
else if (amount <= 250) { cost = 100 * 2.25 + (amount-100) * 2.10;}
else { cost = 100 * 2.25 + 150 * 2.10 + (amount-250) * 1.99;}
}
System.out.println("The cost of the oil is $" + cost);
}
Copyright 2015 by Janson Industries
55
PDC
▀
Programmer tests
♦
▀
▀
Run program
What do you think the users
think of this?
What happened?
♦
No physical model (external
design) to describe how it
should be done
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Program Development Cycle
▀
Example, the external design says:
♦
♦
Users have hyperlink to start program
Window appears with
► Text
► Input
field
► Calc button
♦
When Calc button pressed
► Cost
is displayed
► Input field is cleared
♦
When close window button pressed
► Window
disappears
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Program Development Cycle
▀
Usually a mock up of what it should
look like is created
Enter oil amount: ####
Calc
Enter oil amount:
The cost of the oil is $####.##
Calc
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58
PDC
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
/*
/*
▀
New code
java.awt.Frame;
java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
java.awt.event.ActionListener;
java.awt.event.WindowEvent;
java.awt.event.WindowListener;
java.awt.Label;
java.awt.TextField;
java.awt.Button;
Created on Oct 31, 2010 */
@author rjanson ♦ Programmer
*/
tests
class OilCalcGUI extends Frame implements WindowListener, ActionListener {
private double cost;
private Label label = null;
private TextField textField = null;
private Label label1 = null;
private Button button = null;
public OilCalcGUI() {
super();
initialize();
} by Janson Industries
Copyright 2015
59
PDC
▀
New code
private void initialize() {
label1 = new Label();
label = new Label();
this.setLayout(null);
this.setTitle("Oil Calculation");
this.setSize(294, 180);
label.setBounds(68, 68, 103, 23);
label.setText("Enter oil amount:");
label.setAlignment(java.awt.Label.RIGHT);
label1.setBounds(51, 110, 191, 23);
♦ Programmer tests
label1.setText("");
this.add(label, null);
this.add(getTextField(), null);
this.add(label1, null);
this.add(getButton(), null);
this.setVisible(true);
public void windowOpened(WindowEvent e) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
}
public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
dispose();
} by Janson Industries
Copyright 2015
60
PDC
▀
New code
public void windowClosed(WindowEvent e) {
}
public void windowIconified(WindowEvent e) {
}
public void windowDeiconified(WindowEvent e) {
}
public void windowActivated(WindowEvent e) {
}
public void windowDeactivated(WindowEvent e) {
}
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
int amount = Integer.parseInt(textField.getText());
if (amount <= 100)
{cost = amounttests
* 2.25;}
♦ Programmer
else if (amount <= 250) { cost = 150 * 2.25 + (amount-100) * 2.10;}
else { cost = 150 * 2.25 + 150 * 2.10 + (amount-250) * 1.99;}
label1.setText("The cost of the oil is $" + cost);
}
private TextField getTextField() {
if (textField == null) {
textField = new TextField();
textField.setBounds(181, 68, 38, 23);
}
return textField;
}
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61
PDC
▀
New code
private Button getButton() {
if (button == null) {
button = new Button();
button.setBounds(124, 144, 51, 23);
button.setLabel("Calc");
button.addActionListener(this);
}
return button;
}
♦ Programmer tests
public static void main(String[] args) {
OilCalcGUI ocg = new OilCalcGUI();
}
} // @jve:decl-index=0:visual-constraint="15,10"
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PDC
▀
Programmer tests
♦
▀
Run program
What do you think the users will
think of this vs. the other way?
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Development Technologies
▀
Programming languages
▀
Development tools
▀
Mark up languages
▀
Scripting languages
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Programming Languages
▀
In the beginning: Machine Language
♦
▀
Problem with ML:
♦
♦
▀
The actual 0's and 1's
Long time to code
Error prone
So, Assembly Level languages created
♦
♦
English character/acronyms act as
commands
Specific syntax
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Programming Languages
▀
Problem with AL:
♦
♦
♦
Programmer manage internal memory
Syntax not easy
Must be converted into ML
► An
▀
Assembler is used to do this
This also creates two versions of the
program
♦
♦
The source code (AL code)
The executable code (ML code)
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Programming Languages
▀
3GL or Procedural Languages
♦
♦
♦
English words and math symbols
Tells computer what to do but does
not manage internal memory
Must be converted into ML
►A
▀
Lots of 3GLs
♦
▀
Compiler is used to do this
Cobol, C, Fortran, BASIC
Each has pros and cons
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Programming Languages
▀
COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented
Language)
♦
▀
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator)
♦
▀
Great for scientific apps
C
♦
▀
Great for business apps
Very efficient
BASIC (Beginners All-purpose
Symbolic Instruction Code)
♦
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Very English-like and easy to learn
68
Programming Languages
▀
Object-oriented languages
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
A subset of 3GLs
Objects are easily re-useable
Create apps out of already existing
objects
Speeds up app development
Java (Oracle), C+ (Bell Labs), C# (MS)
Are free but companies compete for
customers to use
♦
Why? It's the other stuff that they sell
► Servers,
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security, networking, etc.
69
Alice
▀
A “programming language” used
to create 3 dimensional
animations
♦
▀
Uses the same logic structures
(sequence, selection, and looping)
as standard programming
languages
But instead of typing in code,
functions selected from menus,
lists, buttons, etc.
70
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Download from class web site
http://web.fscj.edu/Janson/cgs1060/Alice2.2.zip
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Click Save as, specify a location on
your thumb drive, then Save
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Right click zip file & select Extract All
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Click Extract
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To run, double click Alice.exe
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Alice will prompt to “open a world”
We don’t have any worlds yet
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76
Click Cancel
And create a world
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77
Alice World
▀
Consists of objects and methods
▀
Objects have properties
♦
▀
Color, size, location, etc.
Methods consist of executable
statements
♦
♦
Move/change objects
Math functions
78
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Add an object by clicking button
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79
Lots of categories
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Click Kitchen, Food, then Cookie
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Click Add instance to world
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Will frequently remind you to save
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There is now a cookie in your world
Click Done button
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Select cookie in tree then click
properties to see cookie properties
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Change so that initially not visible by
clicking opacity value and selecting 0
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Alice
▀
▀
We are going to ask the user if
he/she wants a cookie
Need a variable to hold the
users input
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Click create new variable, name it
wantCookie, define it as Boolean, click
OK
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Drag wantCookie into Do nothing area
and set its value to true
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Click world and then functions and
scroll down to ask user section
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Drag ask user for yes or no into set
value to (where true is displayed)
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You’ll be prompted for the question,
choose other then specify:
Click OK
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Notice at the bottom, the logic control
functions. Drag if/else after
wantCookie and, at prompt, specify
true
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Puts in an empty if/else. If
wantCookie is true we want the cookie
to appear
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Drag wantCookie into if condition
where true is
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Drag cookie into if true block and
specify opacity as 100%
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Click Add Objects and add Alice (in
People)
Initially don’t show Alice
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Drag isShowing property into the else
and set to true
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Objects come with
methods. Drag say
method after the
statement that makes
Alice visible and select
other
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Specify the string to be displayed and
click OK
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Time to test. Click Play
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Restart
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Another example with a loop
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Extra Credit
▀
Create a storyboard (external
design) for a world that uses
♦
At least 5 sequence steps
♦
At least one selection (if/then/else)
♦
At least one loop (any type) that
loops at least 2 times
▀
Email the storyboard for approval
▀
After approval
♦
Copyright 2015 by Janson Industries
Create world and email me the file106
Design Tools
▀
▀
S/W that makes it easier to
generate program designs
♦
Flowchart generator
♦
Storyboard tools
Example
♦
SFC (Structured Flow Chart editor)
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Click File, New and enter a title for diagram
(Example), your name, click OK
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Lots of options
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To insert into diagram, click on location (a circle
between symbols) to insert then, Edit, Insert110
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]
]
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Often further options
You must be consistent!
Here’s a link to a video (11 mins) on using SFC
http://mediaworks.fscj.edu/app/sites/sxr5L0toZkCo2fzWhICj_g.aspx?destinationID=sx
r5L0toZkCo2fzWhICj_g&contentID=7NZLQxEefEiV7N1UlzfzDQ
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App Development Tools
▀
S/W that makes it easier to program
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
Syntax checkers
Debugging utilities
Visual editors
Test environments
Examples
♦
♦
♦
MS: .NET (Visual Studio)
Oracle: NetBeans
IBM: WebSphere (Rational Application
Developer)
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Colors indicate static text, types of
statements, java keywords, etc.
Error indicators
Area to see
program results
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Visual Editor lets you click and drag GUI components.
It generates the code!
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App Development Tools
▀
Some claim there are new 4GLs
▀
Application generators
♦
You specify:
►What
the output should look like
►Where the input is
♦
Application generator produces
the program
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App Development Tools
▀
Some claim that applications, like
Access, are 4 GLs
♦
♦
♦
♦
▀
Doesn't it let you create queries
Aren't they essentially little programs?
What about forms?
Aren't they little input programs?
Many Apps allow you to create macros
♦
♦
Multiple actions that can be saved and
rerun
Sounds like a program to me
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App Development Tools
▀
Besides programming languages
♦
Mark up languages – HTML, XML
► Define
format of web pages, data, website
structure, etc.
♦
Scripting languages – Java script,
PHP, Perl
► Allow
♦
functions to be coded in a web page
Web page/site generators – Flash,
Expression Web, Dreamweaver
► Generate
markup and scripting code
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Points to Remember
▀
System Development and
Program Development follow a
complex process
▀
There are a variety of people/roles
▀
Many technologies involved
Copyright 2015 by Janson Industries
♦
Programming, scripting, mark up
languages
♦
Application Development Tools
♦
DBMS, networking
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Intro to the AS/400 - Florida State College at Jacksonville