Why Syntax?
1) Syntax and ELL:
Taro a dog found.
Chan, Alice Y.W. (2004). Syntactic Transfer: Evidence
from the Interlanguage of Hong Kong Chinese ESL
Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 88, 56-74.
2) Syntax to expand meaning
Language and Syntax
• Phonetics- sounds
• Morphology- sounds form meaning
• Phonology- morphemes form words- spelling rules
• Syntax- words, phrases, sentences (word order, hierarchy)
Syntax
“Part of grammar that represents a
speaker’s knowledge of sentences
and their structures is called
syntax” (Fromkin p.116)
Word Categories:
1) Lexical (Parts of Speech)
– types of meanings: noun, preposition, verb, adjective,
adverb
2) Functional
*Auxiliary (Aux) - provide verb time frame- ongoing,
past, future, have, had, be, was, were
Modal- possibility or necessity- may, might, can,
could, must, shall, should, would
*Determiner (Det)
Articles- infinite or definite noun- a the
Demonstrative- noun to context- this, that,
these, those
‘Counting words’- each, every
Phrase Categories:
Each lexical word category has a corresponding phrase
• Noun phrase
• Verb phrase
• Prepositional phrase
• Adverbial phrase
• Adjective phrase
Functions of Syntax
Syntax allows language to be limitless within the structure
rules.
John found a book in the library.
John found a book in the library in the stacks.
John found a book in the library in the stacks on the
fourth floor.
Grammar without meaning
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
A verb crumpled the milk.
* “Jabberwocky” by Lewis Carroll
Word Order:
Languages have specific word orders.
English: Subject-Verb-Object (SVO)
The professor wrote the book.
Book the wrote the professor.
The book was written by the professor.
Word order changes
meaning:
C hanges to c onv entional s ynatx are o ften used t o crea te dra m atic, p oetic, o r comi c eff ec t.
F or instance, poets a nd song ly ricists often change syntac tic order to c rea te rhythmi c eff ec ts:
"I'll sing to him, each spr ing to him
And long for t
h e d a y wh e n I 'll cling to him,
Bewi t ch e d, bot h er ed a nd b ewil d er e d a m I."
[C OL E P ORTER]
http://www.buzzin.net/english/syntax.htm
Word order in other
languages:
Basic sentence word order and phrase order
varies by language.
SVO vs. SOV
Noun Phrase: # - N vs. N- #
4 tables vs. tables 4
Adj- N vs. N- Adj
pretty girl vs girl pretty
Spanish
• Quiza venga el Presidente.
The President may come.
• La chica es una estudiante excelente.
The girl is an excellent student.
• Yo lo vi.
I saw him.
• El nino escribe poemas preciosos.
The boy writes beautiful poems.
ASL
*Word order + non-manual features
• I teacher (with head nod)
I am a teacher.
• I from Utah.
I am from Utah
• Boy fall
The boy fell down.
• My cat chase dog
My cat chased the dog.
http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/pages-layout/syntax.htm
Constituents &
Constituency Tests
Constituents = the natural groupings of a sentence
A constituent is formed if…
1) a group of words can stand alone
Ex. “What did you find?” “A puppy” (not “found a”)
2) pronouns can substitute for natural groups
Ex. “Where did you find a puppy?” “I found HIM in the park.”
3) a group of words can be move. [move unit]
Ex. It was [a puppy] that the child found.
[A puppy] was found by the child.
• S = Sentence
The boy likes to eat cake.
• Det = Determiner
Articles: a, the
Demonstratives: this that these, those, each, every
• N = Noun
puppy, boy, cake, happiness, kiss
• Aux = Auxillary
Auxillary verbs: have, had, be, was, were
Modals: may, might, can, could, should, will, would
• V = Verb
find, run, realize, believe, want
• Adj = Adjective
red, big, candid, hopeless, lucky
• Adv = Adverb
again, carefully, never, very,
TERMS:
TERMS
• NP = Noun phrase (subject or object in a sentence)
The child is lucky.
A police officer found the criminal.
She is the girl that John loved.
• VP = Verb phrase (always contains a verb, may contain other categories,
such as noun phrase or prepositional phrase)
The child saw an elephant.
Rob slept on the couch.
• PP = Prepositional Phrase (preposition followed by an NP)
Susan devoured the cake in the pantry.
• CP = Complementizer Phrase (contains complementizer, such as
that, if, whether, and is followed by an embedded sentence)
Jack doesn’t know if he should fetch a pail of water.
Jill knows that she should fetch a pail of water.
Template vs. Tree Diagram
TEMPLATE:
The boy raced the girl.
Det-N-V-Det-N
This TEMPLATE says
that a determiner is
followed by a noun,
which is followed be
a verb, etc
• This TEMPLATE, however,
suggests that words have no
internal organization.
• Thus, we can use a TREE
DIAGRAM to make it easier
to see the parts and
subparts of a sentence.
• As a result, the structure of
the sentence can be
recognized in the tree’s
hierarchical organization.
Sentences: Hierarchical Organization
The boy raced the girl.
Words grouped into natural units:
[The boy] [raced the girl].
Further division:
[ [The] [boy] ] [ [raced] [ [the] [girl] ] ].
Tree Diagram:
verb phrase
noun phrase
noun phrase
raced
The
boy
the
girl
Phrase Structure Tree (PS Trees)
or Constituent Structure Tree:
a tree diagram with syntactic category information
The boy raced the girl.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The boy raced the girl.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see thi s picture.
The sentence above consists of syntactic category nodes VP
and NP (subject and direct object). The VP dominates over V,
NP (DO), and also Det and N [raced the girl].
Categories that are immediately dominated by the same node
are sisters. V and NP are sisters [raced] [the girl] in the PS
tree of [The boy raced the girl]
Phrase Structure Trees
Word order is important. English is a SVO language.
NOT
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Raced the girl the boy.
The boy raced the girl.
NOT
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The boy
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Boy the
PS Rules: finite set of permissible structures
1) S ->
NP VP
2) NP ->
Det N’
6) N’ -> 8) VP ->
Adj N’ V
3) NP ->
N’
7) N’ -> 9) VP ->
N
V NP
4) NP ->
NP’s N’
5) NP ->
NP PP
10) VP ->
V CP
11) VP ->
Aux VP
12) VP ->
VP PP
13) PP ->
P NP
14) CP ->
C S
Emily danced on the beach.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Mark said that you left the office.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see thi s picture.
The man loves the beautiful
intelligent woman.
NOT:
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Beautiful intelligent the woman
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
An adjective modifies
the noun BUT
The man loves the beautiful intelligent woman.
a determiner modifies
the adjective + noun
complex.
Tree Diagrams for Exercise #4:
The magician touched the child with the wand.
Tree # 1: The magician used the
wand to touch the child.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Tree # 2: The magician touched a boy
who was holding a wand.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
In groups of two or three:
create the tree diagrams
• a) She played in the park.
• b) The teacher said that the classroom needs
books.
• c) The kind handsome athletic boy mowed the
lawn.
Descargar

Constituents & Constituency Tests