Why Syntax? 1) Syntax and ELL: Taro a dog found. Chan, Alice Y.W. (2004). Syntactic Transfer: Evidence from the Interlanguage of Hong Kong Chinese ESL Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 88, 56-74. 2) Syntax to expand meaning Language and Syntax • Phonetics- sounds • Morphology- sounds form meaning • Phonology- morphemes form words- spelling rules • Syntax- words, phrases, sentences (word order, hierarchy) Syntax “Part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structures is called syntax” (Fromkin p.116) Word Categories: 1) Lexical (Parts of Speech) – types of meanings: noun, preposition, verb, adjective, adverb 2) Functional *Auxiliary (Aux) - provide verb time frame- ongoing, past, future, have, had, be, was, were Modal- possibility or necessity- may, might, can, could, must, shall, should, would *Determiner (Det) Articles- infinite or definite noun- a the Demonstrative- noun to context- this, that, these, those ‘Counting words’- each, every Phrase Categories: Each lexical word category has a corresponding phrase • Noun phrase • Verb phrase • Prepositional phrase • Adverbial phrase • Adjective phrase Functions of Syntax Syntax allows language to be limitless within the structure rules. John found a book in the library. John found a book in the library in the stacks. John found a book in the library in the stacks on the fourth floor. Grammar without meaning Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. A verb crumpled the milk. * “Jabberwocky” by Lewis Carroll Word Order: Languages have specific word orders. English: Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) The professor wrote the book. Book the wrote the professor. The book was written by the professor. Word order changes meaning: C hanges to c onv entional s ynatx are o ften used t o crea te dra m atic, p oetic, o r comi c eff ec t. F or instance, poets a nd song ly ricists often change syntac tic order to c rea te rhythmi c eff ec ts: "I'll sing to him, each spr ing to him And long for t h e d a y wh e n I 'll cling to him, Bewi t ch e d, bot h er ed a nd b ewil d er e d a m I." [C OL E P ORTER] http://www.buzzin.net/english/syntax.htm Word order in other languages: Basic sentence word order and phrase order varies by language. SVO vs. SOV Noun Phrase: # - N vs. N- # 4 tables vs. tables 4 Adj- N vs. N- Adj pretty girl vs girl pretty Spanish • Quiza venga el Presidente. The President may come. • La chica es una estudiante excelente. The girl is an excellent student. • Yo lo vi. I saw him. • El nino escribe poemas preciosos. The boy writes beautiful poems. ASL *Word order + non-manual features • I teacher (with head nod) I am a teacher. • I from Utah. I am from Utah • Boy fall The boy fell down. • My cat chase dog My cat chased the dog. http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/pages-layout/syntax.htm Constituents & Constituency Tests Constituents = the natural groupings of a sentence A constituent is formed if… 1) a group of words can stand alone Ex. “What did you find?” “A puppy” (not “found a”) 2) pronouns can substitute for natural groups Ex. “Where did you find a puppy?” “I found HIM in the park.” 3) a group of words can be move. [move unit] Ex. It was [a puppy] that the child found. [A puppy] was found by the child. • S = Sentence The boy likes to eat cake. • Det = Determiner Articles: a, the Demonstratives: this that these, those, each, every • N = Noun puppy, boy, cake, happiness, kiss • Aux = Auxillary Auxillary verbs: have, had, be, was, were Modals: may, might, can, could, should, will, would • V = Verb find, run, realize, believe, want • Adj = Adjective red, big, candid, hopeless, lucky • Adv = Adverb again, carefully, never, very, TERMS: TERMS • NP = Noun phrase (subject or object in a sentence) The child is lucky. A police officer found the criminal. She is the girl that John loved. • VP = Verb phrase (always contains a verb, may contain other categories, such as noun phrase or prepositional phrase) The child saw an elephant. Rob slept on the couch. • PP = Prepositional Phrase (preposition followed by an NP) Susan devoured the cake in the pantry. • CP = Complementizer Phrase (contains complementizer, such as that, if, whether, and is followed by an embedded sentence) Jack doesn’t know if he should fetch a pail of water. Jill knows that she should fetch a pail of water. Template vs. Tree Diagram TEMPLATE: The boy raced the girl. Det-N-V-Det-N This TEMPLATE says that a determiner is followed by a noun, which is followed be a verb, etc • This TEMPLATE, however, suggests that words have no internal organization. • Thus, we can use a TREE DIAGRAM to make it easier to see the parts and subparts of a sentence. • As a result, the structure of the sentence can be recognized in the tree’s hierarchical organization. Sentences: Hierarchical Organization The boy raced the girl. Words grouped into natural units: [The boy] [raced the girl]. Further division: [ [The] [boy] ] [ [raced] [ [the] [girl] ] ]. Tree Diagram: verb phrase noun phrase noun phrase raced The boy the girl Phrase Structure Tree (PS Trees) or Constituent Structure Tree: a tree diagram with syntactic category information The boy raced the girl. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The boy raced the girl. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see thi s picture. The sentence above consists of syntactic category nodes VP and NP (subject and direct object). The VP dominates over V, NP (DO), and also Det and N [raced the girl]. Categories that are immediately dominated by the same node are sisters. V and NP are sisters [raced] [the girl] in the PS tree of [The boy raced the girl] Phrase Structure Trees Word order is important. English is a SVO language. NOT QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Raced the girl the boy. The boy raced the girl. NOT QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The boy QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Boy the PS Rules: finite set of permissible structures 1) S -> NP VP 2) NP -> Det N’ 6) N’ -> 8) VP -> Adj N’ V 3) NP -> N’ 7) N’ -> 9) VP -> N V NP 4) NP -> NP’s N’ 5) NP -> NP PP 10) VP -> V CP 11) VP -> Aux VP 12) VP -> VP PP 13) PP -> P NP 14) CP -> C S Emily danced on the beach. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Mark said that you left the office. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see thi s picture. The man loves the beautiful intelligent woman. NOT: QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Beautiful intelligent the woman QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. An adjective modifies the noun BUT The man loves the beautiful intelligent woman. a determiner modifies the adjective + noun complex. Tree Diagrams for Exercise #4: The magician touched the child with the wand. Tree # 1: The magician used the wand to touch the child. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Tree # 2: The magician touched a boy who was holding a wand. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. In groups of two or three: create the tree diagrams • a) She played in the park. • b) The teacher said that the classroom needs books. • c) The kind handsome athletic boy mowed the lawn.