Serveis Emergents
Pilar Orero
Testing accessibility across Europe
Testing across Europe
Belgium  Bilingual: Flemish & French
Germany  Monolingual - Dubbing
Italy  Monolingual - Dubbing
Poland  Monolingual – Lectoring/ voiceover
• Spain  Bilingual – Dubbing
• Danmark  Monolingual - Subtitling
• UK  Monolingual -
Subtitles 1
Results lead to a
Comprehension tests
across EU tell us
subtitle speed
shouldn’t go beyond
150 wpm. While User
associations lobby for
180 wpm or more
Subtitles 2
Subtitle speed of 150 wpm  split attention
50% time reading visual information
50% time reading subtitles
Subtitle speed of 180 wpm split attention
30% time reading visual information
70% time reading subtitles
Comprehension suffers badly
Reading Patterns
Live subtitles
Display issue 1
Word by word  less delay
Reading subtitles at 180 wpm means
10% reading visual information
90% reading subtitles
Comprehension severely impaired
Live subtitles
Display issue 2
Subtitles by blocks
Easier reading
More time delay in the display
Comprehension severely impaired because
of delay
Subtitle formats...
Users’ attitude to innovation
Users are very traditional
Rejection of innovation in subtitle solutions
No to icons
No to emoticons
DHH more conservative, new subtitle users
Deaf – more open to innovation, good
command of subtitles
Icons and emoticons
Subtitle + sign language
Speaker identification
Speaker identification
Live subtitling
Spelling mistakes/typos, etc are less
important for comprehension than time delay
This applies across Europe
Public opinion and user associations agree
- both are very critical of live subtitling
Subtitles across EU
Lack of pan-EU guideliness/standards
regarding subtitle presentation and format:
• Colour
• Use of capital letters
• Use of italics
• Character identification
• No. of words
Subtitles across EU
Major criticism regarding live subtitling due
to lack of awareness as to how subtitles
are produced and broadcast
Audio description
Guidelines to create AD are now published
in most EU countries
AD can be translated, in much the same
way as subtitles or poetry is translated.
Audio description
Lack of awareness at all levels:
• Users
• Associations
• Broadcasters
• Social services
• Families
Other services tested
• Slow reproduction subtitles
• Clean audio
• AD over IPTV in 5 different scenarios
Extra services
RAI – Sign language over iphone
UAB – AD, SDH, etc over android
Future Conferences 2011
June 28th –July 1st – Media for All –
Imperial College, London
October 21st – Live Subtitling - Antwerp
October 14/15 – Point of View, Unesco
Chair, Krakow
Future conferences 2012
• Accessible Videogames, UAB
. Languages and the Media, Berlin
Thank you
Pilar Orero
Centre for Accessibility and Ambient Intelligence
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona