Techniques Supporting Project
Management (Part 4)
Dr.Çağatay ÜNDEĞER
Instructor
Bilkent University, Computer Engineering
Middle East Technical University, Game Technologies
&
General Manager
SimBT Inc.
e-mail : [email protected]
CS-413
Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Bölümü – Bilkent Üniversitesi – Fall 2009
1
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
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Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
2
Work Breakdown Structures
• A hierarchical listing of the activities (e.g.
tasks, sub-tasks) necessary for the
completion of the project.
• Split activities into sub-activities as much as
you can;
– Until leaf activities become clear and easily
manageable.
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3
A Sample Project
• Generating a multimedia database with;
– Word, excell, power point documents
– Image files
– Video files
– Sound files
• Viewing and editing
– Source files & database content
• Exporting/Importing database content to/from
individual files.
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4
A Sample Work Breakdown
Structure
•
•
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Software Project Development Life Cycle (Spiral Model)
– Cycle 1
• System Planning
• System Analysis
– Cycle 2
• System Planning
• System Anaylsis
• System Design
• System Implementation (Prototype)
• System Deployment
– Cycle 3
• System Planning
• System Anaylsis
• System Design
• System Implementation (Release 1.0)
• System Deployment
System Maintenance
5
Cycle 1 (System Planning)
• System Planning
– Identify project needs
– Determine project scope
– Prepare project definition document
– Prepare project management plans
• Prepare Software Project Management Plan
• Prepare Software Quality Assurance Plan
• Prepare Software Risk Management Plan
– Prepare software engineering plans
• Prepare Software Configuration Management Plan
• Prepare Software Verification and Validation Plan
– Evaluate and approve project plans
– Sign project contract
• System Analysis ...
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6
Cycle 1 (System Analysis)
• System Planning ...
• System Analysis
– Perform software requirements analysis
• Determine software requirements
• Structure software requirements
• Prepare Software Requirements Specification
• Evaluate and approve Software Requirements
Specification
– Perform literature survey
• ???
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7
Cycle 1 (System Analysis)
• System Planning ...
• System Analysis
– Perform software requirements analysis
• Determine software requirements
• Structure software requirements
• Prepare Software Requirements Specification
• Evaluate and approve Software Requirements
Specification
– Perform literature survey
• Loading and visualising office files (doc, xls, ppt,
etc.)
• Loading and visualising image files (bmp, jpg, tif,
etc.)
• Loading and playing video files (avi, mpg, dat, etc.)
• Loading and playing sound files (wav, mp3)
• Generating multimedia databases with above
sources
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8
Cycle 2 (System Planning)
• System Planning
– Update project management plans
• Update Software Project Management Plan
• Update Software Risk Management Plan
– Evaluate and approve project plans
• System Analysis ...
• System Design ...
• System Implementation (prototype) ...
• System Deployment...
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9
Cycle 2 (System Analysis)
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• System Planning ...
• System Analysis
– Refine software requirements analysis
• Update software requirements
• Restructure software requirements
• Prepare Software Requirements Specification
• Evaluate and approve Software Requirements
Specification
– Perform literature survey
• ???
– Generate alternative designs
• Determine and select alternative designs
• Evaluate and approve selected design
• System Design ...
• System Implementation (prototype) ...
• System Deployment...
10
Cycle 2 (System Analysis)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis
– Refine software requirements analysis
• Update software requirements
• Restructure software requirements
• Prepare Software Requirements Specification
• Evaluate and approve Software Requirements
Specification
– Perform literature survey
• Editing and saving office files (doc, xls, ppt, etc.)
• Editing and saving image files (bmp, jpg, tif, etc.)
• Editing and saving video files (avi, mpg, dat, etc.)
• Editing and saving sound files (wav, mp3)
– Generate alternative designs
• Determine and select alternative designs
• Evaluate and approve selected design
System Design ...
System Implementation (prototype) ...
System Deployment...
11
Cycle 2 (System Design)
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design
– Prepare logical system description
– Prepare physical system description
• Determine details of implementation environment
– Select hardware platforms and operating systems
– Select programming languages
– Select database systems and file structures
– Select network environment
• Design details of system
– Design user interfaces
» ???
– Design reports
» ???
– Design databases
» ???
– Design algorithms
» ???
– Design computer process
» ???
• Design system integration
– Prepare Software Design Description
– Evaluate and approve Software Design Description
System Implementation (prototype) ...
System Deployment...
12
Cycle 2 (System Design)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design
– Prepare logical system description
– Prepare physical system description
• Determine details of implementation environment
– Select hardware platforms and operating systems
– Select programming languages
– Select database systems and file structures
– Select network environment
• Design details of system
– Design user interfaces
» Main window
» Windows for file import, visualise, edit and save
» Windows for database content generation
» Windows for database content browser, visualise, edit and save to file
» Windows for database backup and restore
» Windows for user accounts management
– Design reports
» ...
– Design databases
– Design algorithms
– Design computer process
• Design system integration
– Prepare Software Design Description
– Evaluate and approve Software Design Description
System Implementation (prototype) ...
System Deployment...
13
Cycle 2 (System Implementation)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (prototype)
– Coding
• Implement software components
– ???
• Integrate software components
• Correct reported bugs
– Testing & Correction
• Prepare Software Test Document
• Evaluate and approve Software Test Document
• Perform unit tests
• Perform integration tests
• Report test results and update Software Test Document
– Demonstrate, evaluate and approve system software
System Deployment...
14
Cycle 2 (System Implementation)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (prototype)
– Coding
• Implement software components
– Implement user interfaces
» Main window
» Windows for file import, visualise, edit and save
» Windows for database content generation
» Windows for database content browser, visualise, edit and save to file
» Windows for database backup and restore
» Windows for user accounts management
– Implement reports
» ...
– Implement databases
– Implement algorithms
– Implement computer process
• Integrate software components
• Correct reported bugs
– Testing & Correction
• Prepare Software Test Document
• Evaluate and approve Software Test Document
• Perform unit tests
• Perform integration tests
• Report test results and update Software Test Document
– Demonstrate, evaluate and approve system software
System Deployment...
15
Cycle 2 (System Deployment)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (prototype) ...
System Deployment
– Install system software
– Enter baseline data
• ???
– Train users
• 1 weeks administrator training
• 1 week user training
16
Cycle 2 (System Deployment)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (prototype) ...
System Deployment
– Install system software
– Enter baseline data
• Import office documents from previous archives
• Import image files from previous archives
• Import video files from previous archives
• Import sound files from previous archives
– Train users
• 1 weeks administrator training
• 1 week user training
17
Cycle 3 (System Planning)
• System Planning
– Update project management plans
• Update Software Project Management
Plan
– Evaluate and approve project plans
• System Analysis ...
• System Design ...
• System Implementation (release 1.0) ...
• System Deployment ...
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18
Cycle 3 (System Analysis)
• System Planning ...
• System Analysis
– Refine software requirements analysis
• Update software requirements
• Restructure software requirements
• Prepare Software Requirements Specification
• Evaluate and approve Software Requirements
Specification
• System Design ...
• System Implementation (release 1.0) ...
• System Deployment ...
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19
Cycle 3 (System Design)
• System Planning ...
• System Analysis ...
• System Design
– Refine logical system description
– Refine physical system description
• Refine details of system
– Update user interfaces
– Update reports
– ...
• Refine system integration
– Prepare Software Design Description
– Evaluate and approve Software Design Description
• System Implementation (release 1.0) ...
• System Deployment ...
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20
Cycle 3 (System Implementation)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (release 1)
– Coding
• Refine software components
• Integrate software components
• Correct reported bugs
– Testing & Correction
• Prepare Software Test Document
• Evaluate and approve Software Test Document
• Perform unit tests
• Perform integration tests
• Report test results and update Software Test Document
– Prepare Software Deliverables
• Prepare user manuals
• Prepare system setup application
– Demonstrate, evaluate and approve system software
System Deployment ...
21
Cycle 3 (System Deployment)
•
•
•
•
•
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System Planning ...
System Analysis ...
System Design ...
System Implementation (release 1) ...
System Deployment
– Install system software
– Enter baseline data
• ...
– Train users
• 3 weeks administrator training
• 2 week user training
22
Afterwards (System Maintenance)
• System Maintenance
– Fix system software bugs
– Improve system software
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23
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
24
Gantt Charts
• A bar chart showing start and end dates for
the activities (WBS) of a project.
• Not intended to indicate how tasks must be
ordered,
– But simply show when a task should begin
and end.
• Very helpful for seeing date-time relations of
activities.
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25
Gantt Charts
• On the left, a work breakdown structure is located;
• On the right, the time bars are located.
Start: 20.02.2008
End: 28.02.2008
Duration: 7 days
summary tasks
leaf tasks
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From Microsoft Office
26
Information on Gantt Charts
• Many information can be seen on gantt charts
duration of
task
percent of
task completed
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From Microsoft Office
27
Information on Gantt Charts
• Precedence relations can be seen on gantt charts.
Predecessor
of Task A
Starts at the
Same time
Successor
of Task A
Task A
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From Microsoft Office
28
Information on Gantt Charts
• Resource assignments can be seen on gantt charts
• Resource usage can be seen on gantt charts
With two
full-time personnel
With one
Full-time personnel
Many tasks
in parallel
With one
part-time personnel
With two
part-time personnel
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From Microsoft Office
29
Information on Gantt Charts
• Critical paths can be seen on gantt charts
Critical path is the longest
path through the project
illustrating the shortest
amount of time in which
a project can be completed.
Tasks on critical path cannot be
delayed without delaying project.
Red colored tasks are on critical path.
Therefore they can not be delayed.
Blue colored tasks are not on critical path.
Therefore they can be delayed.
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From Microsoft Office
30
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
31
Network Diagrams
• A schematic display;
– That illustrates various tasks in a project
• As well as their sequential relationship.
• A scheduling technique used for controlling
resources.
• Show which tasks can be done in parallel.
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32
Network Diagrams
• Used to identify critical paths.
• Critical path is the longest path through the
project
– Illustrating the shortest amount of time
• In which a project can be completed.
• Tasks on critical path cannot be delayed
without delaying project.
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33
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Summary & Leaf Tasks)
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From Microsoft Office
34
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Leaf Tasks)
• With the information below,
– You can be able to draw a network diagram.
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ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
35
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Visualisation)
• Tasks are shown by either
– Circles or
– Rectangles.
• Work flows are shown by arrows.
Task 1 is the predecessor of Task 2
1
Task 1
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Task 2 follows Task 1
2
Task 2
36
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
8
3
9
5
4
6
10
13
11
12
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37
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
3
5
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
8
6
9
10
11
13
4
12
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38
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
D=1
D=4
4
D=7
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
12
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39
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
D=4
4
D=7
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
12
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40
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 2
D=1
D=4
4
ET = 4
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D=7
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
12
41
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 4
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = max(2,4)+2
D=4
4
ID
D=7
D=1
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
12
ET = 4+7
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42
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
D=4
4
ET = 4
D=7
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 6+1
D=1
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
12
ET = 11
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43
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
D=4
4
ET = 4
D=7
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 7+4
D=1
9
10
11
D=1
D=1
D=1
13
ET = 7+1
12
ET = 11
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44
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
ET = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
D=7
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = max(11,11)+1
ET = 8
ET = 8+1
12
ET = 11
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45
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
ET = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
D=7
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 12
ET = 8
ET = 9
ET = 9+1
12
ET = 11
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46
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
ET = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
D=7
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 12
ET = 8
ET = 9
ET = 10
12
ET = 11
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47
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
ET = 11
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
ET = 11
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ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
ET = 9
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
Assign project end date, max(ET)
48
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
CS-413
ET = 11
LT = 12-1
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 11
LT = 12-1
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
ET = 9
LT = 12-1
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
49
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
ET = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
CS-413
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 11-1
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
50
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
CS-413
ET = 11
LT = 11
ET = 7
LT = min ( 11-4 ,
10-1 )
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
51
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
CS-413
ET = 11
LT = 11
ET = 7
LT = min(7,9)
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
52
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
ET = 6
LT = 7-1
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
D=7
ET = 4
12
CS-413
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
53
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
LT = 6-2
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = min ( 6-2 ,
11-7 )
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
54
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
LT = 4
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = min(4,4)
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
55
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
LT = 4
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = 4
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
56
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
LT = 4
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = 4
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
Red tasks are on critical path, so should not be delayed.
57
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
ET = Earliest completion time
Compute ET of left mosts first.
Compute ET of each forward task
by summing ET for each task from left to right.
LT = Latest completion time
Compute LT of right mosts first.
Compute LT of each backward task
by subtracting duration for each task from right to left.
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 2
LT = 4
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = 4
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
LT = 10
ET = 9
LT = 11
ET = 10
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
Orange tasks are not on critical path, so can be delayed up to some point.
58
Network Diagrams
(Sample: Network Diagram)
Slack time is the amount of time
a task can be delayed
without delaying the project.
Slack-time = LT-ET
D=2
D=2
D=1
D=4
3
5
8
6
ET = 6
LT = 6
ET = 7
LT = 7
ET = 11
LT = 11
ET = 2
st = 2
LT = 4
D=4
4
ET = 4
LT = 4
CS-413
D=7
12
ET = 11
LT = 11
ID
Task Name
Duration
Predecessors
3
Implement visualiser
2
-
4
Implement database
4
-
5
Integrate components
2
3, 4
6
Correct bugs
4
8
8
Prepare test document
1
5
9
Perform unit tests
1
5, 8
10
Perform integration tests
1
5, 9
11
Report test results
1
5, 10
12
Prepare sample data
7
4
13
Prepare deliverables
1
6, 12
D=1
9
10
11
13
D=1
D=1
D=1
ET = 8
st = 2
LT = 10
ET = 9
st = 2
LT = 11
ET = 10
st = 2
LT = 12
ET = 12
LT = 12
Tasks not on the critical path contain some slack time (st).
59
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
60
Program Evaluation Review
Technique (PERT)
• A technique used for determining the duration
of tasks in work breakdown structures.
• It is difficult to estimate a tasks duration
– When it involves a high degree of
complexity and uncertainty.
• PERT uses;
– Optimistic,
– Most likely, and
– Pessimistic time estimates
• To calculate expected time.
CS-413
61
Program Evaluation Review
Technique (PERT)
• PERT uses a weighted average method.
•
PERT duration is equal to:
Woptimistic x optimistic t. + Wmostlikely x most likely t. + Wpessimistic x pessimistic t.
Woptimistic + Wmostlikely + Wpessimistic
•
Sample Duration = 1 x 9 workdays + 4 x 12 workdays + 2 x 24 workdays
1+4+2
Sample Duration = 105/7 = 15
•
CS-413
62
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
63
Calender View
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
64
Task Usage View
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
65
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
66
Resources
• Resources are:
– Any person,
– A group of people,
– A piece of
• Equipment,
• Hardware
• Software or
• Material
used in accomplishing a task.
CS-413
67
Resource Sheet
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
68
Resource Calenders
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
69
Techniques Supporting
Project Management
•
•
CS-413
Task related:
– Work breakdown structures
– Gantt Charts
– Network Diagrams
– Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
– Calender View
– Task usage View
Resource related:
– Resource Sheet
– Resource Calenders
– Resource Graph View
– Resource Usage View
70
Resource Graph View
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
71
Resource Usage View
CS-413
From Microsoft Office
72
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