Joy Kreeft Peyton
Center for Applied Linguistics
Washington, DC
International Hindi Conference, America
New York University
April 26, 2014
I wish I could be there
with you! This is a
rich, very productive
Gambhir, S. (2001). Truly less
commonly taught languages and
heritage language learners in the
United States. In J. K. Peyton, D. A.
Ranard, & S. McGinnis (Eds.), Heritage
Languages in America: Preserving a
National Resource. Washington, DC:
Center for Applied Linguistics.
Migration Policy Institute, 2013,
Heritage Languages as a National Resource
Alliance for the Advancement of Heritage Languages
National Heritage Language Resource Center
Heritage Language Journal
Gambhir, S., & Gambhir, V.
(2014). The journey of Hindi in
the United States. In T. G. Wiley,
J. K. Peyton, D. Christian, S. C. K.
Moore, & N. Liu (Eds.),
Handbook of heritage,
community, and Native
American languages in the
United States: Research, policy,
and educational practice.
Routledge & Center for Applied
Ghaffar-Kucher, A. & Mahajan,
A. (2013). Indian and Pakistani
Community-based Efforts
Towards Mother Tongue
Language Maintenance. In O.
Garcia, Z. Zakharia, & B. Otcu
(Eds.), Bilingual Community
Education and Multilingualism:
Beyond Heritage Languages in a
Global City. Multilingual
Modern Standard Hindi is an official language of India along with English. Both
Hindi and English function as lingua franca in most parts of the country. Hindi is
based on Khari dialect, which is spoken around Delhi. Among the 22 major
national languages listed in the Constitution of India, Hindi is the most widely
spoken language in the country. According to the 2001 Census of India,
approximately 50% percent of the people of India speak Hindi (or its regional
varieties) as their first or second language.
Compiled by Corinne Seals, Na Liu, and Sarah Moore
The relationship between heritage language fluency loss
and the cultural value of filial duty: An Indo-Canadian
Hindu perspective
N. Kumar, 2005, Concordia University (Canada)
“Where English grows, nothing else grows.”
Surendra Gambhir,
Second International Heritage Languages Conference,
March 8, 2014
See also
Lee, J. S., & Wright, W. (2014). The rediscovery of heritage and
community language education in the United States. Review of
Research in Education, 38, 137-165.
Any Language and English
“It never ceases to amaze me how much
we continually have to combat the
power and influence of English.”
Administrator in a dual language, Spanish (90)/English (10)
J. Sugarman. (2012). Equity in Spanish/English dual language education:
Practitioners' perspectives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University
of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Any Language and English
A growing number of residents in Dubai, United Arab
Emirates, speak English more fluently than their
native Emirati dialect. The decline has been noted
particularly among younger residents, many of whom
have attended private schools that do not have an
Arabic-focused curriculum. "It's becoming a dying
language, and the kids are speaking English because
of the schools and media here."
(“Emirati dialect faces threat of decline,” The National, April 17, 2014)
Point of Least Disruption
The language functions across the full spectrum of a
community’s life and affairs, so that all aspects of
learning and use of the language work in the interest of
maintaining or promoting the vitality of the language.
Fishman, J. (2001). Can threatened languages be saved?
Reversing language shift, revisited. Clevedon, UK:
Multilingual Matters.
Efforts to Promote Language Vitality: Grin & Lo Bianco
Grin, F. (1990). The economic approach to minority languages. Journal of
Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 11(1-2), 153-173.
Grin, F. (2003). Language policy evaluation and the European Charter for
Regional or Minority Languages. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lo Bianco, J. (2008a). Organizing for multilingualism: Ecological and
sociological perspectives. In Keeping language diversity alive: A TESOL
symposium (pp. 1-18). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of
Other Languages.
Lo Bianco, J. (2008b). Policy activity for heritage languages: Connections
with representation and citizenship. In D. M. Brinton, O. Kagan, & S.
Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage language education: A new field emerging (pp.
53-69). New York, NY: Routledge.
Efforts to Promote Language Vitality: Grin & Lo Bianco
Lo Bianco, J. (2014). Documenting language loss and endangerment:
Research, tools, and approaches. In T. Wiley, J. K. Peyton, D. Christian, S.
C. Moore, & N. Liu (Eds.), Handbook of heritage, community, and Native
American languages in the United States (pp. 54-65). New York, NY:
Lo Bianco, J., & Peyton, J. K. (2013). Vitality of heritage languages in the
United States. Heritage Language Journal, 10, 3.
Focus of Efforts to Promote Language Vitality
o Most efforts to maintain and develop proficiency in
and use of specific languages concentrate on
teaching and learning of those languages in public,
private, or community-based schools or
postsecondary programs.
o Other efforts focus on legislation or policies to
support promotion and use of specific languages for
different reasons.
Three Necessary Conditions for Language Vitality and Revitalization
Capacity Development
Opportunity Creation
Desire Enhancement
The COD model is based on the clear understanding
that all three elements must be co-present for
language vitality to be possible.
Development of personal language proficiency and language
use, through both formal teaching and informal transmission
of the language
Increased proficiency often results in increased opportunities
for use and, thus, greater desire to use the language
What capacity development efforts are in place or planned for a
specific language or group of languages?
Hindi Heritage Language Schools
Hindi Heritage Language Schools
STARTALK and Hindi Language Teaching and Learning
“STARTALK has been the catalyst for kindling
serious interest in teaching and learning Hindi
language and culture at the K-12 levels through a
standards-based curriculum and performancebased assessment approach.”
“STARTALK programs have expanded the nation’s
capacity for teaching and learning Hindi
significantly by making Hindi available to both
heritage and non-heritage learners over the
Gambhir & Gambhir. (2014). The Journey of Hindi in the United
Capacity Development
Growth in number and variety of programs
Lessons learned from programs
Increased effectiveness of programs
Remaining challenges
Capacity Development
Proficiency does not always result in more
language use. For example, although a high
number of individuals have high-level linguistic
capacity in Irish, only a portion of that number use
the language on a regular basis.
The availability and development of real and active
circumstances and domains for genuine use of the language
Places and circumstances where use of the language is
natural, welcome, and expected
These include opportunities in informal settings, in realworld communication, outside of school
With Hindi being a minority language in the United States …
What opportunities are there to use Hindi?
How extensive, rich, and complex (or limited and simple) are
these opportunities?
Who has access to them?
Who chooses to participate in them?
How, in what ways, and to what extent do they participate?
Why? For what purposes? With what desired outcomes?
Developing individual and collective identification
with and motivation to use the language and
investment in learning and improving proficiency in
it, because ….
Proficiency in the language brings certain rewards
Use of the language serves as a component of
one’s identity
Use of the language promotes association with and
participation in a community of speakers
Economic advantages
Buying power
Academic or workforce
Prestige fed by
recognition of
Connections with
Connections with
community members
Personal activities
Sense of identity
and connection
Engagement with
popular culture
Inspiration from
Desire Enhancement
What are the motivators of desire in this
context, with this group of speakers?
What desire-promoting concepts and
activities are included in this effort?
Economic advantages
Buying power
Academic or workforce
Prestige fed by
recognition of
Connections with
Connections with
community members
Personal activities
Sense of identity
and connection
Engagement with
popular culture
Inspiration from
Societal Attitudes and Activities
Capacity Building
Opportunity Creation
Desire Enhancement
Universal and Equal Access to Language Education:
A Vision for the Next Decade in the United States
Richard Brecht, American Councils Research Center, The Educational and Economic Impact
of Foreign Languages, Washington, DC, April 1, 2014
Community-Based Heritage Language Schools:
Promoting Collaborations Among Educators, Families, and Researchers
September 26 & 27, 2014, Washington, DC
A conference for program administrators, teachers, parents, and
researchers involved in community-based language programs and
bilingual schools
Organized by the AU Bilingual Education Program and AU TESOL
Co-sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics
Contact Joy Peyton for information:
Thank you!
Joy Kreeft Peyton

Vitality of Hindi in the United States Patterns of Use and