Embedding Family-School Collaboration into PBS 2009 National PBIS Leadership Forum: Implementing a Continuum of Effective Systems & Practices Debby Boyer and Kathleen Minke University of Delaware, Center for Disability Studies Family-School Relationships • Families have a profound impact on academic, social, and emotional development of their children (Parke & Buriel, 2006). • Positive school-home relations are an important characteristic of effective schools; instrumental in comprehensive school reform efforts (e.g., Comer, Haynes, Joyner, & Ben-Avie, 1996). Minke & Boyer, 2009 Family-School Relationships • There is increasing evidence of a CAUSAL relationship between parents’ participation and achievement • Parents’ efforts increase child engagement in academics that, in turn, leads to improved achievement Minke & Boyer, 2009 PBS Training in Delaware Intensive PCP FBA/BSP Targeted Targeted Team 1-5% students w/6+ referrals 5-10% students w/2-5 referrals Universal Developing Self-Discipline in the Classroom Family-School Collaboration Creative Response to Conflict: Bias Awareness School-wide Team Training 80-90% students w/0-1 referrals Minke & Boyer, 2009 Family Collaboration at all Levels PCP Wraparound FBA/BSP Problem solving meetings Family-School Conferences Family participation in planning, implementing, and evaluating Schoolwide program Information sharing to and from families Minke & Boyer, 2009 Overview of Skills/Strategies The CORE Model of Collaboration • THINKING DIFFERENTLY o o Ecosystemic approach CORE Model • TALKING DIFFERENTLY o 7 Communication Strategies • BEHAVING DIFFERENTLY o o Proactive outreach strategies Conferences and Problem-solving Meetings Minke & Boyer, 2009 Overview of Skills/Strategies The CORE Model of Collaboration Connected Optimistic Respected Empowered Minke & Boyer, 2009 Thinking Differently • Systems Theory/Principles o Wholeness Each member affects, and is affected by, every other member When a member is added, subtracted or changes behavior in some way, the entire system must reorganize to accommodate the change. System as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts o Patterns of Interaction Behavior occurs in circular patterns with each person contributing Circularity = Repetitive cycles in which the same outcomes occur repeatedly a to b to c to a Punctuation = View of reality reflected by arbitrary starting point Minke & Boyer, 2009 Behavior Problem from a Systemic View A to B to C to D to A Teacher criticizes child Child misbehaves in class Child complains about teacher to parent Parent criticizes teacher Minke & Boyer, 2009 CORE Model: Talking Differently 7 Communication Strategies o o o o o o o Attend to non-verbal communication Listen to understand: reflecting and summarizing Model the collaborative role: avoid labeling, jargon and advice giving! Search for strengths Reframing Delivering/Receiving negative information Blocking blame Minke & Boyer, 2009 CORE MODEL: Behaving Differently • Proactive Outreach Strategies • Conferences and Problemsolving Meetings Minke & Boyer, 2009 Proactive Strategies: The School-wide Team • Family members as participants? • School climate data from families? • Input from families in planning, implementing, and evaluating the schoolwide discipline plan? • Sharing information about the program with all families? Minke & Boyer, 2009 Proactive Strategies: The Physical Plant How welcoming to families does the school appear? Are visitors a priority? Minke & Boyer, 2009 Proactive Strategies: Written Communications • Forms and policies • Personal communications Minke & Boyer, 2009 Written Communications: Forms, Policies and General Information • What reading level is required to interpret the documents? • Is there jargon that can be removed or better explained? • How do we ensure that families with limited written English literacy have access to this information? • To what extant do these documents encourage: • Parental choices and options (indent) • Two-way communication Minke & Boyer, 2009 Written Communications: Personal • “Good news” notes are usually welcome and helpful. • Avoid using notes home or emails to communicate about problems. • Communicate about concerns early and directly. • Concentrate on your main goals. • Consult with others when needed. Minke & Boyer, 2009 Proactive Strategies: Activities at School • Examine Current Activities for Opportunities for Relationshipbuilding • Needs Assessment/Evaluation • Build in Options Minke & Boyer, 2009 Behaving Differently: Routing Conferences and Problem-Solving Meetings • Two types of conferences are discussed o Routine o Problem-solving Minke & Boyer, 2009 Conferences and Meetings • 5 ways family-school conferences are different All parties prepare in advance Students are active participants Educator concentrates on receiving rather than giving information. o Educator acknowledges, expands and underscores the strengths of the family. o The conference is a “conversation.” At no time is the educator the “presenter.” o o o Minke & Boyer, 2009 Conferences and Meetings • Outcome goals o A plan is developed collaboratively for supporting the student’s continued success, including plans to remediate identified difficulties o All participants leave feeling hopeful about their participation and future success o Students leave feeling greater ownership of their own learning Minke & Boyer, 2009 Conferences and Meetings • Process goals o Each participant has ample time to share thoughts in the conference o Shared expectations for the child are developed by the group o Each participant is both a teacher and a learner Minke & Boyer, 2009 Traditional Conferences “…it’s just you start at 8 in the morning, and that’s where you stay, parked at your table, just pulling folders and papers and talking, and then that person leaves, pulling folders, papers again. So it’s like being a mannequin or a robot, I guess...I’m lucky if I can talk after the second day. It’s unbearable.” Minke & Boyer, 2009 Family-School Conference “My students were active participants in the conferences. I solicited information from parents prior to the meeting. All parents attended. About 95% of the students attended the conference with their parents. I plan on doing this again with every family in the spring!” Minke & Boyer, 2009 Family-School Conference “I felt more relaxed . . .I felt less like [my son’s] defender . . . and I felt [the teacher] was less defensive. I thought she was more open . . . I don’t know if it was her tone or her mannerism or her body language . . . it just felt less like something you want to go smoke a cigarette after.” Minke & Boyer, 2009 Professional Development Evaluation Data • Does participation in collaboration training have a positive effect on teacher: o Beliefs about parent involvement o Practices (e.g., number and type of contact with families) Minke & Boyer, 2009 Reflections Activities • • • • • • • • Systems Principles CORE Elements and Beliefs Communication Strategies The School-wide Team and Families Physical Plant Written Communications Relationship-building opportunities Conferences Minke & Boyer, 2009 Reflections Data • Most frequent positive comments concerned communication strategies o Increased positive contacts o More attention to wording of notes home o Increased effort to translate documents and positive notes o Greater attention to seeking information and limiting advice giving Minke & Boyer, 2009 Reflections Data • Meeting changes were discussed frequently Avoiding jargon Avoiding advice Listening more carefully Including positive information Minke & Boyer, 2009 Reflections Data • Innovative strategies Welcome back activity for “frequent flyers” and their families o Using email to elicit parent ideas on the Schoolwide program o Creating a spreadsheet to monitor positive contacts o Using the district’s world languages teachers to help with parent contacts o Minke & Boyer, 2009 Planning and Evaluation Tools Planning and Evaluation Tools: Family School Collaboration Emphasis • Delaware Self-Assessment • School-wide Evaluation Tool, Delaware version (SET-D) • Delaware School Climate Survey (students, staff and families) Minke & Boyer, 2009 Highlights from Key Features • Prevention of problem behaviors includes promoting positive teacher-student, student-student, and school-family relations • Uses problem-solving team process for planning, development, implementation, and evaluation across all three levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The team is representative of the school staff and community including students and parents as active participants • PBS requires sensitivity to individual and cultural differences Minke & Boyer, 2009 Five Components of the Self Assessment 1. Promoting Positive Behavior with Effective Classroom and Schoolwide Management 2. Developing Self-Discipline 3. Correcting Behavior Problems 4. Addressing the Needs of Students Who are Currently Exhibiting Serious and Chronic Behavior Problems (or who are at-risk of such) 5. Program Development and Evaluation Minke & Boyer, 2009 Family Collaboration embedded in the Self Assessment • Families are informed about SW programs and are given multiple opportunities to engage with school • Families receive more positive contacts home then negative contacts • Collaboration with family and community for individual student support • Families are part of the PBS leadership team Minke & Boyer, 2009 SET-D • Revised version of the SET • Some items added to highlight important elements of PBS in Delaware Minke & Boyer, 2009 New SET-D Items Related to Family-School Collaboration • D. On-going System for Rewarding Behavioral Expectations – “Do 90% of staff asked indicate that they have contacted a parent about positive student behavior in past 2 months?” • F. Monitoring, Evaluating, & Decision-Making - “Does the administrator report that program evaluation includes teacher, parent, and student surveys of school climate?” - “Is there a documented system for involving families in the development and evaluation of the school discipline plan?” Minke & Boyer, 2009 Delaware School Climate Surveys • Survey of students, staff and families • Used in grades 3-12 (may use home and staff version at all grade levels) • 37-50 items • Administered in January and February Minke & Boyer, 2009 Home School Climate Survey: Rules and Expectations Subscale 1. The school rules are fair. 3. Consequences of breaking school rules are fair. 4. The rules in this school are too harsh. * 13. The school’s Code of Conduct is fair. 19. The rules in this school are clear. 26. Students know what is expected of their behavior. 29. Students understand what the rules are. 30. The school makes it clear how students are expected to act. Minke & Boyer, 2009 Home School Climate Survey: Teacher Relations with Students and Home Subscale 5. Teachers do a good job communicating with parents. 7. Teachers are fair when correcting misbehavior. 9. Adults who work in this school care about the students. 11. Parents are informed not only about their child’s misbehavior, but also about good behavior. 12. Teachers care about their students. 15. Teachers work closely with parents to help students when they have problems. 17. Adults in this school treat students fairly. 18. Teachers listen to the concerns of parents. 21. Teachers show respect toward parents. 23. Teachers treat students with respect. 25. Teachers listen to students when they have a problem. Minke & Boyer, 2009 Use of Positive and Punitive Techniques For each item, the parent is asked how often the given behavior has happened during the past week Positive Techniques (3 items) 2. I was informed about my child's good behavior. 6. My child told me that he or she was recognized or praised by a teacher or other school employee for good behavior. 7. My child told me that he or she was rewarded by a teacher or other school employee for good behavior. Punitive Techniques (4 items) 1. I was informed by the school that my child violated the Code of Conduct. 3. My child was suspended out of school. 4. I was informed that my child was sent out of class because of misbehavior. 5. I was informed that my child received in-school suspension Minke & Boyer, 2009 Overall comparison of surveys • Student and parent perception of climate was very consistent • Some discrepancies between staff perception and students/parents Minke & Boyer, 2009 Contact Information Kathleen Minke: email@example.com Debby Boyer: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.Delawarepbs.org For Further Reading Minke, K.M., & Anderson, K.A. (2003). Restructuring routine parent-teacher conferences: The family-school conference model. Elementary School Journal, 104(1), 49-69. Vickers, H. S., Minke, K. M., & Anderson, K. A. (2002). Best practices in facilitating collaborative family-school routine conferences. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school psychology –IV (pp. 431-449). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. For Further Reading Minke, K. M. (2000). Preventing school problems and promoting school success through familyschool-community collaboration. In K. M. Minke & G. G. Bear (Eds.). Preventing school problems – promoting school success: Strategies and programs that work (pp. 337-420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Good resource for Relationshipbuilding Opportunities Christenson, S. L., & Sheridan, S. M. (2001). Schools and families: Creating essential connections for learning. New York: Guilford.