Author: Brenda Stephenson
The University of Tennessee
Date submitted to –
March 6, 2006
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Language Across the
Contributed by
Brenda Stephenson
The University of Tennessee
Pragmatic Intent
This is the reason why we
Muma (1998) says that the
motivation of why we are
communicating is called the
“centrality of intent.”
Relationship among
Communication Components
Communication Act
Mode of the ActSpeech or sign
Structure of the Act –
ASL or English grammar
Context or Meaning
Purpose or Pragmatic Intent
Three Broad Divisions of
Micropragmatics – study of intention
Macropragmatics – looks beyond the
purpose of a language act to the
social context or setting of the
 Metapragmatics – involves
understanding micro and macro
Language Instruction Contact
We ask students :
1. to learn a language for
communication purposes
2. to learn about their
3. to learn other information
using their language as a
Learning a First Language at
Remember that the BEST place
to learn a first language is at
home from your parents…but
if this doesn’t happen then
teachers must take on the
Three major pathways for
learning language
The auditory pathway for
spoken English
The visual pathway for English
The visual pathway for
acquisition of ASL and English
as a second language
Literacy Best Practices
1. Provide and monitor levelappropriate reading materials for
independent reading activities
as well as time to read.
2. Use technology such as
CDs, captioned materials, and
interest-based Internet sites that
are known to be motivating.
3. Teach phonemic awareness and
phonics either through structured,
auditory-based programs with
appropriate modifications for oral
students OR through specialized
materials and techniques that
provide visual support (e.g.,
Lindamood Bell, Visual Phonics,
Cued Speech, teacher-developed
visual materials) to students who
sign or need additional visual
4. Teach metacognitive skills
such as reading strategies
(e.g., re-reading, looking at
pictures, predicting, visualizing,
etc.) prior to, during, and after
reading through Guided
Reading activities to promote
text comprehension.
5. Promote reading skill
development through written
language applications such as
dialogue journals, research
reading and writing, language
experience stories, writing to
read, or other language-based
6. Use content area reading
materials to promote reading
comprehension through scaffolding
and other content area techniques.
7. Have students collaborate with
others on activities that promote
literacy development through such
activities as shared reading and
8. Teach vocabulary meaning
through semantic-based
activities that enhance
knowledge of multiple meanings
of words, idiomatic expressions,
and denotation (concrete) and
connotation (abstract) meanings
of words.
9. Teach vocabulary meaning
through morphographemicbased activities that enhance
knowledge of word meaning
through understanding of
root/base words, prefixes,
suffixes, including Latin and
Greek derivatives.
10. Incorporate specific activities
and strategies to promote either
spoken reading fluency in oral
students or signed reading
fluency in signing students.
Learning about Language
Language and literacy development
is intertwined.
Learning to read and write is the
most important language-dependent
task children face.
Most deaf adults become dependent
upon the written word for access to
everyday information and for
informal interactions with hearing
Learning Information through
One of the most important tasks
that a teacher of deaf students
must perform is to provide a
bridge between the student’s
present level of language
understanding and the language
demands of the subjects being
Must understand comparative
as many as
 is taller than
 three times as much as
Math continued
Must understand inferred
Be able to use connector
 If and only if
 Because
 Either…or
Word Problems
Require students to understand
Important versus extraneous
 To understand sequences of
 Inferred relationships inherent in
the problems
Model by Luetke-Stahlman
Represent concepts with
Solve problems in authentic
Provide key words to help
students understand math
processes needed
Steps continued
Help students differentiate
between necessary and
extraneous information
Helps students learn that there
may be some missing
information in a word problem
Relate new concepts/vocabulary
to old or known
Steps continued
Rephrase word problems by
verbally mapping it with another
Consider other forms of
representation including
counters, pictures, graphs, etc.
Help children build a vocabulary
implicitly related to different

Chapter 5