Bartholomew, Charles Lewis. "Cartoon Showing President Grover Cleveland, Carrying Book 'What I Know About Women's Clubs,' Being Chased with an Umbrella by Susan B. Anthony, as Uncle Sam Laughs in Background." Between 1892 and 1896. Prints and Photographs Division, Cartoon Drawings, Library of Congress. * Began in Europe the century before. A. Changed the way goods were produced * Transformed the textile industry. Spinning Jenny * The _________________ invention spun several (8) threads at once. Capitalists 1. New York Merchant Moses Brown a. Hired Englishman Samuel _______ Slater ___________ to build a mill using British ideas. 2. Machinery turned raw cotton into finished cloth. Lowell’s Mill in a. ___________ Massachusetts launched the factory system __________________. b. Described as being a model community. Lowell Girls Eli Whitney 3. Inventor _____________ a. New Technology: i. Created Interchangeable ______________ ______ Parts Speeded gun making and other production Cotton Gin urbanization 1. Known as _______________ * Inner cities – Hub for govt., and spiritual, cultural life. 1. Housing – single family and row 2. Factories – located on outskirts 3. Farms – outlying areas D. 65% 1820s - _____of Americans were farmers A. Innovation Encourages Growth of the Nation 1790 first census – U.S. 1. ______ 4 million. population of nearly ____ 2. By1820 ____ - population increased 10 million. to about ____ 3. Private companies built ____________ turnpikes or ___________. toll roads corduroy * In muddy areas __________ roads were constructed. 1818 the first section of the 4. In _______ _________________ National Road opened. It eventually stretched from Western Maryland to Vandalia, ________. Illinois ___________ 5. Railroads link cities – farmers to markets, passengers too. * Faster transportation improves trade 6. More Efficient Shipping – increases international trade 7. Telegraph improves communication 8. Shift from farming to Industrial based economy. B. New Technology 1. Era of the Steamboat Robert Fulton developed * _______________ a powerful steamboat. 2. Canals – Erie Canal * ______________ linked the Hudson River to Lake ______________ Erie i. Series of locks raised & lowered water level C. Transportation and Daily Life mail delivery to home. 1. 1825 – first _____ Newspapers 2. _______________ available to rural communities - brings national news III. The North’s People A. Northern Factories Manufacturing shifted to mills 1. _______________ and factories. 2. To increase productivity workers 11.4 hours/day. averaged _____ Accidents 3. Attempts to Organize trade unions a. By 1830s ____________ began to form. b. Skilled workers sometimes strikes to improve staged _______ conditions. prejudice discrimination a. Although little slavery in the North – free African Americans lacked equality. * Often barred or segregated in public schools and ______________ public facilities like _________. hospitals b. First African American Newspaper Freedom’s Journal _________________ 10 B. The Rise of Cities 1. Workers migrate to urban areas seeking work/jobs ____________. rivers and lakes grew rapidly. 2. Cities along _____ 3. Immigration 18401860 a. Increased dramatically between _____ 1.5 million arrived from 1. More than ____ Ireland because of the potato_______. famine _______ factories manual 3. The 2nd largest group was from Germany _________. • • Jews Including many _______ seeking religious freedom. 1 million arrived. More than __________ b. Immigrants brought their languages __________ customs, religions and _________________ way of life with them. Nativists • Accused newcomers of bringing crime and disease. • Issues related to poverty. 1820 map of the Missouri Compromise 5. The Know-Nothing Party – called for stricter ___________ citizenship laws. slavery 6. Issue of _______ also divided North and South. A. The Reforming Spirit a. Brought changes to America like religion, politics, education, art and literature _____________________________________ b. Some reformers sought to form utopias but few lasted. ________, Awakening_inspired c. The Second Great ______________ many to do missionary __________ work and participate in _______ reform movements. temperance poverty and crime e. Henry ___________________ David Thoreau who wrote “Civil Disobedience” can be compared to Dr. Martin Luther King _____________________ because both supported peaceful protest of unfair laws. A. The Reforming Spirit public education Horace Mann Horace Mann Millersville University, founded in 1855, started as Lancaster County Normal School. curriculum Normal School Mary Lyon limited ii. Most females had a ______ education. Science Math 1. Few studied ________, History considered and ________ “mens” subjects. b. Higher Education i. ______________ Oberlin College of Ohio admitted women and African Americans. both ________ ii. Mary Lyon opened _____________ Mount Holyoke the first permanent women’s college. Mount Holyoke Thomas Gallaudet visually impaired Thomas Gallaudet Eastern State Penitentiary Dorothea Dix prisoners mentally ill Dorothea Dix C. Culture Trends transcendentalists a. The spirit of reform inspired ________________ who believed in the importance of individual conscience ___________. i. Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Ralph Waldo Emerson led ____________________ others with their writing. b. American Writers Emerge Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the i. ______________________ “Song of Haiwatha” and “Paul Revere’s Ride.” Edgar Allen Poe wrote of the world of ii. _______________ imagination and dreams, for example “The Raven.” Walt Whitman Harriet Beecher Stowe iv. Writer ____________________ wrote the antislavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin _________________. A. Women and Reform 1. The Seneca Falls Convention Lucretia Mott a Quaker, gave a. __________, lectures calling for temperance, peace, ___________________ James & women’s rights, abolition. Lucretia _______________________ Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton b. July 1848 ____ the first women’s rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, NY. “Declaration of Sentiments & Resolutions” * They issued a ____________________ patterned after the “Declaration of Independence.” * It calls for an end to all laws that discriminated against women. ______________ * The most controversial issue was ________. suffrage 2. The Women’s Rights Movement B. Anthony worked for a. Susan ________________ _____________ women’s rights and temperance ___________. pay college * She sought equal ____,______ coeducation training and ____________. b. Women’s suffrage eventually became law in 1920 ____. 1. Opportunities for Education Willard established the a. Emma ____________ Troy________________. Female Seminary 1. They taught subjects like math, _______ ____________ History, geography, and physics ________typically taught to boys. b. Mary Lyon established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, modeled after nearby Amherst College. a. Some states recognized the right of women to own property _______ after their marriage. b. In some states, new laws allowed women to guardianship of their share____________ _________ children with their husbands. c. Indiana was the first state allowing women to seek a divorce from their husband if ________ alcohol they chronically abused ____________. a. Few career choices available – women could become teachers or study elementary ________ _________ medicine or the ________. ministry Elizabeth Blackwell graduated at * ____________ the head of her class to become doctor a _______. Elizabeth Blackwell •Despite many gains, women were limited by social customs and expectations ______________ ____________ of the 1800s.