Bartholomew, Charles Lewis. "Cartoon
Showing President Grover Cleveland,
Carrying Book 'What I Know About Women's
Clubs,' Being Chased with an Umbrella by
Susan B. Anthony, as Uncle Sam Laughs in
Background." Between 1892 and 1896. Prints
and Photographs Division, Cartoon
Drawings, Library of Congress.
* Began in Europe the century before.
A. Changed the way goods were produced
* Transformed the textile industry.
Spinning Jenny
*
The _________________
invention spun several (8)
threads at once.
Capitalists
1. New York Merchant Moses
Brown
a. Hired Englishman Samuel
_______
Slater
___________
to build a mill using British
ideas.
2. Machinery turned raw cotton
into finished cloth.
Lowell’s Mill in
a. ___________
Massachusetts launched the
factory system
__________________.
b. Described as being a model
community.
Lowell Girls
Eli Whitney
3. Inventor _____________
a. New Technology:
i. Created Interchangeable
______________
______
Parts
 Speeded gun
making and other
production
Cotton Gin
urbanization
1. Known as _______________
* Inner cities – Hub for govt., and
spiritual, cultural life.
1. Housing – single family and
row
2. Factories – located on outskirts
3. Farms – outlying areas
D.
65%
1820s - _____of
Americans were
farmers
A. Innovation Encourages Growth of
the Nation
1790 first census – U.S.
1.
______
4 million.
population of nearly ____
2.
By1820
____ - population increased
10 million.
to about ____
3. Private companies built
____________
turnpikes or ___________.
toll roads
corduroy
* In muddy areas __________
roads were constructed.
1818 the first section of the
4. In _______
_________________
National Road opened. It
eventually stretched from Western
Maryland to Vandalia, ________.
Illinois
___________
5. Railroads link cities – farmers
to markets, passengers too.
* Faster transportation
improves trade
6. More Efficient Shipping – increases
international trade
7. Telegraph improves communication
8. Shift from farming to Industrial based
economy.
B. New Technology
1. Era of the Steamboat
Robert Fulton developed
* _______________
a powerful steamboat.
2. Canals –
Erie Canal
* ______________
linked the
Hudson River to Lake
______________
Erie
i. Series of locks raised &
lowered water level
C. Transportation and Daily Life mail delivery to home.
1. 1825 – first _____
Newspapers
2. _______________
available to rural
communities - brings national news
III. The North’s People
A.
Northern Factories
Manufacturing shifted to mills
1. _______________
and factories.
2. To increase productivity workers
11.4 hours/day.
averaged _____
Accidents
3. Attempts to Organize
trade unions
a. By 1830s ____________
began to form.
b. Skilled workers sometimes
strikes to improve
staged _______
conditions.
prejudice
discrimination
a. Although little slavery in
the North – free African
Americans lacked
equality.
* Often barred or
segregated in
public schools and
______________
public facilities like
_________.
hospitals
b. First African American
Newspaper
Freedom’s Journal
_________________
10
B. The Rise of Cities
1. Workers migrate to urban areas seeking
work/jobs
____________.
rivers and lakes grew rapidly.
2. Cities along _____
3. Immigration
18401860
a. Increased dramatically between _____
1.5 million arrived from
1. More than ____
Ireland because of the potato_______.
famine
_______
factories
manual
3. The 2nd largest group
was from Germany
_________.
•
•
Jews
Including many _______
seeking religious freedom.
1 million arrived.
More than __________
b. Immigrants brought their
languages
__________
customs, religions and
_________________
way of life with them.
Nativists
•
Accused newcomers of
bringing crime and disease.
•
Issues related to poverty.
1820 map of the Missouri Compromise
5. The Know-Nothing
Party – called for
stricter
___________
citizenship laws.
slavery
6. Issue of _______
also divided North
and South.
A. The Reforming Spirit
a. Brought changes to America like
religion,
politics, education, art and literature
_____________________________________
b. Some reformers sought to form
utopias but few lasted.
________,
Awakening_inspired
c. The Second Great
______________
many to do missionary
__________ work and participate
in _______
reform movements.
temperance
poverty and crime
e. Henry
___________________
David Thoreau who
wrote “Civil Disobedience”
can be compared to
Dr. Martin Luther King
_____________________
because both
supported
peaceful
protest
of unfair
laws.
A. The Reforming Spirit
public education
Horace Mann
Horace Mann
Millersville
University,
founded in
1855,
started
as
Lancaster
County
Normal
School.
curriculum
Normal School
Mary Lyon
limited
ii. Most females had a ______
education.
Science Math
1. Few studied ________,
History considered
and ________
“mens” subjects.
b. Higher Education
i. ______________
Oberlin College of Ohio admitted
women and African Americans.
both ________
ii. Mary Lyon opened _____________
Mount Holyoke
the first permanent women’s college.
Mount
Holyoke
Thomas Gallaudet
visually impaired
Thomas Gallaudet
Eastern State Penitentiary
Dorothea Dix
prisoners
mentally ill
Dorothea Dix
C. Culture Trends
transcendentalists
a. The spirit of reform inspired ________________
who believed in the importance of individual
conscience
___________.
i. Henry David Thoreau,
Margaret Fuller, and
Ralph
Waldo Emerson led
____________________
others with their writing.
b. American Writers Emerge
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the
i. ______________________
“Song of Haiwatha” and “Paul Revere’s Ride.”
Edgar Allen Poe wrote of the world of
ii. _______________
imagination and dreams, for example “The Raven.”
Walt Whitman
Harriet Beecher Stowe
iv. Writer ____________________
wrote the antislavery novel
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
_________________.
A. Women and Reform
1. The Seneca Falls Convention
Lucretia Mott a Quaker, gave
a. __________,
lectures calling for
temperance,
peace,
___________________
James &
women’s
rights, abolition.
Lucretia
_______________________
Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady
Stanton
b. July 1848
____ the first women’s rights
convention was held in Seneca Falls,
NY.
“Declaration of Sentiments
& Resolutions”
* They issued a ____________________
patterned after the “Declaration of
Independence.”
* It calls for an end to all laws that
discriminated against women.
______________
* The most controversial issue was
________.
suffrage
2. The Women’s Rights Movement
B. Anthony worked for
a. Susan
________________
_____________
women’s
rights and
temperance
___________.
pay college
* She sought equal ____,______
coeducation
training and ____________.
b. Women’s suffrage eventually
became law in 1920
____.
1. Opportunities for Education
Willard established the
a. Emma
____________
Troy________________.
Female Seminary
1. They taught subjects like
math, _______
____________
History, geography,
and
physics
________typically
taught to
boys.
b. Mary Lyon established Mount
Holyoke Female Seminary,
modeled after nearby Amherst
College.
a. Some states recognized the
right of women to own property
_______
after their marriage.
b. In some states, new laws
allowed women to
guardianship of their
share____________
_________
children with their husbands.
c. Indiana was the first state
allowing women to seek a
divorce from their husband if
________
alcohol
they chronically abused
____________.
a. Few career choices available –
women could become
teachers or study
elementary ________
_________
medicine or the ________.
ministry
Elizabeth Blackwell graduated at
* ____________
the head of her class to become
doctor
a _______.
Elizabeth
Blackwell
•Despite many gains, women were limited by
social customs and expectations
______________
____________ of the 1800s.
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