Prototyping
Created by: Amanda Quintanar
October 9, 2001
OP 380
Dr. Tom Foster
Boise State University
1
What will be covered:
• What is Prototyping?
• How can Prototyping be used in
business?
• The nuts and bolts of Prototyping
• How Prototyping works
• An example of how Prototyping is
utilized in business
• Summary
2
An Exercise
Slide 1 of 3
• Close your eyes.
• Imagine a vehicle with four
doors
• Imagine the road you are driving
on
• Imagine the music playing on
the radio
3
An Exercise
Slide 2 of 3
• Of course everyone one of us
imagined a different vehicle
• Everyone of us imagined
different scenery
• Everyone imagined different
music playing
4
An Exercise
Slide 3 of 3
• Prototyping can help everyone
visualize the same end result.
• There is no ambiguity
• Everyone is on the same page
5
What is Prototyping?
Slide 1 of 3
• A prototype, according to Webster’s
dictionary, is “an original model after
which other similar things are
patterned.”
• This definition is “an iterative
approach to design in which a series
of product mock-ups are developed
until the customer and designer
agree on the final design.”
6
What is Prototyping?
Slide 2 of 3
• There are several types of
Prototyping
• (i.e. Rapid Prototyping, Basic
Prototyping, CAD,Paper
Prototype)
• Different industries use different
techniques
7
What is Prototyping?
Slide 3 of 3
• Utilized by virtually every business
• Tool to help businesses stay on top
of the competition in terms of new
products
• Aids companies in developing quality
products by allowing the prototype to
be but through rigorous testing
before production on the product
take s place to ensure that it is
durable and reliable
8
How can Prototyping be
used in business?
Slide 1 of 3
• Virtually every business uses
Prototyping
• A wide range of business use
prototypes from airplane
manufacturers to toy producers to
computer system developers
• Prototypes are one of the most
useful and cost-effective quality
tools businesses have
9
How can Prototyping be
used in business?
Slide 2 of 3
• Prototypes can be a source of
creativity
• Prototypes allow the user to
interact with the product so the
developer can receive feedback.
• Prototyping is not limited to
product development.
• Can also be used as process
development.
10
How can Prototyping be
used in business?
Slide 3 of 3
• Every department can use
prototypes to help them excel
• For example, marketing
departments use prototyping to
determine why consumers buy
products.
11
Benefits of prototyping
Slide 1 of 1
• Allows all departments to be on the
same page
• A model allows them to see, touch,
and handle the product
• Clarifies communication
• Effective project management tool
• Handy at design reviews
G Thomas Clay. “Rapid prototyping accelerates the design process.”
Machine Design, Cleveland; Mar 9, 2000; Vol. 72, Iss. 5; pg. 166, 4
pgs
12
The nuts and bolts of
Prototyping
Slide 1 of 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Planning and goal setting
The design process
Prototype construction
Analyzing the concept
Prototype rollout
Evolution of the design
13
The nuts and bolts of
Prototyping
Slide 2 of 4
There are 6 basic steps to developing
a prototype
1. Planning and goal setting
•
Sets the tone for the rest of the
process
2. The design process
•
Important to pick one distinct
prototype technique and stick with it.
3. Prototype construction
•
Cost and timelines are very important
in this stage
14
The nuts and bolts of
Prototyping
Slide 3 of 4
4. Analyzing the concept
•
•
This is primarily measured by focus
groups and technology
Benchmarking
5. Prototype rollout
•
•
Always have a backup plan
Changes can be made to design as it
becomes apparent which aspects work
and which do not
15
The nuts and bolts of
Prototyping
Slide 4 of 4
6. Evolution of the design
•
•
Communication is essential in this final
stage.
Feedback should be given on the
prototype and suggestions on how to
improve
Anonymous. “Prototypes: From concept to rollout.” Chain Store
Age, New York; May 1999; Vol. 75, Iss. 5; pg. 199, 1 pgs.
16
How Prototyping works
• Several types of Prototypes
• Depending on the
industry/product different
techniques are used
17
How Prototyping works
Basic Prototype
• “Nonworking mockup of the product
that can be reviewed by customers
prior to acceptance.”
• Sometimes these basic prototypes
are used at trade shows
• For example, the auto industry refers
to them as concept cars.
Foster, Dr. Thomas. Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New 18
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
How Prototyping works
Paper Prototypes
• Series of drawings that are created
by the developers that are used to
obtain the acceptance by decision
makers.
• For example, sticky notes are used
when designing Graphical User
Interfaces so users can see the
proposal
Foster, Dr. Thomas. Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
19
How Prototyping works
Rapid Prototyping
• Rapid Prototyping is used to
accelerate the design process
• Leads to high quality, defect
free products and reduces risk
• This technique has proven
essential to market leaders such
as Microsoft, Intel and Cisco
20
How Prototyping works
CAD System and Multi-user CAD
•
•
•
•
•
CAD-computer aided design
Can be used to design anything
Improve ability of designers
Simplify process of prototyping
Reengineered the innovation of
global manufacturers
21
An Example of how Prototyping is
utilized in business :
Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0
Slide 1 of 3
• Behind in the development of an
internet browser
• Started development November 1,
1995
• Made the project a “company –wide
emergency”
• Needed architecture that allowed
parallel development in order to
reach target date
22
An Example of how Prototyping is
utilized in business :
Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0
Slide 2 of 3
• March 1996-Feedback was received
with only 30% of system was
complete
• April 1996-Beta version was
dispersed to general public
• Customers could give input on the
product
• Integration of new features
continued through final weeks
23
An Example of how Prototyping is
utilized in business :
Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0
Slide 3 of 3
• Successful because of the
techniques used developing the
software and “componentizing the
product”
• Obviously, Microsoft was very
successful with this product
• Able to maintain quality standards
Alan MacCormack. “Product-development practices that work: How
Internet companies build software.” MIT Sloan Management
Review, Cambridge; Winter 2001; Vol. 42, Iss. 2; pg. 75, 10 pgs
24
Summary
Slide 1 of 1
• Prototyping allows all
departments and key personnel
to see the same vision
• There are many different
techniques to use
• Six basic steps for whatever the
technique may be
• Great quality tool to utilize
25
Bibliography
Slide 1 of 2
Brian Wansink. “New techniques to generate key marketing insights.”
Marketing Research, Chicago; Summer 2000; Vol. 12, Iss. 2; pg.
28, 9 pgs
Charmaine Jones. “Perfecting the prototype.” Appliance Manufacturer,
Troy; Aug 2001; Vol. 49, Iss. 8; pg. 49, 2 pgs
Donna Mitchell. “Virtual prototyping.” Printed Circuit Design, San
Francisco; Dec 2000; Vol. 17, Iss. 12; pg. 26, 3 pgs
Jim Holt. “Prototype power.” Management Review, New York; Jan 2000;
Vol. 89, Iss. 1; pg. 14, 1 pgs
Tom Mueller. “ Rapid prototyping = risk reduction.” Molding Systems,
Dearborn; Apr 1999; Vol. 57, Iss. 4; pg. 40, 7 pgs
Bill Schweber “Prototyping tools transform design dreams into reality.”
EDN, Boston; May 13, 1999; Vol. 44, Iss. 10; pg. 75, 6 pgs
Alan MacCormack. “Product-development practices that work: How
Internet companies build software.” MIT Sloan Management
Review, Cambridge; Winter 2001; Vol. 42, Iss. 2; pg. 75, 10 pgs
26
Bibliography
Slide 2 of 2
Wilhelm Hasselbring “Programming languages and systems for
prototyping concurrent applications.” ACM Computing Surveys,
Baltimore; Mar 2000; Vol. 32, Iss. 1; pg. 43, 37 pgs
Tom Kelley “Prototyping is the shorthand of innovation.”Design
Management Journal, Boston; Summer 2001; Vol. 12, Iss. 3; pg.
35, 8 pgs
Michael Schrage. “How prototypes can change your business.” Across
the Board, New York; Jan 2000; Vol. 37, Iss. 1; pg. 43, 5 pgs
Anonymous. “Prototypical solutions.”; Chain Store Age, New York; Jul
2001; Vol. 77, Iss. 7; pg. 96, 2 pgs
G Thomas Clay. “Rapid prototyping accelerates the design process.”
Machine Design, Cleveland; Mar 9, 2000; Vol. 72, Iss. 5; pg. 166, 4
pgs
Anonymous. “Prototypes: From concept to rollout.” Chain Store Age,
New York; May 1999; Vol. 75, Iss. 5; pg. 199, 1 pgs.
Foster, Dr. Thomas.Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
27
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