Thoughts from a different planet
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Thoughts from a different planet
(Only slightly different).
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Some activities in parallel worlds.
Some thoughts on metadata and models.
A contextual approach to metadata – 2 examples.
Some thoughts on FRBR.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The nice thing about standards is that there are
so many of them to choose from.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
An appallingly inaccurate summary
of the development
of metadata standards and identifiers
for content and media.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
mid 90’s
1980s
Libraries
Archives
FRBR
MARC
Technology
XML schema
Museums
CIDOC
IMS Education
IIM
LOM
Dublin Core
RDF
OeBF
eBooks
EAN
SAN
uri
url
STANDARDS
Handle
urn
MPEG7
UPC
XrML
ISO codes
DOI
CrossRef
EPICS
MPEG21 RDD/REL
Audiovisual
P/META
UMID
SMPTE
ISAN
GRid
DMCS
ISRC
Audio
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
MI3P
<indecs>
IPDA
IPI
ISMN
MPid
Music
Magazines
PRISM
ISSN
MPEG21
V-ISAN
NITF
Newspapers
NewsML
SCORM
abc
ISO11179
Multimedia
today
ONIX
SICI
ISBN
Journals
Books
BICI
ERMI
ISTC Texts
MWLI
ERMI
CIS CAE
ISWC
Copyright
© Rightscom 2005
MI3P
(Music Industry Integrated Identifiers Project) (www.mi3p.org)
Four year development funded by recording industry (RIAA/IFPI) and copyright
societies (CISAC/BIEM), supported by DSPs (“Digital Service Providers”).
Managed by Rightscom.
Standard to be declared May or June this year.
25+ XML message schemas for
- declaring new digital releases
- declaring rights claims
- declaring deals
- reporting sales
Three new identifiers:
GRID (Global Release ID) (Release = “box” of digital resources)
MWLI (Musical Work License Identifier)
MPID (Mi3p Party ID)
Makes use of ISRC, ISWC, ICPN and any others needed.
Releases may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software – doesn’t
have to include music: so MI3p is a generic multimedia standard.
Ongoing development of many new messages and identifiers.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX (Online Information Exchange) (www.editeur.org)
Five years of message standards for text publishers.
Managed by publishing industry standards body EDItEUR.
Being widely implemented globally – data quality mixed.
Being used a reference model for systems development.
Messages –
ONIX for Books v2.1 (v 3 expected).
ONIX for Serials (SPS – Subscription Products, SOH – Online Holdings) in
development.
ONIX for DOI Registration.
ONIX for Multimedia?
ONIX LicensingTerms Message (first draft April 2005).
A generic licensing terms message, but first implementation (we hope) by journal
publishers and digital libraries (“ONIX/ERMI”).
Onix Products may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software: so
ONIX is a generic multimedia standard.
Ongoing development of many new messages (and identifiers?).
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Why not one multimedia content metadata standard?
Different
Different
Different
Different
starting points.
functional requirements.
levels of granularity for different things.
“views” of reality.
The days of “one size fits all” standards are over.
But domains are now overlapping and becoming “liquid”. MI3P will need
to accommodate ONIX metadata, and vice versa.
The challenge now is interoperability and re-purposing.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Ontologyx (pronounced “onto-logics”)
Ontologyx was formed in 2003 to provide solutions for data
interoperability using contextual semantics.
Its core resource is Ontology_X - an ontology which can include
schemes and terminology from any domain, mapped together
through the use of its Context Model (which is really cool).
Ontology_X is being built to answer the question: how can I preserve
meaning and re-purpose data when combining information from
different data sources, whether internal and external?
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Ontologyx background
<indecs> project (1998-2000) brought music, text, visual and
audiovisual industry groups together to address metadata
interoperability - <indecs> framework resulted.
(The <indecs> project compared notes with Tom Delsey and others
on FRBR and with the CIDOC CRM developers).
MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary 2001-3, backed by consortium
including IFPI/RIAA (recording), MPAA (film), IDF and EDItEUR
(text).
Ontologyx created as a brand of Rightscom in October 2003 to
develop services and IP based on Ontology_X.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
<indecs>
Creation primary types
Generic Metadata Schema
Diagram
Diagram
5 10
Atoms/bits “I made it”
Tangible
Fixation
Abstracted to
Actions “I did it”
Identifiers
include...
ISRC
UMID
DOI
Expression
Fixed in
Identifiers
include...
ISBN
ISSN
UPC/EAN
DOI
SpatioTemporal
Abstracted to
Expressed in
Abstract
Abstraction
Thoughts “I conceived it”
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Identifiers
include...
ISWC
ISAN
PII
DOI
©©Rightscom
2005
Version 2.1
MUZE Inc April
1999
Ontology_X structure
27,000 terms.
c 23,000 of them are “Relators”.
It is half a million “triple” statements (everything is a relationship).
Can be expressed in different schemas and languages (eg SQL, RDF
and OWL) but has its own underlying “neutral” syntax.
Has a dozen ontologies mapped within it (some under
development) including MI3P, ONIX, MPEG21 RDD and (a draft)
MARC21 ontology.
All terms in each mapped scheme have an “IsSameAs” counterpart
in Ontology_X, so it grows as an “ontology of ontologies”.
All triples are “asserted” by at least one authority but can be
asserted or denied by any number of authorities (“who sez?”).
Ontology_X can support conflicting world views. It is a deeply
postmodern ontology.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Ontology_X use
Supports the MI3P and ONIX message developments, the IDF
metadata profiles and will support the MPEG-21 Rights Data
Dictionary.
Used as a basis for systems design by commercial clients – several
initial implementations under way (it’s early days yet…).
Ontology_X includes schemas as well as simple term heirarchies. It
can contain (for example) the complete specification for MARC21,
including all syntactic components.
But it is a very polite ontology and keeps itself quietly out of the
way while the message standards get the public attention.
Two projects in 2005 have brought us into the library domain:
- ONIX LicensingTerms Message
- JISC “TIME” project – eBook Metadata Testbed – transformation
of eBook metadata between MARC21, ONIX, Dublin Core (and
LOM?) schemes. Completing December 2005.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Metadata is a set of relationships.
2
1
HasAuthor
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Metadata is a set of relationships.
2
1
HasAuthor
HasTitle
IsPriceOf
HasDescription
HasForeword
IsColorOf
IsPlaceOfCreationOf
IsAdaptationOf
HasDateOfPublication
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Metadata is a set of relationships.
1
2
HasAuthor
HasTitle
IsPriceOf
HasDescription
HasForeword
IsColorOf
IsPlaceOfCreationOf
IsAdaptationOf
HasDateOfPublication
HasDateOfPublicationInGermany
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Metadata is a set of relationships.
1
2
HasAuthor
HasTitle
IsPriceOf
HasDescription
HasForeword
IsColorOf
IsPlaceOfCreationOf
IsAdaptationOf
HasDateOfPublication
HasDateOfPublicationInGermany
HasSmallTextualBitAtTheBeginningWhichMayOrMayNotBeWrittenBySomeoneElse
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Metadata is a point of view.
2
1
HasAuthor
2
1
IsAuthorOf
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Some things don’t matter too much to some people.
So they get names rather than identifiers.
1 HasAuthor: John Smith
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Some things don’t matter too much to some people.
So they get names rather than identifiers.
1 HasAuthor: John Smith
Don’t let that fool you.
Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming
committed relationships.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Some things don’t matter too much to some people.
So they get names rather than identifiers.
1 HasAuthor: John Smith
Don’t let that fool you.
Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming
committed relationships.
Keep an eye on the underlying data model.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The universal data model.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The universal data model.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model
0-n
Resource
An Entity in a Context
playing a role other than
that of Time or Place.
Relator
The characteristic activity
or state of a Context
This is expressed through the
underlying Context Model to
which all terms are related.
An intersection of
time and place.
Verb
Context
Relator
1-n
Time
A point or portion of time
which forms a temporal
parameter of a Context.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Relator
A Term which describes the
nature of a relationship
between one entity and
another.
Place
Ontologyx™ semantics are
based on the principle that
meaning is derived from the
specific roles which entities
play in events.
1-n
These are the primitive
elements of the ontology.
Contexts are of two kinds:
Events in which (or as a result
of which) something changes,
and States, in which they
don’t.
A point or portion of threedimensional or virtual space
which forms a spatial parameter
of a Context.
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model
Contexts can deal with any kind of activity or state
eg
Originate
Pay
Copy
Transform
Digitize
Delete
Agree
Publish
Prohibit
Record
Commission
Aggregate
EditJPG
IssueInvoiceType99
RunProgram123
CropRectangularBitmapImage
FilmWithCameraType12345
DistributeInGermanyOnWednesdays
DanceWithNeighborWithGreenHat
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Create
Conceive
CreatePerceivableOutput
Express
Perform
These verbs are
Fix
organized into an
Say
Write
ontological hierarchy
Speak
ExpressAbout
Assert
Permit
Prohibit
Require
Deny
Agree
Declare
Ascribe
MakeBinaryRelationship
Specialize
Classify
SpecializeContextualClass
SpecializeRelator
Partition
NB
Represent
This is an
Nominate
illustrative subset
Identify
of the OntologyX
“Family Tree”
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model
An Adaptation event
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
Adapt
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model
An Adaptation event
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
IsAdaptorInContext
#2 IsAdaptorInContext #1
#1
Adapt
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#1 IsContextOfAdaptor #2
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model
An Adaptation event
IsAdaptedBy
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#3 IsAdaptedBy #2
#1
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#2 IsAdaptorOf #3
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model – Family Relational View
All possible statements about the simplest Adaptation event
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
#6
Place of
Adapting
#1 icoAdaptor #2
#1 icoAdaptation #3
#1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4
#1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5
#1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6
#2 IsAdaptorInContext #1
#3 IsAdaptationInContext #1
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1
#2 IsAdaptorOf #3
#3 IsAdaptedBy #2
#2 IsAdaptorFrom #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2
#2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2
#2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2
#3 IsAdaptedFrom #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3
#3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3
#3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5 © Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Context Model – Family Relational View
Adaptor
#2
#5
Time of
Adapting
Time
The statements map
#1 icoAdaptor #2
#1 icoAdaptation #3
#1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4
Adaptation
#1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5
LastChanged
#1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6
#3
#2 IsAdaptorInContext #1
Source of
#3 IsAdaptationInContext #1
Adaptation
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1
#4
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1
#2 IsAdaptorOf #3
TerritoryOfUse
#3 IsAdaptedBy #2
#1
#2 IsAdaptorFrom #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2
Adapting
EditedBy
#2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5
Event
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2
#2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6
IsVersionOf
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2
#3 IsAdaptedFrom #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3
#6
Modified
#3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5
Place of
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3
Adapting
#3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4
#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4
to commonplace descriptive semantics
#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6
#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5 © Rightscom 2005
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
The Ontologyx Contextual transformation
Each Context has two “views” –
the contextual view…
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Contextual transformation
Each Context has two “views” –
the contextual view…and the
relational view.
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Contextual transformation
An Adaptation event
Each Context has two “views” –
the contextual view…and the
relational view.
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
The relationship between the two
provides the basis of Ontologyx
transformation capability
(“contextual transformation”).
Adapting
Event
#5
Time of
Adapting
#6
Place of
Adapting
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Contextual transformation
An Adaptation event
Statements like this made in the
relational view:
Adaptation
#3
Adaptor
Source of
Adaptation
#2
#4
#1
Time of
Adapting
X AdaptedFrom Y
X TimeOfCreation 1996
X MadeIn London
Adapting
Event
#5
X MadeBy John Smith
means that there was an event Z
like this (shown in the contextual
view):
#6
Place of
Adapting
Z icoAdapter John Smith
Z icoAdaptation X
Z icoSourceOfAdaptation Y
Time
Z icoTimeOfAdaptation 1996
Z icoPlaceOfAdaptation London
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
The Ontologyx Contextual transformation
Simple transformation example…
Contextual semantics
Recording Session 1 Resource
Songs (1) Someday (2) Never
Producer Bill Brown
Engineer Jim Scarlett
StartTime 2004-06-27 14:30
EndTime 2004-06-27 16:20
Place Clapham Studios A
Vocal Sue White
Verb Vocal Ian Green
Backing
Keyboards Bert Blue
Recording Session 2
Songs (1) Someday (2) Anyday
Producer Bill Brown
Engineer Ann Pink
StartTime 2004-06-28 10:30
EndTime 2004-06-28 13:55
Place Clapham Studios B
Vocal Sue White
Time
Keyboards Sally Plum
Flute Ian Green
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Song: Someday
Resource semantics
Producer Bill Brown
Engineer Jim Scarlett, Ann Pink
Vocal Sue White
Backing Vocal Ian Green
Keyboards Bert Blue
Recorded 27-28 June 2004
Recorded at Clapham Studios A,
Clapham Studios B
Song: Never
Producer Bill Brown
Engineer Jim Scarlett
Vocal Sue White
Backing Vocal Ian Green
Keyboards Bert Blue
Recorded 27 June 2004
Recorded at Clapham Studios A
Song: Anyday
Producer Bill Brown
Engineers Ann Pink
Vocal Sue White
Flute Ian Green
Keyboards Sally Plum
Recorded 28 June 2004
Recorded at Clapham Studios B
Contextual
transformation
can be carried
out to any
level of
complexity
and
granularity
© Rightscom 2005
COA (“Contextual Ontologyx Architecture”) Framework
The COA Framework is an “ontology starter pack”: a basic ontology which provides a complete Semantic
framework within which all data elements can be placed. All Ontologyx client ontologies are based on this.
Attribute Types
(All entities may have
these)
Element Classes (Context Model)
(“strings”)
Descriptor
Name
Identifier
Annotation
(“controlled
values”)
Category
Class
Characteristic
Quantity
Quality
TruthFlag
(“bags”)
Composite
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
(All entities belong to one of these)
Key Relators
(“parent/child”)
IsSubClassOf
IsSubRelatorOf
Agent
Resource
(“class/instance”)
IsA
(“equivalence”)
IsSameAs
IsSubstitutableFor
Context
(“part/whole”)
IsPartOf
(“reverse links”)
IsReciprocalOf
Time
Place
(“type/value”)
IsOneOf
(“representation”)
HasValue
HasElement
HasDatatype
HasCardinality
© Rightscom 2005
Contextual approach to licensing and rights metadata
The ERMI problem: how to deconstruct things like this…
The right to use licensed materials in collections or compilations of materials
assembled in a print format by faculty members for use by students in a class for
purposes of instruction
Or this…
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same
country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the
Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or
otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial
Use.]
Or this…
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same
country as the Licensee}(whether by post or fax [or secure transmission, using Ariel or
its equivalent, whereby the electronic file is deleted immediately after printing]), for the
purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use, a single paper copy
of an electronic original of an individual document being part of the Licensed
Materials.]
and reconstruct them into something a computer can deal with.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Contextual approach to licensing terms
Licensing
Event
Permits (MAY)
Prohibits (MUST NOT)
Requires (MUST)
1-n
Usage
Has
Exception
0-n
Usage
Has
Condition
0-n
Payment
Activity
Report
This structure allows for whatever level of flexibility or
granularity may be required now or in the future.
etc
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX
Usage
Composite
structure
Usages
<UsedResource> (1-n)
<UsageParty> (1-n)
Party
<PartyRole> (1-n)
Resource
<Tool> (0-n)
<Medium> (0-n)
<OtherResource> (0-n)
Use
Act
Time
<UsageTime> (0-n)
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
<Exception> (0-n)
<Condition> (0-n)
<ChainedUsage> (0-n)
Place
<UsagePlace> (0-n)
© Rightscom 2005
Usages
Allowed
values
Party
<PartyRole> (1-n)
Resource
Use
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
10 basic uses
Search
Acquire
Access
Possess
Include
Record
Derive
Provide
Relate
Destroy
Place
© Rightscom 2005
Usages
Allowed
values
Party
<PartyRole> (1-n)
Resource
Use
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Place
10 basic uses
Search
Acquire
Access
Possess
Include
Record
Derive
Provide
Relate
Destroy
Each of
these uses
has different
specialized
“children”
Copy
eCopy
CopyPart
Adapt
AdaptText
Translate
Transform
etc
© Rightscom 2005
Usages
Allowed
values
Party
<PartyRole> (1-n)
Resource
Use
Time
Place
10 basic uses
Search
Acquire
Access
Possess
Include
Record
Derive
Provide
Relate
Destroy
Each of
these uses
has different
specialized
“children”
Copy
eCopy
CopyPart
Adapt
AdaptText
Translate
Transform
etc
You can go as far as you like with verbs…
“ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother
LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess”
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Usages
Party
<PartyRole> (1-n)
Resource
Use
Time
Place
10 basic uses
Search
Acquire
Access
Possess
Include
Record
Derive
Provide
Relate
Destroy
Each of
these uses
has different
specialized
“children”
Copy
eCopy
CopyPart
Adapt
AdaptText
Translate
Transform
etc
You can go as far as you like with verbs…
“ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother
LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess”
…but better to keep the verb simple and look at the other variables in the event.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
ERMI modelling at present
Complex element: Permission
• Permitted Use: ILL
• Method: Print or Fax
• Constraint: Record-keeping required
This slide adapted from
ERMI presentation
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
Usages
ERMI Usage
example in ONIX
model
<Medium> Fax, Post
Party
<UseType> ILL
Resource
Use
Act
Time
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
<Condition>
Record Keeping
Place
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
3
3
2
2
1
1
Resource
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
Place
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{P1}AcademicLibrary
3
3
2
2
1
1
Resource
Party
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
Place
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{P1}AcademicLibrary
3
3
2
2
1
1
Resource
Party
Resource
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P1}Provide
Place
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{R1}DigitalResource
{P1}AcademicLibrary
Resource
{R2}PartCopyOf{P1}
Party
Resource
3
3
2
2
1
1
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P1}Provide
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{R1}DigitalResource
{P1}AcademicLibrary
Resource
{R2}PartCopyOf{P1}
Party
Resource
{P1}Provide
Place
3
3
2
2
1
1
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P2}
Access,
Possess
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
{P2}
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{R1}DigitalResource
{P1}AcademicLibrary
Resource
{R2}PartCopyOf{P1}
Party
Resource
{P1}Provide
Place
3
3
2
2
1
1
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P2}
Access, Purpose>
Possess NonCommercialUse
Time
Party
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
{P2}
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{R1}DigitalResource
{P1}AcademicLibrary
Resource
{R2}PartCopyOf{P1}
Party
Resource
{P1}Provide
3
3
2
2
1
1
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P2}
Access, Purpose>
Possess NonCommercialUse
Place
Time
Party
{P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3}
{P3}AcademicLibrary
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
{P2}
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
ONIX Message Usage Model examples
InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27)
{R1}DigitalResource
{P1}AcademicLibrary
Resource
{R2}PartCopyOf{P1}
Party
Resource
{P1}HasPlace
OfPremises{L1}
Place
{P1}Provide
3
3
2
2
1
1
Verbs
Parties
Resources
Usages
Purpose
Place
{R2}DigitalResource,
Printed Resource
{P2}
Access, Purpose>
Possess NonCommercialUse
{L1}Country
Time
{P3}HasPlace
OfPremises{L1}
Party
{P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3}
{P3}AcademicLibrary
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
Party
{P2}
[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b)
[The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within
the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being
part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the
Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not
for Commercial Use.]
© Rightscom 2005
The value of ontologies
An ontology provides the semantic building blocks for a data model
or implementation model.
It can also provide tools for managing allowed values and mapping
data from different schemes.
Dublin Core is an example of a metadata scheme without an
ontology. There is no clear model of the relationships between its
terms. This has made consistent implementation problematic and
limited the potential of DC.
FRBR would benefit from an ontology, especially with the emphasis
being placed on relationships.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
FRBR thoughts from a slightly different planet…
The FRBR systems you are designing now will be mainstream in
several years time. Is your world going to get simpler or more
complex? Can you predict the functional requirements you will have
for 2010 or 2015? If not, then focus on the underlying flexibility of
the model. Settle the model and put the change management into
an ontology.
Use what is useful in other people’s standards and metadata, and
find ways of helping them make them better so that you can get
more benefit.
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
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Things should be as simple as possible, but not simpler.
(Einstein)
Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005
© Rightscom 2005
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Slide 1