Today, A Gameboy for $50, has
more computing power than a
Cray supercomputer of only 25
years ago.
• Tom Peters
Circle of Innovation
1
Information Technology
in the Digital Age
Chapters 3, 4, & 6
2
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
3
Chapter Objectives
• Identify the major types, trends, and uses
of computer systems.
• Outline the major technologies and uses
of computer peripherals for input, output,
and storage.
• Provide examples of the business value
of Internet, intranet, and extranet
applications.
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Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
4
Chapter Objectives
• Describe several important trends
occurring in computer software.
• Give examples of several major types of
application and system software.
• Explain the purpose of several popular
software packages for end user
productivity and collaborative computing.
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Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
5
Chapter Objectives
• Identify several major developments and
trends in the industries, technologies,
and business applications of
telecommunications and Internet
technologies.
• Identify the basic components, functions,
and types of telecommunications
networks used in business.
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Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Digital Economy
 The digital economy
refers to an economy that
is based on digital
technologies, including
digital communication
networks, computers, and
software.
 The digital economy is
also sometimes called the
Internet economy, the
New economy, or the
Web economy.
6
IT Architecture
Although there is always a need
for improved technology, the
critical resource is intelligent
resourceful people who can relate
business needs to technology.
James J. O’Connor
8
Electronic Framework
9
Information Architecture

Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the
information requirements in an organization.

In preparing information architecture, the designer requires
two kinds of information:
1.
2.
The business needs of the organization—that is, its objectives and
problems, and the contribution that IT can make.
The information systems that already exist in an organization and how
they can be combined among themselves or with future systems to
support the organization’s information needs.
10
Architecture Example’s
 APU’s Enterprise Architecture
 APU’s Information Architecture
11
Components of Information Systems
 Hardware is a set of devices
such as processor, monitor,
keyboard, and printer.
 Network is a connecting
system that permits the sharing
of resources between
computers.
 Software is a set of
programs that enable the
hardware to process data.
 Procedures are the set of
instructions about how to
combine the above
components.
 Database is a collection of
related files, tables, relations,
and so on, that stores data.
 People are those individuals
who work with the system or
use its output.
12
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
13
Computer System Components
Central Processing Unit
Input
Devices
Control
Unit
ALU
Output
Output
Devices
Devices
Special
Primary
Cache
Purpose
Memory Storage
Processors
Secondary
Storage
Devices
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Computers
 Supercomputer
 Main Frame
 Mini Computer
 Microcomputers / PC’s
14
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
15
Microcomputer Systems
• Handheld Computers
– PDA, Information
Appliances
•
•
•
•
•
Notebook Computers
Desktop Computers
Workstations
SMART Cards
Network Server
– Powerful microcomputer
used in small LANs
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
16
Name Common Input Devices ??
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
17
Common Input Devices
•
•
•
•
•
•
Keyboard
Pointing Devices
Pen Based Computing
Speech Recognition
Optical Scanning
Magnetic Ink Character
Recognition
• Smart Cards
• Digital Cameras
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
18
Input Technology Trends
First
Second
Third
Generation Generation Generation
Punched
Cards
Paper Tape
Punched
Cards
Key to Tape/
Disk
Fourth
Generation
Fifth
Generation
Keyboard Data
Entry
Pointing Devices
Optical Scanning
Voice
Recognition
Touch Devices
Handwriting
Recognition
Trend: Towards Direct Input Devices that Are More Natural
and Easy to Use
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Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
19
Name Common Output Devices??
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
20
Common Output Devices
• Video Output
– CRT
– LCD
• Printed Output
– Inkjet
– Laser
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Communications Media
Audio




Tape/cassette/record/CD/DVD
Teleconference / Audio conference
Sound digitizing
Microphone
Graphic materials
 Pictures
 Printed job aids
 Visual Displays
Text
 Printouts
Computer
 Digital video interactive
 Compact disc interactive
 Computer simulation
Motion / Still image






Slides / Overheads
Videodisc (cassette)
Motion pictures
Broadcast television
Teleconference/videoconference
Animation & Virtual Reality
21
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
22
Output Technology Trends
First
Generation
Punched Cards
Printed Reports
and Documents
Second
Generation
Punched Cards
Printed Reports
and Documents
Third
Generation
Fourth
Generation
Fifth
Generation
Printed Reports
and Documents
Video Displays
Video Displays
Video Displays
Voice Responses
Audio Responses
Hyperlinked
Printed Reports
Multimedia
and Documents
Documents
Trend: Towards Output Methods that Communicate Naturally,
Quickly, and Clearly
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Emerging Display's
OLED – Organic lightemitting diods
23
James A. O’Brien
Eleventh Edition
Introduction to Information Systems
24
Primary & Secondary Storage Media
Semiconductor
Memory
Magnetic
Disks
Floppy Disk
Hard Disk, RAID
Magnetic Tape
Optical Disks
CD-ROM, CD-R
CD-RW
DVD
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Direct
Access
Sequential
Access
Direct
Access
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
25
Basic Components in a Telecommunications Network
1
Telecommunications
Processors
4
3
5
Telecommunications
Software
2
PCs, NCs,
and Other
Terminals
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2
Telecommunications
Channels and Media
Computers
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wire vs. Wireless Media
Wire
 Twisted pair wire
 Coaxial cable
 Fiber optic cable
Wireless
 Cellular radio
 Microwave transmission
 Satellite transmission

Global positioning system
 Radio & Infrared light
 Bluetooth
26
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
27
Telecommunications Strategic Capabilities
Overcome Geographic Barriers: Capture information about
business transactions from remote locations.
Overcome Time Barriers: Provide information to remote locations
immediately after it is requested.
Overcome Cost Barriers: Reduce the cost of more traditional
means of communications. – Centralized Management
Overcome Structural Barriers: Support linkages for competitive
advantage.
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Why Networks
• Need to share data, software, and
hardware
• Centralized management
• Share access to outside sources
28
Networks
 WAN
 LAN
 PAN
 VPN
29
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
30
Local Area Networks
PC
PC
PC
Shared
Database and
Software Packages
Network
Server
Shared
Printer
PC
PC
Internetwork Processor to Other Networks
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WAN’s
 Network which extends geographical
boundaries - distance
 Network which joins remote networks
– use of 3rd party vendors
 Network which extends existing
resources
 Change of protocols
31
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
32
Wide Area Networks
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
33
Other E-business Networks
The
Internet
Router
Extranet
Fire wall
Intranet
Server
Fire wall
Router
Intranet
Server
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Host System
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
LAN vs WAN
34
Equipment
 Repeaters
 Bridges (DSU/CSU)
 Routers
 Hubs / Switches
 Interface Cards (NIC)
35
Connectivity Technologies
Connectivity Services




POTS
xDSL
ISDN
Cable Modem
 Frame Relay
 Dedicated
 ATM
Connectivity Speeds







56 Kbps
T1 – 1.544 Mbps
T3 – 43.232 Mbps
OC3 – 155 Mbps
OC12 – 622 Mbps
OC48 – 2.5 Gbit
OC192 – 9.6 Gbit
36
Topology
 The topology of a network is the physical
layout and connectivity of a network.

Ring topology

Bus topology

Star network
37
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
38
Network Topologies
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
WebHog
39
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
40
The Internet’s TCP/IP
Application
Layer
Presentation
Layer
Application or
Process Layer
Session
Layer
Host-to-Host Transport Layer
Transport
Layer
Internet Protocol (IP)
Network
Layer
Network Interface
Data Link
Layer
Physical Layer
Physical
Layer
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Types of Software
 Application software - set of computer instructions that directs
computer hardware to perform specific processing activities.


General Purpose
Specific
 Systems software - controls and supports the computer hardware
and its information processing activities between hardware and
applications.



System control programs
System support programs
System development programs
41
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
43
Categories of Computer Software
Computer
Software
System
Software
Application
Software
GeneralPurpose
Programs
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ApplicationSpecific
Programs
System
Management
Programs
System
Development
Programs
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
44
Common General Purpose Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electronic Mail
Word Processing
Presentation Graphics
Multimedia
Personal Information Manager
Groupware
Presence Awareness (IM)
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
45
Web Browsers
Discussion
Groups
Surf the Net
Launch
Information
Searches
Typical uses of a Web
Browser in Internet,
Intranet, and Extranet
Environments
Multimedia
File
Transfer
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
E-Mail
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Database Management Systems
 The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a
database is known as a database management system
(DBMS).
 There are many specialized databases, depending on the type or
format of data stored.
 A geographical information database
 A knowledge database
 A multimedia database
48
James A. O’Brien
Eleventh Edition
Introduction to Information Systems
50
Multimedia Technologies
Video Capture
Card
Authoring
Language
Compact Disk
Interactive
Storyboard
Sound Board
Key
Technologies
of
Multimedia
MIDI
Interactive
Video
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Digital Video
Interactive
Compressed
Audio
Computer
Edit System
Digital Audio
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
52
Internet Applications
Download and
Computer
Surf and
E-mail
E-Commerce
Internet Chat
and
Discussion Forums
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Popular Uses
of the
Internet
Transfer
Protocol (FTP)
and Telnet
Search Engines
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
53
Categories of Programming Languages
Machine Languages High Level Languages Markup Languages
Use binary coded
Use brief statements
Use embedded
instructions
control codes
1001 1001
<H1>First heading</H>
Compute X = Y + Z
<!ELEMENT Product
1100 1101
(#Item | manuf)>
Assembler Languages Fourth Generation
Object-Oriented
Use symbolic coded Languages
Languages
Use natural statements Define objects that
instructions
LOD Y
ADD Z
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS
contain data and actions
Document.write
(“Hi There”)
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Internet Oriented Languages
 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard
language the Web uses for creating and recognizing
hypermedia documents.


Hypertext (hyperlinks.)
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
 Dynamic HTML makes Web pages more like dynamic
applications and less like static content.
 XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a language for defining,
validating and sharing document formats.
 Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a file format for
describing three-dimensional interactive worlds and objects.
54
Internet Oriented Languages (cont.)
 Java is an object-oriented programming language that gives
programmers the ability to develop applications that work across the
Internet.
 JavaScript. is an object-oriented scripting language that allows users
to add some interactivity to their Web pages.
 ActiveX is a set of technologies that combines different
programming languages into a single, integrated Web site.
 ASP (Active Server Pages) is a Microsoft CGI-like technology that
allows you to create dynamically generated Web pages from the
server side using a scripting language.
 PHP
55
Corporate Portals
 A corporate portal refers to a company’s Web site that is used
as a gateway to the corporate data, information, and
knowledge. (Single Point of Entrance)









Knowledge bases and learning tools
Business process support
Customer-facing sales, marketing, and service
Collaboration and project support
Access to data from disparate corporate systems
Internal company information
Policies and procedures
Best practices and lessons learned
Human resources and benefits
57
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
58
Chapter Summary
• A computer system is a system of information
processing components that perform input,
processing, output, storage and control functions.
• Types of computers
• Peripheral devices used for input and output
come in a variety shape and sizes. Future trends
are towards devices that communicate naturally
and are quick and easier to use.
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Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
59
Chapter Summary (cont)
• Computer software consists of two major types
of programs: application software and system
software.
• There are several basic types of telecomm
networks, including wide area networks (WANs)
and local area networks (LANs).
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James A. O’Brien
Introduction to Information Systems
Eleventh Edition
60
Chapter Summary
• Organizations are becoming internetworked
enterprises that use the Internet, intranets, and
other telecommunications networks to support ebusiness.
• Telecommunications has entered a deregulated
and fiercely competitive environment with many
vendors, carriers, and services
• A major trend is towards pervasive use of the
Internet and its technologies to build
interconnected enterprise and global networks.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © 2002, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Chapter 3: Computer Hardware