Efficient Development
through SCORM
Standards
Paul F. Merrill
Michael D. Bush
Thor Anderson
http://id2scorm.byu.edu/scorm.ppt
Purpose
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Enhancing the reusability of our instructional
products
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Courses
Syllabi
Lectures
Presentations
Handouts
Java Applets
Simulations
Multimedia
Multimedia
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Graphics
Pictures
Charts
Diagrams
Animations
Video Clips
Audio Clips
Affluent Throw-away Society
"We're reminded a hundred
times a day to buy things, but
we're not reminded to take
care of them, repair them,
reuse them, or give them
away."
Michael Jacobson, Center for the Study of Commercialism
We need to find better ways to
reuse share, and recycle our
instructional products
Or at least many
components thereof!
Examples of the Problem
Examples of the Problem
Examples of Problem
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Obsolete
Programming
Languages
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APL
Applesoft Basic
Pascal
Logo
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procedure convert;
var
fTemp : integer;
cTemp : real;
begin
space;
write('Enter the Fahrenheit
temperature: ');
readln(fTemp);
cTemp := (5 / 9) * (fTemp - 32);
space;
writeln(' Celsius is ', round(cTemp) : 1);
end;
Examples of Problem
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Obsolete Authoring
Systems
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Coursewriter
IconAuthor
Examples of the Problem
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Obsolete Versions
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Course of Action
Authorware
Examples of the Problem
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CBI course on APL
Examples of the Problem
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Obsolete Hardware
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Apple IIe
Amiga
Videodisc
SyQuest Removable
Cartridges
NeXT Magneto-Optical
Discs
Examples of the Problem
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Future obsolescence?
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Blackboard
WebCT
Jupiter
Flash
Visual Basic
JavaScript
iShell
Sources of Obsolescence
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Business viability
Proprietary binary formats
Versions of interpreter
???
Goals
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Reusable
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Accessible
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Can be easily found (by a search engine) for reuse
by learners or developers (Discoverability)
Interoperable
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Can be easily reused by a variety of tools
Can by used by a variety of platforms, hardware,
browsers, tools, etc.
Durable
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Can be reused with no or minimal modifications
with new technology (hardware & software).
Possible Applications
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Accessible electronic instructional product
repository (Digital library)
Independent instructional modules (SCO:
Sharable Content Objects)
Cataloging of instructional modules or SCOs and
content assets (Use of metadata)
Use of international standards for instructional
products (SCORM).
Separation of content, presentation and
interaction (Development productivity)
Importance of Standards
Examples of Standards
Examples of Standards
Other Examples
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???
SCORM
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Sharable Content Object Reference Model
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
initiative (1995)
Suite of technical standard specifications
or guidelines to enable the sharing and
reuse of course content
What is SCORM?
A suite of standards or standard practices
that is a composite, made up of what are
often adaptations or extensions to
standards that originated from other
standards or specifications organizations.
Where do these standards come from?
Key Working Affiliations
IMS
CANCORE
ADL
JISC/CETIS
Co-Lab
OKI/MIT
OCLC
SIF
MERLOT
IEEE/LTSC
EDUCAUSE/NLII
NCAM
DEST/IMS
Australia
Singapore
Mexico
Thor Anderson, IMS
Where do standards come from?
Progression of ideas to standards
R&D
Concepts
User
Needs
SIF
W3C
oclc
Spec
Consortia
CEN/ISS
Programs
Testbeds,
Markets
Specifications,
Best Practice
New Products,
Pilot Programs,
Testbeds
Standards
Bodies
Technical
Trends
COLIS
IMS
Accredited
Standards
Sources of SCORM Standards
XML
eXtensible Markup Language
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<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>List of Books</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1>List of Books</H1>
<HR><BR>
<B>Title </B>Learning Perl
<BR><B>Authors </B>Schwartz & Christiansen
<BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-94-7
<BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
<BR><BR><BR>
<B>Title </B>Programming Perl
<BR><B>Authors </B>Wall, Christiansen & Schwartz
<BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-97-1
<BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
</BODY>
</HTML>
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<?xml version="1.0"?>
<listofbooks>
<book>
<title>Learning Perl</title>
<authors>
<author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
<author>Tom Christiansen</author>
</authors>
<isbn>1-861002-94-7</isbn>
<price currency="USD">39.99</price>
</book>
<book>
<title>Programming Perl</title>
<authors>
<author>Larry Wall</author>
<author>Tom Christiansen</author>
<author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
</authors>
<isbn>1-861002-97-1</isbn>
<price currency="USD">45.98</price>
</book>
</listofbooks>
SCORM Standards
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Content Packaging
Communication between course & Learning
Management System (LMS)
Course & student metadata
SCORM Content Packaging
Standard
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Content files should be placed in a single
directory with possible sub-directories
The course, its content and navigation
structure should be described with a special
file in XML format located in the top-level
directory named: “imsmanifest.xml.”
SCORM Manifest File
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Course metadata
Course sequencing or navigation
structure
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SCO metadata
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Assets or resources metadata
Sample Manifest Files
Generic Manifest File
VAD Manifest File
Runtime System API
The Future: Representing Content
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General: From media to learning
Specific: Video Asset Description
Demonstrations
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French CD
French CD to XML
Current Examples
QTI Examples
Learning Objects?
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Media Objects
Knowledge Objects
Learning Objects
Course Objects
Instructional Components
LEARNING OBJECTS
KNOWLEDGE
OBJECTS
STRATEGY
OBJECTS
MEDIA OBJECTS
From M. David Merrill
Components of a knowledge object
NAME
DESCRIPTION
PORTRAYAL
From M. David Merrill
And Dorling-Kindersley
Examples of Reusability
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Display
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Functionality
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Monitor vs. PDA
Instruction vs.
Assessment
Resources
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ID2SCORM Conference Web site
Learning Objects, Knowledge Objects and
Mental Models, M. David Merrill
Educational Technology article
VAD development Web site
CVP paper submitted to IEEE MultiMedia
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