CHAPTER
5
Organized Data
and Information
Data
• Data
– A necessity for almost any enterprise to carry out
its business. Consists of raw facts, and when
organized may be transformed into information.
• Database
• A collection of data organized to meet users’
needs
Data Management
• In order to manage data it must be organized.
• It is organized in a hierarchy.
The Hierarchy of Data
Database
Checking Account Files
Savings Account Files
Loan Account Files
Files (TABLES)
27439, Smith, Joe, 453.21, 1-3-98
34278, Watt, Carol, 212.54, 2-6-99
43872, Yos, Tom, 3224.87, 3-8-97
Records
27439, Smith, Joe, 453.21, 1-3-98
Fields
Characters
Smith (Last Name)
(S = 01010011 in ASCII)
The Hierarchy of Data
Database
A collection of integrated and
related files.
File
A collection of related records.
Record
A collection of related fields.
Field
A group of characters.
Character
Basic building block of information,
represented by a byte.
How Characters are Stored
Codes for Storing Data
ASCII
• American Standard Code for Information
Interchange.
• 8 bit code. (256 characters can be represented).
• In the early years of computers, it was the most
popular code but it was limited to how many
characters it could represent. ASCII is still very
much used today but it has be extended from 8 bits
to 16 bits. With 16 bits, over 65,536characters can
be represented.
How Characters are Stored
Codes for Storing Data
Character
A
B
...
Z
0
1
...
9
ASCII
01000001
01000010
01011010
00110000
00110001
00111001
How Characters are Stored
Codes for Storing Data
UNICODE
• UNICODE: Universal Code.
• Today, it is the most popular code.
• Used by most computer manufactures.
• 16 bit code. (65,536 characters can be represented)
• A 16 bit code will allow for other languages to
be represented in the code, not just English.
How Characters are Stored
Codes for Storing Data
Character
A
B
...
Z
0
1
...
9
UNICODE
0000000001000001
0000000001000010
0000000001011010
0000000000110000
0000000000110001
0000000000111001
The Traditional Approach to Data Management
Data Files
Application
Program
Reports
• The Traditional Approach
– Separate files are created and stored for
each application program.
– Very common from the 50’s through the
80’s.
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
Banking Example
Smalltown National Bank
1965
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
Banking Example
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
PROBLEMS
(1) DATA REDUNDANCY
•Same data stored on different files.
•Name is on checking, savings, and loan files.
•Address is on checking, savings, and loan files.
•Telephone number is on checking, savings, and loan files.
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
PROBLEMS
DATA REDUNDANCY CAUSES:
•Unnecessary data entry.
•Duplicated data on one file may not get changed on another file
during an update or deletion.
•Leads to a lack in DATA INTEGRITY.
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
PROBLEMS
(2) DATA INTEGRITY
•Data redundancy leads to a lack of data integrity.
•Lack of data integrity = errors in database
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
PROBLEMS
(3) LACK OF DATA INTEGRATION
•With separate file systems, it is difficult to produce reports
which require data from separate file systems.
•EXAMPLE: The bank manager might want a report showing the names
of customers who use all the bank's services: checking, savings and loans.
•In order to collect this information for a report, a separate computer
program would need to be written and this take time.
Checking
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Files
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Files
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
PROBLEMS
(4) PROGRAM-DATA DEPENDENCE
•If the size of a field in a record changes, all the programs which
access that record must be modified.
•EXAMPLE: When ZIP codes changed from 5 digits to 9
digits, all programs which accessed ZIP codes had to be
modified.
Note: When the ZIP code changed, millions of
programs needed to be changed in
corporations, governments, etc.
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Traditional (File Oriented) Approach
SUMMARY
(1) CAUSES DATA REDUNDANCY.
(2) LACKS DATA INTEGRITY.
(3) LACKS DATA INTEGRATION.
(4) CAUSES PROGRAM-DATA DEPENDENCY.
Checking
Files
Savings
Files
Loan
Files
Checking
Programs
Checking
Reports
Savings
Programs
Savings
Reports
Loan
Programs
Loan
Reports
The Database Approach
• The Database Management System Approach
– A pool of related data is shared by multiple application
programs. Rather than having separate data files, each
application uses a collection of data that is either joined
or related in the database.
– A DBMS “knows” everything about the data on the
hard storage drive/s, and has complete control over it.
Reports
Reports
Reports
Checking
Programs
Savings
Programs
Loan
Programs
Database
Management
System
All Data
DBMS
Hard drive/s
Advantages to the Database Approach
• Improved strategic use of corporate data
• Reduced data redundancy
• Improved data integrity
• Easier modification and updating
• Data and program independence
• Better access to data and information
• Standardization of data access
• A framework for program development
• Better overall protection of the data
• Shared data and information resources
Disadvantages to the Database Approach
• Increased vulnerability. Unauthorized people hack into
databases on a regular bases.
• Foolishly, employees place databases on their laptops which
are stolen when left in cars or unattended at coffee shops.
LoJack Tracking Software
LoJack Video 2min cc (Good)
LoJack Video 4min cc (Very Good)
Kensington Lock
• Great for coffee shops
• The cable is retractable. Just
wrap the cable around a table
post and into the Kensington port on your
computer; then lock the cable into the port.
Database Terms
TABLES (Also called ENTITIES)
– A generalized class of people, places, things, or
events (objects) about which data are collected,
stored, and maintained.
Employees
Attributes
Customer
name,
Employee
name
Customers
Checking
Patients
Stocks
Books
Executives
Inventory
Students
Database Terms
FIELDS (Also called ATTRIBUTES)
• An Field is a property of an Table.
Checking Table
Fields
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
RECORDS
Consist of one or more related Fields in a Table
Checking Table
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
PRIMARY KEY
• A field or set of fields that UNIQUELY identifies the record.
• Account Number is the only UNIQUE field in this record.
Primary Key
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
SECONDARY KEY
• A Key which is NOT a primary key.
How much money do I have in
my checking account?
I can’t remember my checking
account number, but my last
name is Yos.
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
KEY
• A field or set of fields that is used to identify a record or records.
• It is possible to search for any record using any of these five fields.
Keys
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
DATA ITEM
• A specific value of an Field.
Data Item
(Examples)
Acct #
27439
34278
43872
Last
Smith
Watt
Yos
CHECKING TABLE
First
Balance
Joe
453.21
Carol
212.54
Tom
224.87
Start Date
1-3-2000
2-6-2001
3-8-2011
Database Terms
DATA MODELING
• This is map or diagram of entities and their relationships.
• These maps or diagrams show the how the database is organized.
• A popular diagramming technique is called “entity-relationship
diagram.”
• A MODEL of the database is constructed before the actual
database is designed. One popular modeling method is called
an entity-relationship diagram.
Entity-relationship diagram
Database Terms
Entity-relationship diagram
Name
Major
Student
Dept
1
Relationship
N
Course
Section
ID
Entity
Takes
Class
Attribute
Name
Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram for a
Customer Ordering Database
Attributes
(Properties)
Entities (Tables)
Relationship: Each Customer
may order many of the Product
31
A Relational Data Model
• Relational Data Model
– All data elements are placed in twodimensional tables, called relations, that
are the logical equivalent of files.
313-46-2007
412-48-1778
543-56-8876
32
•
Relational Database Terms
Joining
– Data manipulation that combines two or more tables.
– These three tables can be joined using a common field such as Dept.
number.
– Example: Using Project number (155) we can find out
the description of the project and for what department the
project was conducted.
This can be done easily even though the data is within two
separate files.
– See the next slide to see how easy joining can be done using
a query language called SQL. (Pronounce S-Q-L or “sequel”)
SQL is in all database management systems, including Access.
313-46-2007
412-48-1778
543-56-8876
33
Database Terms
SQL EXAMPLE:
•This example shows how to join two
tables using SQL in order to find
the Project name and the
Department in which the Project
was conducted.
• Note that the Description of the
project (Payroll) was in the Project
table and the Dept Name
(Accounting) was in the
Department table.
• The tables were joined using
the Dept Number field.
Dept Number
SELECT DESCRIPTION, DEPT NAME
FROM PROJECT, DEPARTMENT
WHERE PROJECT NUMBER = 155 AND
PROJECT.DEPT NUMBER =
DEPARTMENT.DEPT NUMBER
PAYROLL
ACCOUNTING
Result
Dept Number
313-46-2007
412-48-1778
543-56-8876
Database Terms
Database Terms
Database Terms
Database Terms
Distributed Database
• A database in which the actual data may be
spread across several smaller databases
connected via telecommunications devices.
Database Terms
Data Warehouse
• A relational database management system.
• Designed SPECIFICALLY to support management decision
making.
• Does NOT meet the needs of a TPS.
• Contains massive amounts of current and historical data.
Looks as if we should
relocate our
manufacturing
facility to China.
Database Terms
Data Mining
• AUTOMATED discovery of patterns and relationships
in a data warehouse.
• Uses advanced statistical techniques and machine
learning.
• Used to predict as well as discover.
• Data Mining the Internet is now being used by some
companies to predict the future.
Look. I think we are
experiencing a large
increase in credit
card fraud.
Data Modeling and Database
Models
• Data Model
– A map or diagram of entities and their
relationships.
• Enterprise Data Modeling
– Data modeling done at the level of the
entire organization.
• Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams
– A data model that uses basic graphical
symbols to show the organization of and
relationships between data.
Sample Test Questions DBMS
Database
1.In the SQL statement below, which item is an
entity?
SELECT EMPLOYEE-NUMBER
FROM EMPLOYEE
WHERE SALARY > 20,000
a. SALARY
b. EMPLOYEE
c. EMPLOYEE-NUMBER
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c
42
Sample Test Questions DBMS
2. Which item below is most closely associated
with changing the zip code from 5 to 9 digits
in a file-oriented database?
a. Program-data dependence
b. Data integrity
c.
Data redundancy
d. Data integration
e.
None of the above
43
Sample Test Questions DBMS
3. When designing a database, which item below
would most likely be used to show the logical
relationships among data?
a. Access 2003
b. Entity-relationship diagrams
c.
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
d. System Flowcharts
e.
Data Definition Language (DDL)
44
Sample Test Questions DBMS
4. What is the main use for data warehouses?
a. To meet the needs of day-to-day
transaction processing.
b. To support the needs of management
decision making.
c.
To store all of a company’s transactions.
d. None of the above
45
Sample Test Questions DBMS
5. Which system below would be best for
detecting credit card transactions which are likely
to be fraudulent?
a. Data mining
b. Pattern analysis
c.
Pattern mining
d. Data Marting
e.
Transaction processing system
46
Sample Test Questions DBMS
6. What database model places data in twodimensional tables?
a. relational
b. network
c. hierarchical
47
Sample Test Questions DBMS
7. In order to do a "join" in a relational
database, it is necessary to have:
a. some data redundancy.
b. some program-data dependency.
c. some errors in the database
d. None of the above
48
Sample Test Questions DBMS
8. This type of database key must be unique:
a. Primary Key
b. Secondary Key
c. Tertiary Key
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c
49
Sample Test Questions DBMS
9. With this database configuration, the files are
placed in multiple locations within the
organization.
a. Centralized configuration
b. Distributed configuration
c. Hierarchical configuration
d. a and c
e. b and c
50
Sample Test Questions DBMS
10. This term refers to linking two or more tables
together using a common attribute (column).
a. Joining
b. Parsing
c.
Gluing
d. Connecting
51
Sample Test Questions DBMS
11. Data in a database are organized in (best answer)
a. a hierarchy
b. a record
c. in ASCII
d. in a file
e. in UNICODE
52
Sample Test Questions DBMS
12. Modern databases like ACCESS 2007 use
this code to store characters (best answer):
a. Baudit
b. ACSII
c. UNICODE
d. Morris Code
53
Sample Test Questions DBMS
13. UNICODE allows for the storage of how
many different characters?
a. 128
b. 256
c. 512
d. 1024
e. 65, 536
54
Sample Test Questions DBMS
14. UNICODE eliminated ASCII completely in
its bit string?
a. True
b. False
55
Sample Test Questions DBMS
15. Modern DBMS eliminate all data
redundancy?
a. True
b. False
56
Sample Test Questions DBMS
16. To much data redundancy usually leads to
a. data integrity problems.
b. data integration problems.
c. errors in the database
d. a and c
e. None of the above
57
Sample Test Questions DBMS
17. In a traditional file-oriented approach
separate computer programs were required
to do queries across two or more files?
a. True
b. False
58
Sample Test Questions DBMS
18. In a traditional file-oriented database
approach, changing a ZIP code from five
digits to nine digits was a problem due to
issues caused by:
a. data redundancy.
b. data integrity.
c. lack of data integration.
d. program-data dependency.
59
Sample Test Questions DBMS
19. In a traditional file-oriented database
approach, changing a ZIP code from five
digits to nine digits was a problem due to
issues caused by:
a. data redundancy.
b. data integrity.
c. lack of data integration.
d. none of the above
60
Sample Test Questions DBMS
20. Which item/s below is/are problem/s caused
by a file-oriented approach?
a. data redundancy
b. a lack of data integrity
c. a lack of data integration
d. program-data dependency
e. all of the above
61
Sample Test Questions DBMS
21. DBMS stands for
a. database management system
b. database movement system
c. database manager system
d. database major system
62
Sample Test Questions DBMS
22. A DBMS can be thought of as a software
system that “knows” everything about the
data on the storage drive/s and has complete
control over them?
a. True
b. False
63
Sample Test Questions DBMS
23. Which methods for security for a laptop
were mentioned in class?
a. Kensington Lock
b. LoJack Tracking software
c. Norton Security System
d. McAfee Security System
e. a and b
64
Sample Test Questions DBMS
24. This is a generalized class of people, things,
or events (objects) about which data are
collected, stored, and maintained.
a. Entities
b. Attributes
c. Primary key
d. Secondary key
e. Data Item
65
Sample Test Questions DBMS
25. This is a generalized class of people, things,
or events (objects) about which data are
collected, stored, and maintained.
a. Data Item
b. Attributes
c. Primary key
d. Secondary key
e. None of the above
66
Sample Test Questions DBMS
26. Examples of Entities in a DBMS would be
a. Employees
b. Checking
c. Savings
d. Books
e. all of the above
67
Sample Test Questions DBMS
27. Last name in a DBMS would be an example
of
a. an entity
b. an attribute
c. a field
d. a record
e. b and c
68
Sample Test Questions DBMS
28. An example of a primary key in a DBMS
would be
a. last name
b. first name
c. middle name
d. account number
69
Sample Test Questions DBMS
29. The most popular way for modeling a
database involves using
a. a physical model
b. a narrative model
c. entity-relationship diagrams
d. a mathematical model
70
Sample Test Questions DBMS
29. It is possible to search for a record in a
database using attributes such as
a. keys
b. records
c. entities
d. characters
71
Sample Test Questions DBMS
30. In an entity-relationship model the symbol
below is for a/an
a.
b.
c.
d.
keys
relationships
entities
attributes
72
Sample Test Questions DBMS
31. In an entity-relationship model the symbol
below is for
a.
b.
c.
d.
keys
relationships
entities
attributes
73
Sample Test Questions DBMS
32. In an entity-relationship model the symbol
below is for
a.
b.
c.
d.
keys
relationships
entities
attributes
74
Sample Test Questions DBMS
33. In an entity-relationship model the symbol
below is used to indicate what type of
relationship between database objects?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
1 to 1
1 to 3
1 to N
1 to Many
c and d are both correct
75
Sample Test Questions DBMS
34. It is impossible to setup a relational data
model without adding some
a. data redundancy
b. errors into the database
c. redundant attributes across tables
d. a and c
76
Sample Test Questions DBMS
35. In order to do a “join” in a DBMS we must
have some
a. data redundancy.
b. errors in the database.
c. redundant attributes across two or more
tables.
d. a, b, and c
77
Sample Test Questions DBMS
36. In the SQL statement below, what are
PROJECT and DEPARTMENT?
SELECT DESCRIPTION, DEPT NAME
FROM PROJECT, DEPARTMENT
WHERE PROJECT NUMBER = 155 AND PROJECT.DEPT NUMBER =
DEPARTMENT.DEPT NUMBER
a.
b.
c.
d.
Entities
Attributes
Relationships
a and b
78
Sample Test Questions DBMS
37. In the SQL statement below, what are
DESCRIPTION and DEPT NAME?
SELECT DESCRIPTION, DEPT NAME
FROM PROJECT, DEPARTMENT
WHERE PROJECT NUMBER = 155 AND PROJECT.DEPT NUMBER =
DEPARTMENT.DEPT NUMBER
a.
b.
c.
d.
Entities
Attributes
Relationships
a and b
79
Sample Test Questions DBMS
38. A database which has tables spread across
several locations is called a/an
a. distributed database
b. a non-centralized database
c. a relational database
d. a scattered database
e. a data warehouse
80
Sample Test Questions DBMS
39. This database system would be best for
answering questions such as “What affect
will the Japan tsunami have on our Toyota
business here in the USA?
a. SQL database
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. Unify database
e. Oracle database
81
Sample Test Questions DBMS
40. This database system would be best for
answering questions such as “At what
inflation rate will our company need to raise
prices on its clothing prices?
a. SQL database
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. Unify database
e. Oracle database
82
Sample Test Questions DBMS
41. This database process would be best for
predicting the future.
a. a crystal ball
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. data mining
e. Oracle
83
Sample Test Questions DBMS
42. This database process typically uses
advanced statistical techniques and machine
learning.
a. a crystal ball
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. data mining
e. Oracle
84
Sample Test Questions DBMS
43. This database process allows for automated
discovery of patterns and relationships in a
data warehouse.
a. a crystal ball
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. data mining
e. Oracle
85
Sample Test Questions DBMS
44. When a credit card company calls you to see
if you made a charge that is unusual for your
purchasing behavior, what type of system
were they likely using?
a. crystal ball
b. data warehouse
c. distributed database
d. data mining
e. Oracle
86
Sample Test Questions DBMS
45. Data modeling done at the level of the entire
organization is called
a. organization modeling
b. enterprise data modeling
c. distributed database modeling
d. data mining modeling
e. corporation data modeling
87
Sample Test Questions: COSTCO
46. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) has
five stages, which stage did our MIS 101
class vicariously enter in the COSTCO case?
a. analysis
b. design
c. implementation
d. maintenance and review
e. none of the above
88
Sample Test Questions: COSTCO
47. This type of feasibility analysis involves the
following question: Can the necessary
hardware, software, and other system
components be acquired or developed to
solve the problem?
a. technical feasibility
b. economic feasibility
c. net present value feasibility
d. legal feasibility
e. operational feasibility
89
Sample Test Questions: COSTCO
48. This type of feasibility analysis involves the
following question: Will the predicted
benefits offset the cost and time needed to
solve the problem?
a. technical feasibility
b. economic feasibility
c. net present value feasibility
d. legal feasibility
e. operational feasibility
90
Sample Test Questions: COSTCO
49. This type of feasibility analysis involves the
following question: Can the project be
completed in a reasonable amount of time?
a. technical feasibility
b. economic feasibility
c. schedule feasibility
d. legal feasibility
e. operational feasibility
91
Sample Test Questions: COSTCO
50. What is the next step after systems
investigation”
a. systems design
b. systems analysis
c. implementation
d. maintenance and review
e. none of the above
92
Ready-2-Read Bookstore
Ready-2-Read Bookstore
• PURPOSE: to track orders, customers, and books.
• Wants to know:
•Which books sell the best?
•What category of books sell the best?
•Which customers purchase the most books and in which categories?
•From what state are the most books purchased?
•Etc, etc.
• What data do you need to have in your database to accomplish your goals?
Ready-2-Read Bookstore
Books Table
ID
ID
Book ID
ID
6 Fields
Order ID
ID
8 Fields
Customer ID
Orders Table
4 Fields
Customers Table
Tables in Database
• These three tables will be created to track the displayed information above, such
as the customer’s First Name, Last Name, Street, City, State, ZIP code and Email
address.
• Using the information in the Tables above we can track such things as who purchased
what book and when.
Ready-2-Read Bookstore
Customers Table
Orders Table
Books Table
Primary Keys
DATABASE TERMS
• PRIMARY KEYS: Each table has a UNIQUE identifier called a primary key.
•Customer ID
•Order ID
•Book ID
•Primary Keys are used to identify a record in a database, much like a SSN is
used in many databases to access a particular record, such as a credit score.
A drivers license number is another example because it is used to access records
by the DMV, etc.
Ready-2-Read Bookstore
Customers Table
Orders Table
Books Table
Foreign Keys
DATABASE TERMS
•FOREIGN KEYS: The Orders Table has two foreign keys.
•Foreign Keys are fields with the same (but could be different) names as the
PRIMARY KEY in other tables. For example, Customer ID in the Orders Table is
the name of the PRIMARY KEY in the Customers Table. And, Book ID in the
Orders Table is the name of the PRIMARY KEY in the Books Table.
Every order that a customer places will cause a new record to be placed in the
Orders Table. That record will contain the Customers ID number, the Book ID
Number and the Order Date. The function of the Orders Table is to track orders.
ETHICAL ISSUES
Databases: Questionable Uses
Big Brother Big Business
79 min cc
ETHICAL ISSUES
Databases: Questionable Uses
Use these short video
clips for the questions
on the following slides
Big Brother Big Business
79 min cc
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Surveillance Revolution in America 2:25 minutes
1. Which statement below is NOT true?
a. Chips are being implanted in employees
at some businesses.
b. Records are being created of activities
that used to be wholly private.
c. Internet searches are being recorded.
d. Sexual concerns are being recorded.
e. none of the above
99
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Surveillance Revolution in America 2:25 minutes
2. Which statement/s below is/are true?
a. Shoppers are being watched and their
behaviors are being recorded and
analyzed.
b. George W. Bush stated that the
government is not mining personal
information.
c. It was stated that if “Big Brother is
allowed to happen, it will happen”.
d. a, b and c are true.
100
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Black Box Recorders in Cars Valuable to law… 3:33 min
3. Airbag control devices in cars record
a. speed before and after a collision .
b. breaking behavior before and after a
collision.
c. percent throttle before and after a
collision.
d. a, b, and c are true
e. none of the above are true
101
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Advantages and disadvantages of surveillance industries.
4. When citizens purchase a new car, they are
usually informed about the collision
monitoring device in their car.
a. True
b. False
102
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Advantages and disadvantages of surveillance industries.
5. Some rental car companies track every
location the customer takes the car without
the customer’s knowledge.
a. True
b. False
103
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Business Big
From: Personal Information Encoded in Everyday Devices 3:20 min
6. Tracking information in color laser printers
was requested by
a. Homeland Security
b. United States Secret Service
c. CIA
d. FBI
104
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Personal Information Encoded in Everyday Devices 3:20 min
7. Tracking information in color laser printers
can seen, using a blue light and a
microscope,
a. on the back of the page.
b. within the colored picture.
c. as yellow dots.
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c
105
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Personal Information Encoded in Everyday Devices 3:20 min
8. Digital cameras contain only the serial
number of the camera.
a. True
b. False
106
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Personal Information Encoded in Everyday Devices 3:20 min
9. CD recorders record on the CD the
purchaser’s name.
a. True
b. False
107
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Personal Information Encoded in Everyday Devices 3:20 min
10. Most people don’t mind being tracked with
devices such as digital pictures because they
“have nothing to hide.”
a. True
b. False
108
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Cell Phones as Tracking Devices 3:27 min
11. There is a software program that businesses
can use to track their employees location
when employees are given a cell phone with
GPS. What is the name of the software.
a. Big Brother is Watching
b. Employee Location
c. You Locate
d. Where is Waldo?
e. Know Your Employees
109
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Cell Phones as Tracking Devices 3:27 min
12. In order for your cell phone company to
know your general location, the cell phone
must have GPS.
a. True
b. False
110
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Cell Phones as Tracking Devices 3:27 min
13. In order for your cell phone company to
know your general location, the cell phone
must turned on and you must be talking .
a. True
b. False
111
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Cell Phones as Tracking Devices 3:27 min
14. Cell phone companies store information
about where you have been.
a. True
b. False
112
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Cell Phones as Tracking Devices 3:27 min
15. Cell phone companies store information
about where you have been only when you
are talking on the phone.
a. True
b. False
113
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Retail Surveillance 2:20 min
16. Some restaurants monitor and collect
information about their employees’
behaviors and customers’ behaviors.
a. True
b. False
114
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Retail Surveillance 2:20 min
17. Some retailers have surveillance systems
which can detect suspicious behaviors on the
part of the customers.
a. True
b. False
115
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Retail Surveillance 2:20 min
18. Verint Systems believes that the “sky is the
limit” when it comes to the types of
information that can be collected on
customers in retail stores.
a. True
b. False
116
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Retail Surveillance 2:20 min
19. Verint Systems is extremely concerned about
the privacy of individuals shopping in retail
stores.
a. True
b. False
117
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Retail Surveillance 2:20 min
20. What two companies mentioned in the video
are using surveillance camera systems to
monitor customers behaviors.
a. Walgreens
b. Home Depot
c. Target
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c
118
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Law Enforcement: Key Beneficiary in Public Surveillance … 1:15 min
21. A murder was convicted due to surveillance
cameras in which company below?
a. Walgreens
b. Home Depot
c. Target
d. ARCO
e. CVS Pharmacy
119
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Data Breaches and Security Risks (3:44 min)
22. This company maintains a database with 17
billion records on almost every person in the
USA and this company sells these records.
a. Internet Security Company
b. Soviet Information Systems
c. Information and Security Systems
d. ChoicePoint
e. None of the above
120
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Google Internet Tracks All Searches (3:32 min)
23. Google keeps a record of every search made
and these searches
a. can’t be tracked back to the person
making the search
b. can be tracked back to the person
making the search.
121
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Implantable ID chips (2:37 min)
24. What is the name and location of a company
in Ohio that required some of its employees
to get RFID chips implanted in their arms.
a. City Watchers in Cincinnati, Ohio
b. Gold Inventories Inc. in Zanesville,
Ohio.
c. City Alarm in Cincinnati, Ohio
d. City Securities in Columbus, Ohio.
122
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Future of Surveillance (3:00 min)
26. This is a satellite navigation system that can
pinpoint a target within 2 meters (~6feet).
a. IBM navigation system
b. Galileo satellite navigation system
c. Wal-Mart shopping cart location system
d. FBI navigation system
e. IRS taxpayer location system
123
Sample Test Questions: Big Brother, Big Business
From: Big Brother, Big Business
IF BIG BROTHER IS ALLOWED TO
HAPPEN, IT WILL HAPPEN.
124
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