七种被动语态形式
1) 一般现在时的被动语态 (am/is/are+ 过
去分词)
如: The work is done during two days.
2) 一般过去时的被动语态 (was/were+ 过
去分词)
如: He was sent to the hospital
immediately after the accident.
3) 一般将来时的被动语态 (will/shall + be +
过去分词或 + be going to + be + 过去分词)
如: The work will be finished soon.
4) 现在进行时的被动语态 (is/am/are +
being+ 过去分词)
如: The bridge is now being constructed.
5) 现在完成时的被动语态 (have/has +been
+ 过去分词)
如: The radio has been repaired when
we phoned the shop.
6) 带情态动词的被动语态 (情态动词 + be +
过去分词)
如: This can be done in a few minutes.
7) 动词不定式的被动式 (to be + 过去分词)
如: It is an honor for me to be asked
to speak here.
现在完成时的被动语态
现在完成时的被动语态表示动作发生在过
去, 到现在已经完成或对现在仍有影响, 其构成
是: have/has been + done。例如:
1. The dirty clothes have been washed.
脏衣服都已经洗了。
2. The plan has been studied by the
experts for three times.
这项计划已经由专家研究过三次了。
3. The child has been taken care of by
Grandma Wang all these years.
这些年来, 这个小孩一直由王奶奶照料。
现在完成时被动态:
have / has + been + 动词过去分词
现在完成进行时:
have / has + been + 动词现在分词
它们的构成的区别在最后的动词上, 被动
态接的是过去分词形式, 现在完成进行时接的
是现在分词形式。
1. 主语是行为动作的承受者。如:
The Temple of Zhang Fei has been
rebuilt.
张飞庙已经过重建。
2. 说话时已经完成的动作或出现的结果。如:
The door has been locked.
(我或别人现在进不去)
门已经被锁上了。
3. 动作或状态始于过去, 持续到现在, 并可能
持续下去。如:
He has been told about it for many times.
有人告诉他这事很多次了。
(可能还会有人告诉他)
4. 用在时间和条件状语从句中, 表示将
来某时已完成的动作。如:
We’ll start as soon as the work has
been finished.
工作一完成我们就立即动身。
注意:
1. 副词的位置
often, usually, always, never, hardly,
seldom等副词置于have/has和been中间。如:
[误] Such a man has been hardly
believed.
[正] Such a man has hardly been
believed.
2. 并不是所有动词都有被动语态
1) happen, take place, break out, belong
to, cost, last等不及物动词或词组无被动语
态。如:
[误] Great changes have been taken
place in China since 1978.
[正] Great changes have taken place in
China since 1978.
2) open, break, drop等不强调动作发出者
时常用主动语态。如:
[误] The door has been opened of itself.
[正] The door has opened of itself.
3. 短语动词不可分割或省略其中的介词或副
词。如:
The SARS patients have been taken
good care of.
4. 一些特殊动词, 如borrow, finish, begin,
buy, start, return, marry, open, join等构
成的现在完成时的被动语态不能与表示
一段时间的状语连用。若要表达相应的
意思, 则需改换动词或时态。如:
My brother has had(不能用has bought)
this bike for almost four years.
How long has this book been bought?
How long ago was this book bought?
被动语态的用法:
(1) 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。
如: Some new computers were stolen
last night.
一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。
(不知道电脑是谁偷的)
This book was published in 1981.
这本书出版于1981年。
(2) 强调动作的承受者, 而不强调动作的执行者。
如: The window was broken by Mike.
窗户是迈克打破的。
This book was written by him.
这本书是他写的。
主动语态变被动语态的方法
(1) 把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。
(2) 把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词)
(根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数,
以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决
定be的形式)。
(3) 把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾
语, 将主格改为宾格。例如:
All the people laughed at him.
He was laughed at by all people.
They make the bikes in the factory.
The bikes are made by them in the
factory.
歌诀是:宾变主, 主变宾, by短语后面跟。
谓语动词变被动, be后“过分”来使用。
4) 双宾语动词变被动语态可将其中的一
个宾语变为主语, 另一个保留不动。
主动:I have given him the key.
被动:He has been given the key.
被动:The key has been given (to) him.
5) 带复合宾语的动词变被动语态时, 只能
将宾语变为主语, 原来的宾补保留不动,
改称主语补足语。
主动:I have asked her to help you.
被动:She has been asked to help you.
Exercises
1. Both my brother work at the power
station that ___ in my hometown.
A. has set up
B. has been set up
C. was set up
D. is set up
2. ---_____ the sports meet will be put off.
A. I’ve been told
B. I’ve told
C. I’m told
D. I told
3. All the preparation for the task ____,
and we’re ready to start.
A. completed
B. complete
C. had been completed
D. have been done
4. ---- How long ____ at this job?
---- Since 1990.
A. were you employed
B. have you been employed
C. had you been employed
D. will you be employed
5. When and where to go for the onsalary holiday ____ yet.
A. are not decided
B. have not been decided
C. is not being decided
D. has not been decided
6. Betty___ injured since last Saturday.
A. has been
B. was
C. is
D. has
7. That book _________into at least 20
foreign languages.
A. has said to be translated
B. has been said to have translated
C. is said that it had been translated
D. is said to have been translated
注:该句的句型是:It is said that…/people
(they) said that…/that book is said
to …根据句意是已经被译成了20 多种文字
所以要用现在完成时的被动语态。
8. –Hi, Tom, you look tired.
-- Of course. I ___ the living room
all day.
A. had painted
B. painted
C. have been painted
D. have been painting
9. --Did you move into the new house?
-- No. The rooms ___ yet.
A. were being painted
B. are painting
C. have not painted
D. have not been painted
10. Great changes___ in my hometown
and a lot of factories ___.
A. have been taken place;
are being set up
B. have taken place; have been set up
C. are taken place; had been set up
D. took place; will set up
11. It’s said that this book___ into Chinese.
A. had translated B. has translated
C. was translated D. has been translated
12. You can’t move in .The house _____.
A. is painting
B. is being painted
C. has painted
D. has been painted
13. Millions of pounds’ worth of
damage___ by a storm which swept across
the north of England last night. (2005重庆)
A. has been caused
B. had been caused
C. will be caused
D. will have been cause
14. Have you ever___ to the exhibition
which ___for three weeks?
A. gone; has been shown
B. visited; shown
C. been; has been on show
D. went; lasted
15. ---How long ago ___ these eggs___?
--- Perhaps 15 days.
A. will; hatch
B. did; hatch
C. were; hatched
D. have; been hatched
改错
1. A personal computer has bought by us.
A personal computer has been bought
by us.
2. Many problems has been found with
our new computer.
Many problems have been found with
our new computer.
3. A PC has been builded the way we
wanted.
A PC has been built the way we
wanted.
4. Our computer just has been joined to
the internet.
Our computer has just been joined to
the internet.
5. The computer was used every day since
we bought it.
The computer has been used every day
since we bought it.
6. A lot of e-mails had written on the
computer in the past 5 years.
A lot of e-mails have been written on the
computer in the past 5 years.
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被动语态