Including English
Language Learners in
Social Studies
Bárbara C. Cruz & Stephen J. Thornton
University of South Florida
NCSS, November 2008
Do teachers feel well-equipped to
meet the needs of ELLs?
Between13% and 30% of teachers have
received ELL training (although almost
50% have ELLs in their classrooms)
Less than 3% of teachers have earned a
degree in ESL
In a study of 25 popular teacher education
texts, it was found that less than 1% of the
text included useable content related to the
teaching of ELLs; in many cases, the topic
of English language learning was not
identified at all
Some U.S. statistics…
There are over 10 million ELLs in the U.S.
Depending on the district, this can represent
between 10% and 50% of the school
population.
Between the 1990-1991 and the 2000-2001
school years, the overall national school
population grew 12%; the ELL population
grew 105%
Today 1 in 9 K-12 public school students is
an ELL;
in 20 years it is estimated to be 1 in 4
In Florida…
Speakers of Languages other than English
Combined Source: http://www.mla.org/map_main
African Langs.
French Creole
Hindi
Laotian
Polish
Thai
Arabic
German
Hungarian
Miao, Hmong
Portuguese
Urdu
Armenian
Greek
Italian
Navajo
Russian
Vietnamese
Chinese
French
Gujarathi
Hebrew
Japanese
Korean
Other N. Am Langs. Persian
Scandinavian
Tagalog
Yiddish
Serbo-Croatian
Stages of
Second Language Acquisition
Preproduction: ELLs are able to comprehend more English than they
can produce; focus is on developing everyday “survival” English
Early Production: ELLs are taking more risks with English, often
resulting in grammar and pronunciation errors; important to create a safe, lowanxiety classroom environment
Speech Emergence: ELLs typically have 1-3 years exposure to
English; awareness of English language structure is growing; may
have a receptive understanding of academic English
Intermediate Fluency: ELLs exhibit almost native-like like
fluency in everyday social English, but not in academic English; still
difficult to understand and verbalize cognitively demanding, abstract
concepts
Preproduction
ELLs are able to
comprehend more English
than they can produce; focus
is on developing everyday
“survival” English
Early Production
ELLs are taking more risks
with English, often resulting
in grammar and pronunciation
errors; important to create a
safe, low-anxiety classroom
environment
Speech Emergence
ELLs typically have 1-3 years
exposure to English; awareness of
English language structure is
growing; may have a receptive
understanding of academic
English
Intermediate Fluency
ELLs exhibit almost native-like
like fluency in everyday social
English, but not in academic
English; still difficult to
understand and verbalize
cognitively demanding, abstract
concepts
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ABILITY
“Silent” period
Point
Respond with movement
Follow command
Receptive vocabulary up to
500 words
One- or two-word responses
Labelling
Listing
Receptive vocabulary up to
1,000 words
Expressive vocabulary 100500 words
Short phrases and sentences
Comparing and contrasting
Descriptions
Receptive vocabulary up to 7,000
words
Expressive vocabulary 2,000
words
Dialogue
Reading academic texts
Writing
Receptive vocabulary up to 12,000
words
Expressive vocabulary 4,000
words
TEACHING STRATEGIES
Yes/No questions
Simplified speech
Gestures
Visuals
Picture books
Word walls
KWL charts
Simple Cloze activities
Realia
TPR
Questions that require:
Yes/No; Either/Or;
Two-word response
Lists of words
Definitions
Describing
Reader’s Theater
Drama
Graphic organizers
How and why questions
Modeling
Demonstrating
Cooperative learning
Comprehension checks
Alternative assessments
Simulations
Brainstorming
Journal writing
Literary analysis
Problem solving
Role playing
Monologues
Story telling
Oral reports
Interviewing and applications
ELL Principles
Vocabulary and Language
Skills Development
Making Text in English
more Comprehensible
Examples: linking written &
oral lang, listening centers,
storytelling
Examples: modified text,
graphic organizers, visuals
Promoting Interactive
Learning between ELLs
and English-speaking
Students
Accommodating a Variety
of Learning Styles
Examples: class discussion,
cooperative learning, peer
teaching, group projects
Examples: total physical
response, kinesthetic learning,
hands-on, visual, auditory
Lewis & Clark: Visual Aids,
Cartography, & Critical Thinking
Overhead transparency of LA Purchase:
• http://www.civicsonline.org/library/formatted/images/lpur
chase.html
• http://encarta.msn.com/media_461517363
/Louisiana_Purchase.html
• http://www.sos.louisiana.gov/purchase/pu
rchase-index.htm
Louisiana Purchase
Ask students to consider:
How many modern-day states are
part of the Louisiana Purchase?
What sorts of terrain did Lewis
and Clark encounter along the
Missouri?
How was it different from the
settled parts of the U.S. east of the
Mississippi River? (Hint: look at
natural vegetation and
precipitation maps).
What natural resources did the
U.S. gain from the Louisiana
Purchase?
Pre-Production
Find the Alleghany Mountains.
Where is the Mississippi River?
Which areas were settled before 1760?
Early Production
Do you think Lewis and Clark will
complete their trip safely?
Which is longer: the Mississippi or the
Illinois River?
List all the states shown on the map.
Speech Emergence
What kind of people would Lewis and
Clark likely find on their trip?
Why does it say “Spanish” south of
Georgia?
If you were on the Lewis and Clark
expedition, what would you take?
Intermediate Fluency
What do you think Lewis and Clark will
find on their journey?
How long do you think their trip will
take?
Do you think it was right for Pres.
Jefferson to ask Lewis and Clark to go
on such a dangerous journey?
Case Study: Women’s Changing
Roles in WWII
Source:
Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov
Picture Books
Historical
Photograph
Analysis
http://www.archives.gov
Another source:
“How to Read a
Photograph,” NCSS
“Women Learn ‘War Work’”
Volusia County Vocational
School. Daytona Beach
Credit: FCIT
http://fcit.usf.edu/florida
Dora Miles and Dorothy Johnson
Long Beach Plant, Douglas Aircraft
Credit: Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov
Lesson Summary of the
Cuban Missile Crisis
Triangular Trade
Christ Church and Coal Staith,
Leeds, 1829
Photo credit: Science & Society Picture Library, Science Museum, London
Textile industries,
George Spill & Co., 1855
Photo credit: Science & Society Picture Library, Science Museum, London
“She talks about what
people can do,
not what they can’t.”
John F. Fanselow, Professor Emeritus at Teachers
College, Columbia University, speaking about
Maxine Greene, noted educator and philosopher
Questions?
Comments?
To access this PowerPoint, go to:
http://www.coedu.usf.edu/main/departments/
seced/seced.html
Click on “Department Chair” (Thornton)
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Including English Language Learners in Social Studies