Regions of
Europe
Mediterranean
History
•
Mediterranean Europe was home to two great
civilizations:
1. Greece
 Athens developed the first democracy (rule by
the people)
 Athenian males served in the law-making
assembly
 Science, philosophy, drama and art shaped
modern U.S. culture
 Conquered by Alexander the Great of Macedonia
History
Map showing the Greatest Extent
of the Roman Empire
2. Rome
• Republic (a government in which citizens
elect representatives to rule in their
name)
• Christianity spread across the world from
Palestine - one of Rome’s territories.
History
•
Geographic advantages:
1. Mild climate made survival easier
2. Nearby Mediterranean Sea
encouraged overseas trade
Modern Times
• Crusades (A.D. 1096): a series of wars to
take Palestine from the Muslims
• Renaissance (14th – 16th centuries): time
of renewed interest in learning and the arts
• Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain
to the Americas spreading Catholicism and
the Spanish language.
Culture
• Languages spoken in Mediterranean
Europe
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Greek
Portuguese
Spanish
Italian
• Christianity is the most popular religion
Culture
• Art
 Parthenon
 Aqueducts
 Mosques
Economics
• Tourism
• Fishing and agriculture
 Olives, grapes, citrus and wheat
• Industry is on the rise
 Portugal – clothing (textiles)
 Spain – autos
 Italy – clothing and shoes
City Growth
• People have moved from rural areas to
urban areas as economies have
transitioned from agriculture to
manufacturing to service.
• Problems with city growth:
 Housing shortages
 Pollution
 Traffic jams
Black Death/Bubonic Plague
• Worst disaster ever suffered
in Europe
• Killed about 25 million
Europeans
 Approximately 1/4 to
1/3 of the population
• Began in Sicily in
1347 from Asian
traders
Western
History
• Many languages spoken throughout

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German
French
Flemish
Luxembourgian
English
Italian
Dutch
History
• Reformation
 People began to question the Catholic Church
 Many Christians broke away from the Catholic
Church and became Protestant
 These two groups have existed in conflict and
in peace
Martin Luther
Conflicts
• Nationalism – people should be loyal to
their country – caused people to want their
own country
• French Revolution
 Citizens fought against the selfish French
kings
• Wars have broken out between France
and Austria or France and Germany
Modern Wars
• WWI: Allies vs. Central Powers
• WWII: Allies vs. Axis Powers
How do you win a war?
World War II Deaths
Military
Civilian
Total
Soviet Union
8,668,000
16,900,000
25,568,000
France
340,000
470,000
810,000
Japan (Axis)
1,506,000
300,000
1,806,000
USA
295,000
Great Britain
326,000
62,000
388,000
Germany (Axis)
3,250,000
3,810,000
7,060,000
Country
295,000
Holocaust photo story
Modern Wars
• Result of WWII
 Germany was split into two
separate countries: West and
East Germany
 Berlin, the capitol, was split as
well by the Berlin Wall
 The Soviets built
the wall to keep
East Berliners from
fleeing to West
Berlin
Berlin wall photo story
Economics
• Very strong economy due to inclusion of
agriculture, manufacturing and service industries
• Major agricultural products
 Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland:
dairy farming and livestock raising
• Rich in coal and iron ore (used to make steel)
 Aerospace, chemicals, electronics, engineering,
optics, research and development, shipbuilding,
textiles, vehicle assembly and vineyards
• Swiss banking is popular because they refuse to
fight in wars
Economics
• Tourism
• Exporter of luxury goods
Volkswagen - Germany
Holland tulips
Swiss watch
Culture
• Music
 Johann Sebastian Bach
 Beethoven
 Mozart
• Painters
 Rembrandt
 Monet
 Cézanne
Modern Life
• Europeans live in smaller homes than
Americans
• Receive more paid vacation time
• Immigration has been a source of conflict in
Germany and Austria
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Regions of Europe - Pearland Independent School District