Developing Critical Thinking
Through
Content-Based Language
Instruction
Mariko Henstock
Dept. of Modern Languages & Comparative Literature
Boston University
Instructional Innovation Conference
March 2, 2012
Boston University
Creating a Linguistics Course
• Department asked me to teach a course:
– Japanese linguistics
– History of the Japanese language
• Required course for double majors in
Linguistics & Japanese
Course of “Mixed Abilities”
• Linguistics background
–5 Linguistics majors
–5 had never studied linguistics
• Japanese skills
–8 had completed 4th year Japanese
–4 had studied Japanese 2 years only
–3 had studied abroad in Japan
Course Goals
• Learn linguistics and improve language skills
• Develop analytical and critical approach toward
Japanese language
– Break “stereotypes” of Japanese language in class
– Gain deeper understanding of modern spoken &
written Japanese
• Experience a course taught in "real Japanese"
Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
(Morita 2009)
• Integrates content & language instruction
• Allows students to use the language as a
vehicle for acquiring the lecture content
• Used in culture, literature, and history
courses, but not linguistics
• Allegedly fosters critical thinking
3 Prototype CBI Models
(Brinton 2007)
3 Prototype CBI Models
(Brinton 2007)
1) Theme-based instruction
• Focus on theme within language class
curriculum
2) Adjunct instruction
• Link separate Japanese language and
content courses
3) Sheltered instruction
• Focus on content but use Japanese
• Accommodate the students' level
Course Goals
• Learn linguistics and improve language skills
• Develop analytical and critical approach toward
Japanese language
– Break “stereotypes” of Japanese language in class
– Gain deeper understanding of modern spoken &
written Japanese
• Experience a course taught in "real Japanese"
Harvard Solutions
• Harvard Business School sent students to
overseas to solve real world business
problems (Harvard Gazette, Jan. 2012)
• Success of "Flipped classroom" teaching
model: Class is a place for discussions
and peer learning (Harvard School of
Engineering & Applied Sciences, Feb. 2012)
Our students can…
• Engage in experiences through media
(YouTube, videos) or interviews with
Japanese [exchange] students at BU
• Examine, observe, and find patterns in such
real world content through open
assignments
• Discuss their findings and exchange ideas
with classroom discussions & peer learning
Examples of Weekly
Assignments
Watch a drama, YouTube video, or interview your
Japanese friend. Observe and share something
you noticed about the language.
Identify the use of classical Japanese proverbs in
modern Japanese texts
Understand and explain why some example dialogues
between young Japanese are grammatically
incorrect
A Typical Week
•
•
•
•
•
Students prepare reading (in English)
Lecture in Japanese/English
Weekly paper with a topic
Class discussion
Active learning to connect their observation &
findings to linguistics
–
–
Practice for critical thinking with peer learning
Answer open-ended questions
How did it work out?
1st year
Strong language skills
Strong linguistics skills
2nd year
Several had low Japanese language level
Lower linguistics and critical thinking ability
Had to adjust much more for these students
How did it work out?
1st year
Several said they enjoyed the assignments
Improved their critical thinking over the course
through the weekly assignments
Helped them writing the term paper
2nd year
Several hated the open-ended assignments
Wanted precise instruction on exactly what to do
• These needed “critical thinking” training the most
Outcome of 1st year
• Improved the quality of term papers
• Developed critical & analytical approach toward
Japanese language from a linguistics perspective
– Gained deeper understanding of Japanese
– Improved awareness of linguistics influence on the
Japanese language
• Could recognize instances of classical Japanese in
modern texts
• Seemed to have helped turn them from passive
learners into active learners through critical thinking
– Achieved goal of Content-Based Instruction
Reflection of one
student
st
1
year
• Weekly reflection assignments
• Examined specific aspect of the language
– e.g. Noting the mistakes that native Japanese speakers
make when learning English
• Required critical analysis of Japanese and English
• Reading classical Japanese texts
• Examined how Japanese evolved
• Japanese literature courses at Boston University use
only translated material
• Both inspired my term paper
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
迫田久美子 (2009) 「ICJLE 2009 シドニー大会を振り返って-参加者と主催者の視点から考える
国際大会の意義 と役割」日本語教育143号
清田淳子 (2001) 「教科としての『国語』と日本語教育を統合した内容重視のアプローチの試み」日
本語教育1
11号
北原保雄 (2004)「問題な日本語」大修館書店
金水敏 (2006) 「現代に生きる古典日本語」日本語教育国際研究大会 招待パネル発表 コロン
ビア大学
金水敏 (2007) "On "Role Language" in Contemporary Japanese: An Investigation on
Prototypical Styles in Japanese"
Japan Forum Invited speech, Harvard University
Akemi Morioka (2009) Teaching Japanese with Content-Based Instruction (CBI):
Addressing critical thinking, learner autonomy, and motivation
http://www.bod.com/index.php?id=3435&objk_id=190524 (July 2011)
Donna M. Brinton (2007) Content-Based Instruction: Reflecting on its Applicability to the
Teaching of Korean 12th Annual Conference A,erican Association of Teachers of Korean,
Chicago, Illinois 2007
http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:xscH1YckcnkJ:www.aatk.org/www/html/confer
ence2007/pdf/Donna%2520Brinton.pdf+Brinton+CBI&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEES
g73pVXy9w1AFR75RJksAwRPUIYahoku42TNrRRL5HPAExO7hVUd4f0kwiS7eZVrJmVHZAcOIN55
Sp3eVLCDmSzlUQHqT7hUN6Ki_BrbySyoYNpD5kHuZRtkPUgofbvjDy2Auk&sig=AHIEtbRK
Q6Tz_AW63M0qL2TYt3WknhGOtw&pli=1 (July 2011)
Descargar

社会人日本語教育の現状-ボストン日本協会を例として …