U
U
UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA
B
T. Navés [email protected] Dpt. Anglès. Facultat de Filologia
Tel. (34) 93 403 58 66
Fax (34) 93 317 12 49
Características de los
programas AICLE
efectivos
T. Navés [email protected]
www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves/Conventions/Sevilla08
http://www.nicenet.org/ CLASS KEY:SZ07342A74
• Características de los buenos programas AICLE por T. Navés (2002)
[
Los programas de aprendizaje integrado de conocimientos curriculares y
lengua extranjera (AICLE) gozan de gran tradición en Europa y
América. En América, suelen incluir programas bilingües y de inmersión
destinados a enseñar una lengua extranjera y otros conocimientos
curriculares, mientras que en Europa tienen como objetivo enseñar una
segunda lengua o una lengua extranjera y otras asignaturas. La mayoría
de los programas AICLE pretenden ayudar al alumno a adquirir un alto
dominio de la lengua extranjera tanto si se trata de alumnos que hablan
una lengua minoritaria, o alumnos con competencia limitada en inglés, o
de alumnos que aprenden inglés como segunda lengua. Los supuestos de
los programas de AICLE se basan en la investigación empírica y teórica
y son los siguientes: por un lado, el conocimiento que los alumnos tienen
de su primera lengua los ayuda a comprender mejor el inglés que oyen y
leen; por otro, el nivel de alfabetismo conseguido en la primera lengua
se transfiere a la segunda. Muchos investigadores están de acuerdo en
que el input comprensible resulta una condición necesaria para aprender
una lengua, mientras que unos pocos afirman que no es sólo una
condición necesaria, sino también suficiente.
CLIL-AICLE WEB SITES
1. Naves’ talk documents
http://www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves/Sevilla2008
2. Naves’ CLIL Bibliography
http://lada.fil.ub.es/Angles/Documents/
NavesCLILBibliography.pdf
3. Naves’ CLIL web site http://www.ub.es/filoan/CLIL.html
4. Naves’ Homepage
http://www.ub.es/filoan/naves.html
http://www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves/
Terminología
•
•
•
•
CBT Content-based Teaching
BE Bilingual Education (Programmes)
Inmersión Programmes
CLIL Content and Language Integrated
Learning
• AICLE Aprendizaje Integrado de
Contenidos y Lenguas Extranjeras /
Aprenentage Integrat de Continguts i
Llengües Estrangeres
Navés, T. (In press). Effective
Content and Language
Integrated Programmes.
In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (Ed.),
Content and Language
Integrated Learning: Evidence
from Research in Europe.
Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Navés, T. (2002). Successful CLIL
Programmes in Navés, T. Muñoz,
and C. Pavesi, M. Module 2:
Second Language Acquisition for
CLIL. In G. Langé & P. Bertaux
(Eds.), The CLIL Professional
Development Course (pp. 93-102).
Milan: Ministero della' Istruzione
della' Università e della Ricerca.
Direzione Regionale per la
Lombardia.
CBT/BE/IP/CLIL
PROGRAMAS
Vs.
CBT/BE/IP/CLIL
MÉTODOS Y METODOLOGÍAS
Europa: justificación de CLIL
Norteamérica: caracterización de
los programas AICLE eficaces, de
calidad
…in the last two decades, while in Europe and Asia the
main emphasis is still on describing the rationale
and benefits of implementing content and
language integrated (CLIL) approaches and
methodologies, in North America the emphasis has
shifted to further investigating the characteristics of
efficient immersion and bilingual education
programmes. (Navés, en prensa)
Metodologías versus Programas
As
important
as
CLIL
teaching
methodology may be, it is just one among
many other features efficient CLIL
programmes have in common. The one
feature which all efficient CLIL
programmes share is that they are
PROGRAMMES of varying length which
provide, nevertheless, a substantially
greater and better exposure to the target
language. (Navés, en prensa)
Los prejuicios y creencias en
la implantación de CLIL
The defensive attitude that can be inferred from
researchers’ need to justify, time and time again,
the rationale and benefits of integrating language
and subject content rather than further
investigating the commonalities of efficient
CLIL programmes may have to do with pressure
from
(a) folk beliefs and prejudices against
bilingualism and multilingualism and
(b) political interests. (Navés, en prensa)
El debate sobre la educación bilingüe es
político: hay sobrada evidencia empírica
y el fracaso escolar de las minorías
tiene que ver con la relación de poder
“I argue (...) that the debate on bilingual education must be
considered in the political contexts for two reasons: first, the
research findings on the effects of bilingual education are both
abundant and clear; the common perception that research is either
largely unavailable and/or inadequate is a myth generated by
strong vested interests. The second reason for examining closely
the political context of the issue is that the educational changes
required to reverse the pattern of language minority group school
failure are essentially political changes because they involve
changes in the power relations between dominant and dominated
groups”. (Cummins, 1995, p. 63 en Navés, en prensa)
Norteamérica - Europa
A. Cohen,
J. Cummins,
S. Krashen,
B. Mohan,
M. A. Snow,
M. Swain
USA (CA)
CTB / BE
(ESL)
J. Cenoz (UPV),
D. Coley,
F. Genesee,
D. Marsh,
C. Muñoz (UB),
D. Nunan,
M. Pavesi,
J. Trim
UE
Cataluña,
CANADA UK
CLIL
País Vasco.
Inmersión BE
AICLE Inmersión
(ESL)
Multiling
(ELF-FL) (SL)
(ESL)
Norteamérica vs. Europa
Norteámerica
USA (CA)
CTB / BE
ESL
Europa
CANADA UK
Inmersión BE
ESL
EU
CLIL
AICLE
ESL
EFL/FL
LEAP
LEAP
Inmigrantes
Inmigrantes
Hispanos
Francés
Heter
Homog
Catalonia,
Basque C.
Inmersión
SL
Multiling
Homog
Hom
LAS DOS DIFERNCIAS
ENTRE INMERSIÓN &
EDUCACIÓN BILINGÜE
• EL USO DE LA LENGUA MATERNA The
language of initial instruction. BE – whether
Transitional BE or Two-Way BE – provides
instruction in learners’ mother tongue while most
if not all initial instruction in IM is conducted in L2
• UNILINGUALISMO
In Inmersión programmes all learners are initially
unilingual in L1 whereas in BE native speakers
of the target language are mixed with LML
POR QUÉ CLIL /CTB/
BE/ IMMERSION?
1. El factor de la L1. The L1 factor. To help LEP
students. (BE) (Krashen)
2. La transferibilidad de las habilidades. The transfer
of literacy skills factor (BE, IP) (Cummins)
3. El factor exposición. Cantidad de Input. The
exposure factor. To increase SL and FL contact hours
(Inmersión & CLIL) (Muñoz, Cenoz, Nussbaum,
Long)
4. La calidad del input. Aprendizaje significativo.
The quality of the input. (Krashen, Cummins)
5. El énfasis en el significado. The focus-on meaning
factor (Cummins, Long, Doughty, Ellis)
1. El factor de la L1
The L1 factor
• Second language acquisition research
has shown that the level of proficiency
in the first language has a direct
influence on the development of
proficiency in the second language.
• The lack of continuing first language
development has been found, in some
cases, to inhibit the levels of second
language proficiency and cognitive
academic growth. (Krashen, 1997)
2. La transferibilidad de las
habilidades. The literacy skills transfer
factor
• Knowledge and skills acquired in the native
language--literacy in particular—are transferable
to the second language. (Krashen, 1996;
Cummins, 1992).
• The knowledge that children get through
their first language helps make the English they
hear and read more comprehensible. (Krashen
1997)
• Literacy developed in the primary language
transfers to the second language. (Krashen 1997)
3. El factor exposición, cantidad
de input. The exposure factor
• Muñoz and Nussbaum (1997), suggest using
content-based programmes as one way of
providing extra exposure to the target language in
foreign language settings in particular, as one way
of compensating the so limited exposure to the
target language learners get from traditional foreign
language instruction.
• Cummins (1981) (Collier, 1987). suggests that basic
interpersonal communication skills (BICS), are relatively
easy to acquire, taking only 1 to 2 years, but that and
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP), is
much more difficult, taking 5 to 7 years and necessitating
direct teaching of the language in the academic context.
4. La calidad del input. El
aprendizaje significativo. The
Quality of the Input
• Krashen (1982), among others, suggests that a second
language is most successfully acquired when the
conditions are similar to those present in first
language acquisition: that is,
– when the focus of instruction is on meaning rather
than on form;
– when the language input is at or just above the
proficiency of the learner (i+1); and
– when there is sufficient opportunity to engage in
meaningful use of that language in a relatively anxietyfree environment
5. El énfasis en el significado.The focus-on
meaning factor (Cummins, Long, Doughty,
Ellis)
• SLA researchers have posed that
language is acquired most
effectively when it is learned for
communication in meaningful and
significant social contexts.
Características de
los PROGRAMAS
CLIL EFECTIVOS
1.
RESPECTO Y APOYO A LA LENGUA
Y CULTURA MATERNAS.
RESPECT AND SUPPORT FOR
LEARNERS’ L1 AND HOME
CULTURE
1. SCLILP acknowledge and support learners’
home language and culture
2. At early stages learners may use their L1
3. Language arts (reading, writing...) are
introduced in L1 and at different stages.
4. At early stages but also provide some
academic instruction in learners’L1.
2. PROFESORADO BILINGÜE Y
MULTLINGÜE. MULTILINGUAL
AND BILINGUAL TEACHERS
1. Most teachers are bilingual although in IM
programmes they only speak in the TLwhile
showing understanding of learners’ L1 by
responding appropriately and rephrasing
learners’ remarks made in their L1.
2. Learners are allowed to use their home
language at early stages
3. but they are requested to use L2 only at
primary school
3. PROGRAMAS DUALES, NO
SEGREGADOS NI
OBLIGATORIOS.
INTEGRATED DUAL LANGUAGE
OPTIONAL PROGRAMMES.
• Target language instruction is not
structured or of a pull-out nature
but rather contextualized,
integrated.
• Sheltered, in BE programmes
4. INVOLUCRACIÓN
ACTIVA DE LAS AMPAS.
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
• Parental involvement
is pivotal in any
SCLILP
5. COORDINACIÓN
CONJUNTA DE TODOS LES
ESTAMENTOS
IMPLICADOS.JOINT
EFFORT OF ALL PARTIES
• SCLILP require the joint effort
of all parties involved:
educational authorities,
parents and teachers at both
district and school level
6. LONGEVIDAD Y
ESTABILIDAD DE LAS
PLANTILLAS. LONG-TERM
STABLE TEACHING STAFF
Longevity and Stability
• One of the key factors to the
success of these programmes is
longevity which includes not only
the continuity of the programme but
also the stability of teaching
teams.
7. El PERFIL Y FORMACIÓN
DEL PROFESORADO
TEACHERS’ PROFILE AND
TRAINING
• Teacher training must be
tailored to meet the specific
needs of CLIL instruction
8. EXPECTATIVAS Y ALTOS
ESTÀNDARES DE EVALUACIÓN
HIGH EXPECTATIONS &
ASSESSMENT
• Teachers have high
expectations about learners’
performance and degree of
academic achievement.
9. EXISTENCIA DE
MATERIALES APROPIADOS
APPROPRIATE
MATERIALS
• Oakes (2002) argues that there is a clear link
between appropriate materials and curriculum and
student academic outcome.
• Navés & Muñoz (1999) pointed out how
important appropriate materials were for CLIL
programmes to be successful.
• Mahone (1984) conducted a need analysis in the
US to look at the appropriacy of existing materials
used in BE. The picture which he described
unfortunately still applies to many CLIL contexts
in which there are not enough teaching materials
available
10. METODOLOGÍA EN CLIL
CLIL METHODOLOGY
LAS 5 ESTRATEGIAS PARA
MEJORAR LA
COMPRENSIÓN EN CLIL
Numrich (1989) focuses on five strategies to
improve the comprehension of content in CLIL.
• (1) predicting on the basis of prior knowledge,
• (2) anticipating what will be read next,
• (3) using statements to check comprehension of a
text during reading,
• (4) analysing text organization by looking for
specific patterns, and
• (5) classifying to facilitate comprehension of
similarities and differences.
10a. Teachers exhibit active
teaching behaviours by
1. Giving instructions clearly,
2. Accurately describing tasks,
3. Maintaining learners’ engagement in
instructional tasks
– by maintaining task focus,
– pacing instruction appropriately,
– and communicating their expectations
for students’success.
10b. In presenting new information
teachers use appropriate strategies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Demonstrating,
Outlining,
Using visuals,
Building redundancy,
Rephrasing,
Scaffolding,
Linking new information to learners’ previous
knowledge,
8. Etc.
(Adapted from Navés et al. in press)
10c. Teachers monitor
students’ progress
1. Teachers monitor students’ progress
and provide immediate feedback
whenever required.
2. They check comprehension constantly
resulting in high levels of
communication between teachers and
learners and among learners
themselves.
10d. Receptive skills.
Students’ responses.
1. Effective instruction is aided by allowing
learners to respond in a wide variety of
ways: from verbal responses both in L1
and L2 to non-verbal responses
(responding by doing) in early stages
but are gradually expected to respond
only in the TL once they show enough
commandof the TL.
2. At the early stages, emphasis is on the
development of receptive skills.
10e. High cognitively
demanding tasks.
• Following Cummins, SCLILP
consistently integrate cognitively
demanding academic skills and
content and the TL.
10f. Learners’ home culture
• Teachers respond to and use
information from their students’ home
cultures,
– using cultural references,
– organising instruction to build upon
participant structures from students’
home culture and
– observing the values and norms of
students’ home culture.
10g. Task-based learning
Task- work includes:
– hands-on tasks,
– Experiential learning,
– Problem-solving tasks, etc.
10h. Cognitive skills integrated
in the CLIL programme
• Cognitive abilities and processes
such as
–
–
–
–
–
identifying,
comparing,
drawing conclusions,
inferring
finding similarities and differences,...
are integrated in the design of the programme.
10i. Co-operative and
autonomous learning
• Collaborative learning,
• Autonomous learning and
• Self-directed learning
are also suggested by some
CLIL specialists.
3. http://www.ub.es/filoan/CLIL.html
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4. http://www.ub.es/filoan/naves.html
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CBT
Back
•
Content-based ESL is a method that integrates English-as-a-secondlanguage instruction with subject matter instruction. The technique
focuses not only on learning a second language, but using that language
as a medium to learn mathematics, science, social studies, or other
academic subjects. (Reilly, Tarey 1988)
• CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. In this approach-also called integrated language and content instruction--ESL, bilingual,
or foreign language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks,
and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for
developing language, content, cognitive, and study skills. The second
language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science,
social studies, and other academic subjects. Instruction is usually given
by a language teacher or by a combination of the language and content
teachers.(Crandall, JoAnn , 1994)
BE
The term bilingual education can refer to many different
teaching approaches; terms such as "language
submersion", "transitional bilingual education," "two-way
Inmersión" and "maintenance bilingual education" refer to
the various ways that curriculum content instruction (math,
social studies, science) can be combined or integrated with
English language instruction. Some approaches provide
varying degrees of support in the students' native language,
while others preserve and build on the students' native
language skills as they learn English
(C. Sund 1999)
Back
CLIL
• This approach involves learning subjects such as
history, geography and others, through an additional
language.
(Marsh, 2000)
• Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is
a general expression used to refer to any teaching of
non-language subject through the medium of a second
or foreign language (L2).
(Pavesi, 2001)
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AICLE
• Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenidos
Curriculares y Lenguas Extranjeras implica
estudiar asignaturas como historia o
ciencias naturales en una lengua distinta de
la propia. AICLE resulta muy beneficioso
tanto para el aprendizaje de otras lenguas
(francés, inglés, ...) como para las
asignaturas impartidas en dichas lenguas.
Navés, T. & Muñoz, C. 2000
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