Geography Conference,
Canberra 20th July 2006
Methods for Teaching
Stage
4 & 5 Geography.
Sidsel Groth Farrimond
Moriah College
– 4G4 Climate Change
– 5A3 Pyrmont Webquest
– 5A1 Natural Hazards Rotation
– 4G3 & 5A4 Teaching Controversial Issues
Blooms & Anderson
Gardne
r
Blooms & Anderson
•Knowledge
Remember recall
•Comprehension
Understand explain
•Application
Apply
use
•Analysis
Analyse differentiate
•Synthesis
Evaluate justify
•Evaluation
Design create
Logical /
mathematica
l
Picture
spatial
Musical /
rythmic
Interpersonal
Body /
kinesthetic
Gardner
Verbal /
linguistic
Naturalistic
Intrapersonal
Focus Area 4G4 Global Issues
and the Role of Citizenship
Global geographical issues
•
global geographical issues, which must include:
– access to fresh water
– climate change
– energy use
– human rights
– indigenous people and self-determination
– land degradation
– threatened habitats
– tourism
– urbanisation
– use of ocean resources
•
•
•
•
recognise global geographical issues
describe the nature of global geographical issues
the need to promote ecological sustainability
explain the links between human actions and the consequences for ecological sustainability on a global scale
At least TWO global geographical issues selected from the list above:
•
the nature of the issue
•
describe the spatial dimensions of the issue
•
describe the ecological dimensions of the issue
•
different perspectives relevant to the issue
•
identify perspectives and bias about the issue,
including in media reports
•
the responsibility of governments to the issue
•
describe the actions of individuals, groups and
governments in relation to the issue
•
the actions of individuals, groups and governments
•
implications for social justice and equity
•
communicate appropriately with organisations to
participate as a global citizen
Climate Change
What is it?
Task




What do I know?
What do I want to
know?
How will I find out?
What have I learnt?
Intrapersonal
Is climate change responsible for
Hurricane Katrina???
No one can say that global warming
caused Hurricane Katrina. Gulf Coast,
August 29, 2005.
 …no single event can be blamed on the
weather as it is far too complex however,
 Most scientists agree that warmer oceans
are a precondition for hurricanes to form.

Definition
http://www.unep.org/themes/climatechange/About/index.asp

Climate change is one of the most critical global
challenges of our time. Recent events have emphatically
demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate
change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting
agriculture, further endangering food security, sea-level
rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones,
increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction
and the spread of vector-borne diseases.
Picture
spatial
Climate mash..
 http://www.climatemash.org/

Musical /
rythmic
It’s a bit like.. & deniers
“ my grandmother died
of lung cancer, she
smoked for 25 years –
smoking killed her”
 Many people who have
never smoked die of lung
cancer
 ‘..upping the probability’

Perspectives

“the administration (White House)
opposes the Kyoto Protocol
because its mandatory emissions
cuts would punish the American
economy… it would also dry up
the capital needed to fund the
technological research that will
ultimately solve global warming.”
Positives – BP Solar research
Task
Earth Summit, group work, take the
position of different nation and
research, debate, conclude on
issues of climate change.
Naturalistic
Body /
kinesthetic
Verbal /
linguisti
•Comprehension
Understand explain
•Evaluation
Design create
Focus Area 5A3 Issues in
Australian Environments
Geographical issues
•
geographical issues affecting Australian environments including:
– air quality
– coastal management
– spatial inequality
– urban growth and decline
– land and water management
– waste management
•
describe each geographical issue in relation to:
– its nature
– its impacts
– the responses by individuals,
groups and governments to the issue
•
outline how a range of geographical issues are affecting Australian environments
At least TWO geographical issues affecting Australian environments, selected from the list above:
–
the geographical processes relevant to the issue
–
the perceptions of different groups about the issue
–
individual, group and government responses to the issue
–
decision-making processes involved in the management of the issue
–
management of the issue and implications for sustainability, social justice and equity
•
explain the interaction of the physical and human elements of the environment
• recognise the responsibility of the levels of government to the issue
• propose actions that promote:
– sustainability
– social justice
– equity
• evaluate the success of individuals, groups and the levels of government in managing the issue
Pyrmont – Ultimo case study
Fieldtrip
Including: Teacher guided walk, activities
including : line drawings, photo sketches,
public survey.
Naturalistic
•Application
Apply
use
Interpersonal
•Comprehension
Understand explain
Webquest
http://www.studentnet.net.au/library/Subjects/Geography/PyrmontWebquest.htm
URBAN GROWTH AND DECLINE
A virtual Lesson for Stage 5 Geography students
 Task: You are to take on one of the role of either
developer, resident or council member and argue their
views towards development considering the history of
development in the area.
Body /
kinesthetic
Picture
spatial

•Application
Students choose a role, complete questions, web research, partner work, oral
Apply
use
presentation, written proposal.
Developer: You have been given the opportunity to get a huge commission if you can
get a development proposal in Pyrmont through the council. Your task is to convince
the council to accept the development application. You will need to address the
council with an oral presentation and written submission.
 Resident: Your family have been living in Pyrmont for several generations and there
have been many changes. The local council is considering a new development
application and with approval there will be big changes in your area. You need to put
forward the view (or views) of the local homeowners and community in opposing
further development of Pyrmont. You will need to address the council with an oral
presentation and written submission.
 Council member: You are a member of council who is responsible for collecting the
facts and a fair perspective on development in Pyrmont. It is important for your
political career to be aware of previous policies and programs of local councils. You
need to address the council meeting with the governments perspective on
development in Pyrmont and should it go well you could be up for Mayor in the next
election.
Future: Redfern

•Synthesis
Evaluate justify
•Comprehension
Understand explain
•Evaluation
Design create
Verbal /
linguistic
Focus Area 5A1 Investigating
Australia’s Physical
Environments
Physical characteristics that make Australia unique
• natural hazards in Australia including:
– bushfires
– tropical cyclones
– earthquakes
– floods
– storms
– droughts
•
describe the range of natural hazards in Australia and their
consequences
At
•
•
•
least ONE natural hazard from the list above:
the nature of the natural hazard in Australia
the geographical processes involved
the impacts of the natural hazard:
– economic
– environmental
– social
• the responsibility and responses of individuals, groups and various levels of
government to the impact of the natural hazard
Picture
spatial
Rotation
Farrimond, Kerstens, Matthew, 2006
Musical /
rythmic
Logical /
Why?
mathematica
 Behaviour management
l
 Development of strong, well resourced, confident
classes.
Requirements
•Application
Apply
use
 Cross timetable
 Willing staff
•Comprehension
Understand explain
Future?
 Student Evaluation
•Evaluation
 Assessment
Design create
 Allow a few catch up, extra lessons
Naturalistic
Verbal /
linguistic
Bushfires
Individual
 Theory &
Comprehension using
case studies.
 Literacy

Earthquakes
Group work
 Introduction – Movie
maker
 ICT task: Movie
maker

Cyclones





Individual
Introduction –
Moviemaker
Case Study –
Cyclone Larry
Powerpoint
Media File online
research
On the ground
roving reporter.
Teaching Controversial Issues
Focus Area 4G3 Global Change
Focus Area 5A4 Australia in Its
Regional and Global Contexts
Citizens of the future: what that future
holds is uncertain.
 Some teaching and learning
methodologies include discussion and
debate, role-play, ranking exercises, and
communities of enquiry.

What are controversial issues?
‘Issues that are likely to be sensitive or
controversial are these that have a political,
social or personal impact and arouse feeling
and/or deal with questions of value or belief.’
 Controversial issues can be local or global, such
as bullying, religion, politics, personal lifestyle or
values.
i.e. examine the effects of multinationals
promoting GM crops to farmers in developing
countries

•Analysis
Analyse differentiate
Intrapersonal
Naturalistic
•Evaluation
Design create
Controversial issues can help
develop thinking skills
● Information-processing skills enable pupils to gather, sort, classify, sequence, compare
and contrast information, and to make links between pieces of information.
● Reasoning skills enable pupils to justify opinions and actions, to draw inferences and
make deductions, to use appropriate language to explain their views, and to use
evidence to back up their decisions.
● Enquiry skills enable pupils to ask relevant questions, to plan what to do and how to
research, to predict outcomes and anticipate responses, to test theories and
problems, to test conclusions, and to refine their ideas and opinions.
● Creative thinking skills enable pupils to generate and extend ideas, to suggest possible
hypotheses, to use their imagination, and to look for alternative outcomes.
● Evaluation skills enable pupils to evaluate what they read, hear and do, to learn to
judge the value of their own and others’ work or ideas, not to take all information at
face value, and to have confidence in their own judgements.
Teaching controversial issues will
develop students:
Skills
● Critical thinking
● Ability to argue effectively
● Ability to challenge injustice and
inequalities
● Respect for people and things
● Co-operation and conflict
resolution
Values and attitudes
● Sense of identity and selfesteem
● Empathy
● Commitment to social justice
and equity
● Value and respect for diversity
● Concern for the environment
and commitment to
sustainable development
● Belief that people can make a
difference
Media: a fabulous resource
● Disaster, Doom & Gloom rather
than ‘good’ news sell.
● Media, governments and
corporations combine to direct
and influence global public
opinion.
For example, a large amount of
space is devoted to the war on
terror, whereas the threat of
climate change, which is likely
to affect more people than the
war on terror, is given little
space in the media.
Headlines promote stereotypes.
Sudan is 'most dangerous place' for kids
 War has made Sudan, Uganda and Congo the world's
three most dangerous places for children, a poll of
humanitarian experts shows.
SMH 11June, 2006
North Korean Headlines June 2006
Defiant North Korea rejects UN resolution
 North Korea said on Saturday it "totally rejects" a UN resolution
imposing sanctions for its recent missile tests and vowed to
continue missile launches to bolster its self-defence.
 SMH 16th June, 2006
N Korea has many targets but not us: PM
 Many countries are potential targets of North Korean missiles but
there is no expectation Australia will be specifically targeted, Prime
Minister John Howard says.
 SMH 7 June, 2006
North Korea denies hostile intent
 Reclusive North Korea is insisting that its missile launches are not an
attack on anyone and that it has acted within its rights as a nation.
 SMH 7 June, 2006
Bush rings PM over North Korea sanctions
 US President George W Bush has rung Prime Minister John Howard to
lobby support for potential sanctions against North Korea over its test
launch of seven missiles this week.
 SMH & June, 2006
A snapshot of current conflicts
in the world
Afghan War (part of America’s world-wide War on Terrorism)—
Al-Aqsa Intifada (Israeli-Palestinian Conflict) (high-risk to become a regional war)-Algerian Civil War—(1992-Present)
Basque Separatist Conflict—(1958-Present): The rebel group called Basque Fatherland and Liberty guerrilla group
(ETA) has waged an urban guerrilla movement against the Spanish government. Approx 800 dead attributed to
the ETA's campaign.
Burma (Myanmar) Civil War—(1948-Present)
Burundi Civil War—(1994-Present)
Colombian Civil War—(1964-Present)
Congo: Second Congolese War (This IS a regional war)—(1998-Present) “Africa’s World War.”
Chechnya (Russia): Second Chechen War-Israeli Airstrikes on Syrian Forces in Lebanon—Part of ongoing conflict between Israel and Syria in
Lebanon. (high-risk to become a regional war)—
Israeli –Syrian Border Clashes—Part of ongoing conflict between Israel and Syria in Lebanon. (high-risk
to become a regional war)—
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict-àSee Al-Aqsa Intifada (above)-- (high-risk to become a regional war)—
Kashmir Conflict (high-risk to become a regional war)—(1991-Present): India and Pakistan
Nepal Civil War—(Feb. 13, 1996- Present)
Northern Ireland Conflict—(1969-Present):
Rwandan Civil War—(1994-Present)
Sri Lankan Civil War—(1983-Present)
Sudanese Civil War—(1983-Present): racial, religious and regional differences.
War on Terrorism—Officially beginning Oct. 7, 2001,
Ugandan Civil War--
Task: What is terrorism?
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
War on Terror or War on Poverty








Discuss what terrorism means to different groups, communities
Map and summarise recent event and alleged perpetrators. Students
will need to research newspapers, CD Roms, library databases and
journals available.
Create a mindmap which makes links between poverty and terrorism
(the population source of willing participants in the activities of
‘terror’).
Identify and list the countries identified as fighting the war on
terrorism.
Identify and list the countries identified as having terrorist links.
Give students these one of the above countries to complete a profile
on. Compare standards of living, literacy, life expectancy, literacy,
GDP..
Class debate: Is it a war on terror or a war on poverty we need?
Survey other students, home to establish the school community
perspectives.
•Synthesis
Evaluate justify
Naturalistic
•Analysis
Analyse differentiate
•Evaluation
Design create
United Nations
Declaration of
Human Rights
Article 26.

(1) Everyone has the right to
education. Education shall be free, at least in
the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary
education shall be compulsory. Technical and
professional education shall be made generally
available and higher education shall be equally
accessible to all on the basis of merit.

(2)

(3)
Education shall be directed to the full
development of the human personality and to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding,
tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or
religious groups, and shall further the activities of the
United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of
education that shall be given to their children.
Picture
spatial
Social justice and equity. Do boys
deserve education more than
girls?
•Comprehension
Tasks
Understand explain
 Create a media portfolio of countries showing
examples of poverty and wealth around the
world. Investigate the global inequalities for
children around the world.
 Research children in other less developed
countries and their roles eg. Child soldiers, work,
roles and responsibilities. Create profiles for
children worldwide to enter onto a database so
that comparisons can be made.
 Compare life cycles of children around the world,
use pictures.
•Analysis
Analyse differentiate
Logical /
mathematica

Produce a report on a country and identify the
access boys and girls have to: education, food,
health, shelter, water. Use desktop publishing,
insert a fact file, table, maps, graphs. This could
be an oral presentation, powerpoint or poster.
•Synthesis Evaluate justify

Create a webpage as a class which will explore
the rights and responsibilities of women around
the world. Groups of 2-3 students to investigate
different countries. Create a fact file with the
rights of women to education, to vote, work,
literacy rates..

Write 'a day in the life' for the woman. Write
what her future holds for her.
•Comprehension
Understand explain
Verbal /
linguistic
Sustainable development.
Local  global question time
1.
Using a newspaper report or a magazine article on an
environmental issue, such as drought, climate change
How does it affect people in your local area?
•Knowledge
How does it affect people in Australia?
Remember recall
How does it affect people around the world?
How does it affect the natural environment?
What are the causes of it?
Are the causes the same for people around the world?
Interpersona
What are the solutions to it?
l
Are the solutions the same for people around the world?
When something happens in one part of the world, does it affect
people in other places?
● How is this a global issue?
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Naturalistic
Intrapersonal
•Comprehension
Understand explain
Globalisation and interdependence. Cartoon Interpretation
What do you think this cartoon is about?
What are the main differences between the two G8 statements?
Which statement is more likely to be read in the news? Why?
•Synthesis
Evaluate justify
Picture
spatial
Cartoons - Nicholson
Community of enquiry
1. Questions that seek clarification:

Can you explain that…? Explaining

What do you mean by…? Defining

Can you give me an example of…? Giving
examples

How does that help…? Supporting

Does anyone have a question to ask…?
Enquiring
2. Questions that probe reasons and evidence:

Why do you think that…? Forming an
argument

How do you know that…? Assumptions

What are your reasons…? Reasons

Do you have evidence…? Evidence

Can you give me an example/counterexample…? Counter examples
3. Questions that explore alternative views

Can you put it another way…? Re-stating a
view

Is there another point of view…?
Speculation

What if someone else were to suggest
that…? Alternative views

What would someone who disagreed with
you say…? Counter arguments

What is the difference between those
views/ideas…? Distinctions
4. Questions that test implications and
consequences

What follows from what you say…?
Implications

Does it agree with what you said earlier…?
Consistency

What would be the consequence of that…?
Consequences

Is there a general rule for that...?
Generalising rules

How could you test to see if it were true…?
Testing for truth
5. Questions about the question/discussion

Do you have a question about that…?
Questioning

What kind of question is it…? Analysing

How does what was said/the question help
us…? Connecting

Where have we got to/who can summarise
so far…? Summarising

Are we any closer to answering the
question/problem…? Coming to conclusions
Debriefing

Ask the children for a final statement in
relation to the question.
Professor Robert Fisher in his book Teaching Thinking 2nd edition, Continuum 2003
Picture
spatial
The power of images
•Synthesis
Evaluate justify
Why and how certain images of disasters of world events are used, do
they give a complete picture?
 What might be the purpose of the photograph?
 Who is it appealing to?
 What might be going on outside the frame of the photograph?
 Who took the picture?
 What different photographs could have been used?
Are bananas the new flowers?
SMH June 13, 2006
Israeli strikes pound
Lebanon
SMH Sunday July 16, 2006
Mombai, India
Train Bombs
2006
11/7/2006
•Analysis
Analyse differentiate
Resources
• Education for Global Citizenship: A Guide for Schools,
Oxfam 2006.
• Free to download from
www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/teachers/globciti/index.htm
• Useful websites
– www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet
– www.qca.org.uk/citizenship
– www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk
• Cool Planet (www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet) contains
many downloadable lesson plans and activities, plus
photo-stories, online resources.
• © Oxfam GB 2006. All rights reserved.
Out of left field
Blooms Activity
Treaty of Waitangi
Remembering
Factual answers, recall and
recognition
1. Write a newspaper article about the events
of 6 February 1840. Include a
map/picture.
(5)
2. Draw a timeline to show the key events
before and after 6 February 1840
(5)
3. Imagine a group of people
involved in the events of 6
February 1840. Write a roleplay of their discussion.
(5)
Understanding
Translating, interpreting,
showing
understanding
4. Design a pamphlet outlining the purpose of
the Waitangi Tribunal.
(10)
5. Translate the original English version
of the Treaty into modern English.
(5)
6. Draw a poster showing the
differences between Maori
and English at the time the
Treaty was signed.
(5)
Applying
Using information gained
in different, familiar
situations
7. How is the Treaty of Waitangi different or
similar to one other Treaty?
(15)
8. Write a ‘Rove’ interview with Hone
Heke after the chopping of the flag
pole.
(10)
9. Write an essay explaining how the
Treaty of Waitangi applied to
the Quota Management
System.
(10)
Analysing
Break into parts to examine
more closely
10. Identify the controversial words in the
Treaty. Explain why the are
controversial.
(10)
11. Explain why Maori wanted a Treaty
with the British Crown.
(5)
12. Find two different books or
articles on the Treaty.
Compare the viewpoints of the
authors.
(15)
Evaluating
Judge, use criteria, rank,
substantiate
13. Rank all the key people involved in the
signing of the Treaty according to a
criteria you select. Justify their ranks.
(10)
14. Which version (English or Maori) of
the Treaty should be honoured?
Justify your choice.
(10)
15. Design a simple questionnaire
about the Treaty. Ask 10
people and analyse the results.
(15)
Creating
Combine information with
new situations to
create new products,
ideas, etc.
16. Create an information booklet on the
Treaty of Waitangi suitable for new
immigrants to new Zealand.
(10)
17. Design a New Zealand flag. Provide a
written explanation of the colours
and symbols used.
(5)
18. Write a role play of the signing of
the treaty, with this version
Henry Williams provides a
more literal/accurate
translation.
(10)
Total points Required: 20
Teaching Practice Summary
• Importance of variety
• Student engagement
• Stimulus & content to be relevant &
contemporary
• Use technology
• Balance teacher & student centered tasks
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