Population
Geography
Population Geography:
Demography
Attempts to answer the question:
Who are these people?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethnicity
Religion
Language
Income (GDP pc)
Literacy
Population Growth
• Birth Rate
• Death Rate
• Infant Mortality Rate
• Life Expectancy
• Migration Rates
•…and more!
Ethnicity
Religion
Protestant
Orthodox
Catholic
Shi’a
Islam
Sunni
Islam
Map of Islam
(Muslims)
Two Sects of Islam:
Shi’a vs. Sunni
Former Yugoslavia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
3 Political Units:
• Republika Srpska
• Republika BiH
• Brcko District
(part of both)
Result of the 1995
Dayton Accords
Former Yugoslavia
COUNTRY
RELIGION
ETHNICITY
Slovenia
Croatia
Bosnia
58% Catholic
88% Catholic
40% Islam
30% Orthodox
15% Catholic
64% Orthodox
33% Islam
85% Orthodox
83% Slovene
90% Croat
43% Bosnian
31% Serb
17% Croat
64% Macedonian
25% Albanian
65% Serb
14% Hungarian
43% Montenegrin
24% Serb
13% Albanian
88% Albanian
Macedonia
Serbia
Montenegro
74% Orthodox
18% Islam
Kosovo
70% Islam
Former Yugoslavia Today
Slovenia 1990
Croatia 1991
Bosnia 1992
Macedonia 1992
Serbia (remained
“Yugoslavia” with Montenegro
until 2003)
PRISTINA
Montenegro 2006
Kosovo 2008
Vojvodina?
Kosovo
Population Statistics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Birth Rate per 1,000
Death Rate per 1,000
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) per 1,000
Overall Population Growth Rate
Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000
Life Expectancy
Literacy Rate
GDP per capita
Birth and Death Rates
BR DR
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Azerbaijan
U.S
Moldova
Albania
Armenia
Macedonia
Russia
Cyprus
Slovakia
Belarus
26
18
17
17
14
13
12
13
12
12
11
11
11
6
6
5
7
8
13
6
8
9
14
6
10
14
(CIA World Factbook)
BR DR
Croatia
Estonia
Latvia
Ukraine
Poland
Bosnia
Greece
Slovenia
Romania
Hungary
Bulgaria
Serbia
Germany
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
12
14
14
16
10
9
10
11
12
13
14
14
11
Rate of Natural Increase
RNI*
Birth Rate
- Death Rate
RNI
* Does NOT include population changes due to migration!
Rate of Natural Increase
RNI
Tajikistan
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Azerbaijan
U.S
Albania
Cyprus
Armenia
Macedonia
Slovakia
Moldova
Poland
Bosnia
20
12
12
10
6
6
5
5
3
1
0
0
0
RNI
Greece
Croatia
Slovenia
Czech
Russia
Germany
Romania
Belarus
Estonia
Latvia
Hungary
Serbia
Bulgaria
Ukraine
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-3
-3
-3
-4
-4
-4
-5
-5
-6
Rate of Natural Increase
Russians
get
day
off
to
The Denver Post
12/24/2007
procreate, then win prizes
Moscow - A Russian region of Ulyanovsk has found a novel way to fight the
nation's birth-rate crisis: It has declared Sept. 12 the Day of Conception and
for the third year running is giving couples time off from work to procreate.
The hope is for a brood of babies exactly nine months later on Russia's
national day. Couples who "give birth to a patriot" during the June 12
festivities win money, cars, refrigerators and other prizes.
Russia, with one-seventh of Earth's land surface, has just 141.4 million
citizens, making it one of the most sparsely settled countries in the world.
With a low birth rate and a high death rate, the population has been
shrinking since the early 1990s.
In his state-of-the-nation address last year, President Vladimir Putin called
the demographic crisis the most acute problem facing Russia and
announced a broad effort to boost Russia's birth rate, including cash
incentives to families that have more than one child.
The 2007 grand prize went to Irina and Andrei Kartuzov, who received a
UAZ-Patriot, a sport utility vehicle. Other contestants won video cameras,
TVs, refrigerators and washing machines.
Population Growth Rate*
RNI
+ In-migration
- Out-migration
= PGR
* Includes population changes due to migration!
Population Growth Rate (per 1,000)
includes emi/immigration
Tajikistan
Cyprus
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Azerbaijan
U.S
Albania
Macedonia
Armenia
Slovakia
Montenegro
Poland
Bosnia
18
16
12
11
10
9
3
2
1
1
0
0
0
Russia
Greece
Czech
Croatia
Slovenia
Germany
Hungary
Belarus
Romania
Serbia
Ukraine
Latvia
Estonia
Bulgaria
Moldova
-1
-1
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-3
-5
-6
-6
-7
-8
-10
Population Growth Rate
Life Expectancy
75 to 90
71 to 74
65 to 70
54 to 64
30 to 53
But what about Literacy Rate?
Azerbaijan
Russia
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Turkmenistan
Moldova
Kyrgyzstan
Belarus
Baltics
Uzbekistan
Armenia
Bulgaria
Turkey
Romania
Hungary
99
100
100
100
99
99
99
100
100
99
100
98
87
97
99
Serbia
Poland
Slovakia
Macedonia
Croatia
Georgia
Czech
Slovenia
Albania
Cyprus
Bosnia
U.S
Greece
Germany
96
100
100
96
98
100
99
100
99
98
97
99
96
99
GDPpc vs. Literacy Rate
COUNTRY
LR % GDPpc
COUNTRY
Albania
Ukraine
Armenia
Georgia
Kyrgyzstan
Moldova
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
99
100
100
100
99
99
100
99
99
El Salvador
Algeria
Paraguay
Sri Lanka
Papua New Guinea
Gambia
Senegal
Guyana
Vietnam
$7,800
$7,200
$5,400
$5,400
$2,400
$3,400
$2,000
$7,500
$3,300
LR %
81
70
94
91
57
40
39
91
94
• Impact and Legacy of Socialism!
Language
600
• There are at least
living languages in
Europe!
• All languages are part of
a Language Family
– i.e. English, French,
Czech, Persian, Bengali:
all part of a language
family
• Language families
determined by historical
geography
European Languages
Abaza, Abkhaz, Aghul, Akhvakh, Albanian, Andi, Anglo-Romani, Aragonese,
Archi, Armenian, Aromanian, Asturian, Avar, Azerbaijani, Bagvalal, BalkanGagauz-Turkish, Balkan-Romani, Balkar, Baltic-Romani, Barranquenho,
Bashkir, Basque, Bats, Belarusian, Bezhta, Bohtan, Bosnian, Botlikh, Breton,
Budukh, Bulgarian, Cappadocian, Carpathian, Romani, Catalan, Chamalal,
Champenois, Chechen, Chuvash, Circassian, Cornish, Corsican, Crimean,
Tatar-Croatian, Cypriot-Arabic, Czech, Danish, Danish Traveller, Dgèrnésiais,
Domari, Dutch, English, Eonavian, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Fala, Faroese,
Finnish, Franco-Provençal, French, Frisian, Frisian Wymysojer, Friulian,
Gagauz, Galician, Gallo, Georgian, German, Ghodoberi, Greek, Gruzinic,
Gutnish, Hinukh, Hungarian, Hunzib, Iberian-Romani, Icelandic, Ingrian,
Ingush, Irish, Istriot, Istro-Romanian, Italian, Italkian, Izhorian, Jakati, Jèrriais,
Juhuri, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Kalo-Finnish-Romani, Karachay, Karaim, Karata,
Karelian, Kashubian, Khalaj, Khinalug, Khvarshi, Komi, Komi-Permyak,
Krymchak, Kryts, Kumyk, Kurdish, Ladino, Lak, Latin, Latvian, Lezgi,
Limburgish, Lithuanian, Livonian, Livvi, Lomavren, Lorraine, Low Saxon,
Ludic, Luxembourgish, Macedonian, Maghrebi Arabic, Maltese, Manx, Mari,
Megleno-Romanian, Megrelian, Meskhetian, Mirandese, Moksha, Moldovan,
Monégasque, Montenegrin, Nenets, Nogai, Norman Frisian, Norwegian,
Norwegian Traveller, Occitan, Ossetic, Palityan, Picard, Poitevin-Saintongeais,
Polari, Polish, Pontic, Portuguese, Quinqui, Rifi, Romanian, Romano-Greek,
Romani, Romansh, Russian, Ruthenian, Rutul, Sami, Sardinian, Sater Frisian,
Scanian, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian, Shelta, Sinte, Slovak, Slovenian,
Sorbian, Spanish, Svan, Swedish, Tabasaran, Taleshi, Tat, Tatar, Tavringer
Romani, Tindi Traveller, Scottish, Tsakhur, Tsakonian, Tsez, Turkish, Turkmen,
Tver Karelian, Udi, Udmurt, Ukrainian, Urum, Veps, Vlakh Romani, Võro-Seto,
Votic, Walloon, Welsh, Welsh Romani, Yeniche, Yiddish
Language Divisions
Language Family: Indo-European
Language Branch:
Slavic
Language Group:
East Slavic
West Slavic
South Slavic
Languages:
E: Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian
W: Polish, Czech, Slovak
S: Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian, etc.
Language
Families of
Europe
• Indo-European
• Finno-Ugric
• Turkic
Diffusion of
Languages
Indo-European
Alexander the Great
Indo-European Branches
Baltic
Germanic
Latvian
German
Lithuanian
Romance
Slavic
Romanian
Moldovan
Russian
“Mutually
Intelligible”
Czech
Polish
Slovak
Bulgarian
Slovenian
Croatian
Serbian
Belarusian
Ukrainian
Macedonian
Bosnian
Montenegrin
“BEER”
Polish:
Piwo
Czech:
Pivo
Croatian: Pivo
Russian: Pibo
Bulgarian: Pibo
Slavic
Language
Branch
Last
native
speaker
died in
‘09
Finno-Ugric
Branches
Finnic
Ugric
(Magyar)
Magyar (Hungarian)
It’s quite different…
West Turkic
Turkic Branches
East Turkic
One more IndoEuropean branch…
Indo-Aryan Languages
“Aryan” = Indian-Iranian
(“Southern / Central Asian”)
Indo-Aryan
Languages
Hindustani:
Bengali:
Punjabi:
Marathi:
Gujarati
Oriya
Sindhi
Romani
550 million
200 million
100 million
75 million
50 million
30 million
25 million
5 million
Roma
Gypsies
Kalderash
Dom
False Romans
Sinti
Gitanos
Calé
Ciganos
Luli
Manush…
Where did the Roma come from?
“Gypsy” = Egypt?
Roma Migration
India!
~1000 A.D.
Roma Flag
Chakra
India Flag
Roma Migration
Chakra ≠ Migration
So why did they migrate?
• For Work?
• The Weather?
• Fun?
• Cabin Fever?
All of the above?
• The answer remains unclear.
• However, generally speaking, it is believed
by most researchers that the Roma did not
migrate by choice or for seasonal reasons.
• The most widely-accepted theory is to
escape persecution:
– Many invasions into India over time
– Enslaved frequently
– Migration continual once left India
– Became minority population outside of India
– Outsiders
Roma Timeline
c. 800-950: Groups leave northern India for Persia and Armenia.
1000: Roma reach Byzantine empire
1300s: Roma already in Wallachia and Serbia, viewed as Muslims and
enslaved.
1445: Prince Vlad Dracul of Wallachia transports some 12,000 persons "who
looked like Egyptians" from Bulgaria for slave labor.
1471: The first Anti-Gypsy laws are passed in Switzerland.
1471: 17,000 Roma are transported into Moldavia for slave labor.
1492: Spanish Inquisition: Anti-Gypsy laws, identified as heretics
1493: Roma are expelled from Milan.
1498: Four Gypsies accompany Columbus to the Americas.
1502: Louis XII expels the Roma from France.
1526: Henry VIII expels the Roma from England: leave or die.
1538: Portugal expels Roma to Brazil.
1554: England passes a law stating being a Gypsy is punishable by death
1560: In Sweden, the Lutherans forbid any dealings with Roma.
1589: Denmark: death to any Roma caught in the country.
1619: Spain to Roma: Settle down or punishable by death.
1885: Roma excluded by U.S. immigration policy; many returned to Europe.
1917: New Jersey passes “Anti-Roma” law
1936-1945: Nazis begin systematic persecution of Roma
Eastern Europe
Western Europe
Country
Country
Population
Albania
95,000
Belarus
2,500
B&H
45,000
Bulgaria
750,000
Croatia
35,000
Czech Republic 275,000
Estonia
1,250
Hungary
575,000
Latvia
2,750
Lithuania
3,500
Macedonia
240,000
Moldova
22,500
Poland
45,000
Romania
2,150,000
Russia
310,000
SAM
725,000
Slovakia
500,000
Slovenia
9,000
Ukraine
55,000
Austria
Belgium
Cyprus
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
U.K.
22,500
12,500
750
1,750
8,000
310,000
120,000
180,000
25,000
100,000
125
37,500
750
45,000
725,000
17,500
32,500
400,000
105,000
Total
Total
Population
5,851,500
2,143,875
Roma
Populations
Why different
estimates?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?
*
* Estimated from 500,000 (official) to 5,000,000
Romani Dialects
(not all mutually intelligible)
…and more!
Balkan Romani
Baltic Romani
Carpathian Romani
Domari (Stans, Russia) “Luli” = Muslim
Kalo Finnish Romani
Sinte Romani (Balkans, Germany, & West)
Caló (Spanish Romani)
Vlax Romani (Romania, Yugo)
Welsh Romani
Roma in WWII
• Porrajmos
• 200,000 to 2m
• Deaths proportionally similar to Jews
• Non-Aryans:
But what is an Aryan?
Nordic?
Greek?
Caucasian?
Egyptian?
Discrimination / Racism can be subtle.
Or not.
Roma Neighborhood
Brno, Czech Republic
Roma Demographics
(UNDP)
Population Comparisons
Roma
Fertility Rate 3.0
Median Age 19.3
Married <19 72%
Life Exp.
59
IMR
15.8
Elem Ed. (ONLY) 40%
Literacy Rate 73%
RNI
2.1
GDP pc
$6,000
Czech
1.27
40.8
15%
77
3.7
7.0%
99%
-3.2
$25,900
The Roma Today…
• “Every country is a 'foreign' country:”
– Rise in Nationalism since 1989
– Negative reaction to Roma populations
• Communism was good for them
• Now high unemployment, social issues
– Leads to large informal labor sector
• Begging
• Theft
• Prostitution
– Reinforces stereotypes
• Changes!
– “Decade of Roma Inclusion” Program (World Bank: 2005)
– 9 Major Roma countries in Eastern Europe
– +’s: providing $ for more education, training, opportunities,
try to reduce discrimination, etc.
– -’s: Legacy of discrimination, judgment on way of life, blame
“Decade of Roma Inclusion”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech
Hungary
Macedonia
Montenegro
Romania
Serbia
Slovakia
4 General Issues:
• Education
• Employment
• Health
• Housing
Each country has own
goals, criteria, priorities, etc.
and must report results to
World Bank
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Population Geography - University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire