Peoples and Cultures of Europe
units of analysis / cultural metaphors
“units of analysis” may include:
–
–
–
–
–
one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
the community
a region
a culture
• “Irish”
• “Chinese”
• “Mexicans”
• “Bedouins”
“units of analysis” may include:
– a nation
(“national character studies”)
– the item or action itself
(including “processes”)
– a “cultural metaphor”
(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)
a cultural metaphor
(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)
as a
Unit of Analysis
• an important influence on American
interest in European Spanish
studies was an attempt to trace
Latin American influences back to
Spain
Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
• an important influence on American
interest in European Spanish
studies was an attempt to trace
Latin American influences back to
Spain
Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
“units of analysis” may also include:
– a nation
(“national character studies”)
– the item or action itself
(including “processes”)
– a “cultural metaphor”
(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)
Gannon’s
European Cultural Metaphors
include
Ch. 17.
The Traditional British House
Ch. 21.
The Italian Opera
Ch. 22.
Belgian Lace
Ch. 24.
The Russian Ballet
Ch. 25.
The Spanish Bullfight
Ch. 26.
The Portuguese Bullfight
http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text
Gannon’s
European Cultural Metaphors
include
Ch. 6.
The Turkish Coffehouse
Ch. 8.
The Polish Village Church
Ch. 10.
The German Symphony
Ch. 11.
The Swedish Stuga
Ch. 12.
Irish Conversations
Ch. 14.
The Danish Christmas Luncheon
Ch. 15.
French Wine . . .
www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/Ireland.html#title
http://www.carn.com/IrishTales.htm
Gannon’s
European Cultural Metaphors
include
Ch. 17.
The Traditional British House
Ch. 21.
The Italian Opera
Ch. 22.
Belgian Lace
Ch. 24.
The Russian Ballet
Ch. 25.
The Spanish Bullfight
Ch. 26.
The Portuguese Bullfight
Cultural Metaphors
• cultural metaphors can be
derived for ethnic groups
within and across nations
– e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
– e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
– e.g., Irish “Travellers”
• sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
– e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
– e.g., Basques
Cultural Metaphors
• cultural metaphors can be
derived for ethnic groups
within and across nations
– e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
– e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
– e.g., Irish “Travellers”
• sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
– e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
– e.g., Basques
Mark Kurlansky
The Basque History of the World.
NY: Penguin Books, 1999.
(ISBN: 0140298517)
http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#BasqueHistory
Cultural Metaphors
• unit of analysis is usually the nation
or national culture
• applies to a group, but not to every
individual within it
Cultural Metaphors
• unit of analysis is usually the nation
or national culture
– because a good amount of evidence
suggests that there are commonalities
across regional, racial, and ethnic groups
within each of them that can be captured
effectively by cultural metaphors
Cultural Metaphors
• unit of analysis is usually the nation
or national culture
– Understanding Global Cultures contains
28 metaphors
(13 of the 28 are from Europe)
– there are approximately 200 nations in
the world
• 193 according to The Times World Atlas
(2004)
Cultural Metaphors
• unit of analysis is usually the nation
or national culture
– Understanding Global Cultures contains
28 metaphors
(13 of the 28 are from Europe)
– REM: there are approximately 200
nations in the world
• 193 according to The Times World Atlas
(2004)
Communication
Ken Livingston, mayor of London England,
indicated that there were over 300
languages spoken in London.
(Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)
Communication
How many languages
are spoken in
St. Paul Minnesota ?
Culture Counts
and it counts quit a bit
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
• Cultural Metaphors include, in addition,
the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
• Cultural Metaphors include, in addition,
the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• religion
• early socialization and family structure
• small group behavior
• public behavior
• leisure pursuits and interests
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• total Lifestyle
– work / leisure / home and time allocations to
each of them
• aural space
– the degree to which members of a society react
negatively to high noise levels
• roles and status of different members of a
society
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• holidays and ceremonies
• greeting behavior
• humor
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• language
– oral and written communication
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• non-oral communication
– body language
• kinesics (motion)
• proxemics (space)
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• sports
– as a reflection of cultural values
• political structure of a society
• the educational system of a society
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• traditions and the degree to which the
established order is emphasized
• history of a society
– but only as it reflects cultural mind-sets, or the
manner in which its members think, feel, and act
– not a detailed history
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• food and eating behavior
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
• social class structure
• rate of technological and cultural change
• organization of and perspective on work
– such as a society’s commitment to the work ethic,
superior-subordinate relationships, and so on
• any other categories that are appropriate
A Four-Stage Model of CrossCultural Understanding
I.
four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
II.
more specificity
III. inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general
dimensions along which specific cultures have
been shown to vary
IV. cultural metaphors are employed for
understanding a culture
they build on the “etic” understanding provided by
the approaches used in the first three stages
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of
Emotions (p. 12)
Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings
Lower
Degree to
which
process
must be
emphasized
before goals
can be
discussed
Lower
Higher
Higher
A Four-Stage Model of CrossCultural Understanding
I.
four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
II.
more specificity
III. inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general
dimensions along which specific cultures have
been shown to vary
IV. cultural metaphors are employed for
understanding a culture
they build on the “etic” understanding provided by
the approaches used in the first three stages
A Four-Stage Model of CrossCultural Understanding
I.
four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
II.
more specificity
III. inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general
dimensions along which specific cultures have
been shown to vary
IV. cultural metaphors are employed for
understanding a culture
they build on the “etic” understanding provided by
the approaches used in the first three stages
Emics / Etics
emics
– from “phonemics”
– viewing a culture from the inside
etics
– from “phonetics”
– viewing a culture from the outside
more on the “emics” and “etics” later
“Four-Stage Model”
One variable of Gannon’s
“Four-Stage Model”
is the degree to which process such as
effective communication and getting to
know one another in depth should
precede discussion of specific goals
“Four-Stage Model”
One variable of Gannon’s
“Four-Stage Model”
is the degree to which process such as
effective communication and getting to
know one another in depth should
precede discussion of specific goals
“Four-Stage Model”
Another variable of Gannon’s
“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to
which a culture fosters and encourages
open emotional expression
“Four-Stage Model”
Another variable of Gannon’s
“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to
which a culture fosters and encourages
open emotional expression
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of
Emotions (p. 12)
Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings
Degree to
which
process
must be
emphasized
before goals
can be
discussed
Lower
Higher
Lower
Higher
England,
Ireland,
and
Scotland
China,
Japan, and
India
United States and
Germany
Mexico, Spain,
and Italy
More on the “Four-Stage Model” later, time permitting
Cultural Metaphors
“Metaphors
are not stereotypes”
– Martin J. Gannon
Why?
Geert Hofstede
(1991)
• IBM study demonstrated that
national culture explained 50% of
the differences in attitudes in IBM’s
53 countries
“Given such studies, it seems that
culture influences between 25%
and 50% of our attitudes, whereas
other aspects of workforce
diversity, such as social class,
ethnicity, race, sex, and age,
account for the remainder of these
attitudinal differences.”
“Given such studies, it seems that
culture influences between 25%
and 50% of our attitudes, whereas
other aspects of workforce
diversity, such as social class,
ethnicity, race, sex, and age,
account for the remainder of these
attitudinal differences.”
“Frequently, when a foreigner
violates a key cultural value, he or
she is not even aware of the
violation, and no one brings the
matter to his or her attention.”
– once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
frequently impossible to rectify it
– and it may well take several months to realize
that polite rejections really signify isolation
and banishment
“Frequently, when a foreigner
violates a key cultural value, he or
she is not even aware of the
–
including
violation, and no one brings the
proxemics
matter to
his or her attention.”
kenisics
once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
frequently impossible to rectify it
– and it may well take several months to realize
that polite rejections really signify isolation
and banishment
“Frequently, when a foreigner
violates a key cultural value, he or
she is not even aware of the
violation, and no one brings the
matter to his or her attention.”
– once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
frequently impossible to rectify it
– and it may well take several months to realize
that polite rejections really signify isolation
and banishment
“Even genuinely
small cultural mistakes can have
enormous consequences.”
“. . . knowing a country’s language,
although clearly helpful, is no
guarantee of understanding its
cultural mindset, and some of the
most difficult problems have been
created by individuals who have a
high level of fluency but a low level of
cultural understanding.”
“. . . knowing a country’s language,
although clearly helpful, is no
guarantee of understanding its
cultural mindset, and some of the
most difficult problems have been
created by individuals who have a
high level of fluency but a low level of
cultural understanding.”
“Moreover,
members of a culture tend to assume
that highly fluent visitors know the
customs and rules of behavior, and
these visitors are judged severely
when violations occur.”
Cultural Metaphors
• Understanding Global Cultures
describes a method for understanding
easily and quickly the cultural mindset of a nation and comparing it to
other nations . . .
Cultural Metaphors
• Understanding Global Cultures
describes a method for understanding
easily and quickly the cultural mindset of a nation and comparing it to
other nations . . .
metaphorical analysis
Cultural Metaphors
wherein
the unit of analysis is
the metaphor
A Four-Stage Model of CrossCultural Understanding
I.
four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
II.
more specificity
III. inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general
dimensions along which specific cultures have
been shown to vary
IV. cultural metaphors are employed for
understanding a culture
they build on the “etic” understanding provided by
the approaches used in the first three stages
Cultural Metaphors
• In essence the cultural metaphor involves
identifying some phenomenon, activity,
or institution of a nation’s culture that all
or most of its members consider to be
very important and with which they
identify closely
– the characteristics of the metaphor then
become the basis for describing and
understanding the essential features of the
society
Cultural Metaphors
• In essence the cultural metaphor involves
identifying some phenomenon, activity,
or institution of a nation’s culture that all
or most of its members consider to be
very important and with which they
identify closely
– the characteristics of the metaphor then
become the basis for describing and
understanding the essential features of the
society
Cultural Metaphors
• In essence the cultural metaphor involves
identifying some phenomenon, activity,
or institution of a nation’s culture that all
or most of its members consider to be
very important and with which they
identify closely
– the characteristics of the metaphor then
become the basis for describing and
understanding the essential features of the
society
Cultural Metaphors
• each metaphor is a guide or map
that helps the foreigner
understand quickly what
members of a society consider
very important
– but it is only a starting point against
which we can compare our own
experiences and through which we
can start to understand the seeming
contradictions pervasive in most, if
not all, societies
Cultural Metaphors
• each metaphor is a guide or map
that helps the foreigner
understand quickly what
members of a society consider
very important
– but it is only a starting point against
which we can compare our own
experiences and through which we
can start to understand the seeming
contradictions pervasive in most, if
not all, societies
Cultural Metaphors
• Gannon’s book describes
a dominant,
and perhaps the dominant,
metaphor for each society
– but other metaphors may also be
suitable
Gannon’s
European Cultural Metaphors
include
Ch. 6.
The Turkish Coffehouse
Ch. 8.
The Polish Village Church
Ch. 10.
The German Symphony
Ch. 11.
The Swedish Stuga
Ch. 12.
Irish Conversations
Ch. 14.
The Danish Christmas Luncheon
Ch. 15.
French Wine . . .
Gannon’s
European Cultural Metaphors
include
Ch. 17.
The Traditional British House
Ch. 21.
The Italian Opera
Ch. 22.
Belgian Lace
Ch. 24.
The Russian Ballet
Ch. 25.
The Spanish Bullfight
Ch. 26.
The Portuguese Bullfight
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
• Cultural Metaphors include, in addition,
the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
• Cultural Metaphors include, in addition,
the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
– note that each society has a dominant
cultural orientation that can be
described in terms of six dimensions
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
1. “What do members of a society assume
about the nature of people, that is, are
people good, bad, or a mixture?”
• These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
“existential postulates”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
1. “What do members of a society assume
about the nature of people, that is, are
people good, bad, or a mixture?”
• These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
“existential postulates”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
2. “What do members of a society assume
about the relationship between a person
and nature, that is, should we live in
harmony with it or subjugate it?”
• These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
“normative postulates”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
2. “What do members of a society assume
about the relationship between a person
and nature, that is, should we live in
harmony with it or subjugate it?”
• These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
“normative postulates”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
3. “What do members of a society assume
about the relationship between people,
that is, should a person act in an
individual manner or consider the group
before taking action?”
• individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in
terms of such issues as making decisions,
conformity, and so forth
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
3. “What do members of a society assume
about the relationship between people,
that is, should a person act in an
individual manner or consider the group
before taking action?”
• individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in
terms of such issues as making decisions,
conformity, and so forth
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
4. “What is the primary mode of activity in
a given society, that is, being, or
accepting the status quo, enjoying the
current situation, and going with the
flow of things;
or doing, that is, changing things to
make them better, setting specific goals
and accomplishing them within specific
schedules, and so forth?”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
4. “What is the primary mode of activity in
a given society, that is, being, or
accepting the status quo, enjoying the
current situation, and going with the
flow of things;
or doing, that is, changing things to
make them better, setting specific goals
and accomplishing them within specific
schedules, and so forth?”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
5. “What is the conception of space in a
given society,
that is, is it considered private, in that meetings
are held in private, people do not get too close to
one another physically, and so on;
or public, that is, having everyone participate in
meetings and decision making, allowing emotions
to be expressed publicly, and having people stand
in close proximity to one another?”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
5. “What is the conception of space in a
given society,
that is, is it considered private, in that meetings
are held in private, people do not get too close to
one another physically, and so on;
or public, that is, having everyone participate in
meetings and decision making, allowing emotions
to be expressed publicly, and having people stand
in close proximity to one another?”
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
6. “What is the society’s dominant temporal
orientation”
past
present
and / or future?
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
6. “What is the society’s dominant temporal
orientation”
past
present
and / or future?
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each
society has a dominant cultural
orientation that can be described in terms
of these six dimensions
• but that other, weaker orientations may
also exist simultaneously in its different
geographical regions and racial and
ethnic groups
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each
society has a dominant cultural
orientation that can be described in terms
of these six dimensions
• but that other, weaker orientations may
also exist simultaneously in its different
geographical regions and racial and
ethnic groups
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each
society has a dominant cultural
orientation that can be described in terms
of these six dimensions
• but that other, weaker orientations may
also exist simultaneously in its different
geographical regions and racial and
ethnic groups
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred
Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred
Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• made many discoveries in how
• Geert
Hofstede
people learn language
• analyzed the levels of learning
Edward T. Hall
1. “Context,
or the amount of information that must
be explicitly stated if a message or
communication is to be successful”
Edward T. Hall
2. “Space,
or the ways of communicating through
specific handling of personal space”
e.g., North Americans tend to keep more
space between them while communicating
than do South Americans
Edward T. Hall
3. Time, which is either
monochronic
(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)
or polychronic
(not distinguishing between activities and
completing them simultaneously –
“multitasking”)
Edward T. Hall
3. Time, which is either
monochronic
(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)
or polychronic
(not distinguishing between activities and
completing them simultaneously –
“multitasking”)
Edward T. Hall
4. “Information flow,
which is the structure and speed of
messages between individuals and / or
organizations”
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred
Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
Geert Hofstede
– prominent organizational
psychologist
– research is based on a large
questionnaire survey of IBM
employees and managers working in
53 different countries
– especially significant because the
type of organization is held constant
Geert Hofstede
1. Power distance
or the degree to which members of a
society automatically accept a
hierarchical or unequal distribution of
power in organizations and the society
Geert Hofstede
2. Uncertainty avoidance
or the degree to which members of a
given society deal with the uncertainty
and risk of everyday life and prefer to
work with long-term acquaintances and
friends rather than with strangers
Geert Hofstede
3. Individualism
or the degree to which an individual
perceives him- or her-self to be separate
from a group and free from group
pressure to conform
Geert Hofstede
4. Masculinity
or the degree to which a society looks
favorably on aggressive and materialistic
behavior
Geert Hofstede
5. Time horizon
(short term to long term)
or the degree to which members of a
culture are willing to defer present
gratification in order to achieve longterm goals
Geert Hofstede
5. Time horizon
(short term to long term)
or the degree to which members of a
culture are willing to defer present
gratification in order to achieve longterm goals
criticisms of the “three-dimensional
approaches” developed by
Kluckholn and Strodtbeck, Hall, and
Hofstende include
– leave out many features of the cultural mindsets that are activated in daily cultural
activities
– neglect the institutions molding these mindsets
– are instructive, but are “somewhat lifeless
and narrow”
– leave out many facets of behavior
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
• Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
• Edward T. Hall
• Geert Hofstede
• Cultural Metaphors include, in addition,
the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text
A Four-Stage Model of CrossCultural Understanding
I.
four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
II.
more specificity
III. inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general
dimensions along which specific cultures have
been shown to vary
IV. cultural metaphors are employed for
understanding a culture
they build on the “etic” understanding provided by
the approaches used in the first three stages
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