Chapter 8: Political Geography
The Cultural Landscape:
An Introduction to Human Geography
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Where are States Located
• Concepts of Political Geography
– Nation
• People with shared cultural identity
– State—A politically organized territory with a sovereign
government that is recognized by the international
• The term “country” is a synonym for “state.” The term state, as used
in political geography, does not refer to the 50 regional governments
inside the US. The 50 states in US are subdivisions w/in a single
– Nation-State
• Recognized political unit where the territory of the state coincides
with the area settled by a certain group of people (certain ethnicity…)
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Examples of 20th Century Nations
• Nation
– Many people are becoming more loyal to nation than to their state. The
“war on terror” is the US fighting an enemy that has no border but is
linked by its radical Islamic views.
– Nations are usually located w/in the borders of a country. Different
nations include Koreans, Kurds, Basques, & Flemish.
– Kurds (Middle East)
• One of the largest nationalities in the world without their own state.
They are located Turkey, northern Iran, and northern Iraq. The
majority of Kurds speak their own language and practice Islam.
– Basques (Europe)
• A fiercely independent group living in the Pyrenees Mountains. Most
live in Spain, but small numbers live in SW France. They have their
own language, Euskara. Basque separatists have resorted to
terrorism to try to gain independence in hopes of gaining their own
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Examples of 20th Century Nations
• Flemish (Europe)
– Live in north Belgium. Their official language is Flemish (also called
Dutch) and they are distinct from the Walloons of Belgium who reside
around Brussels and whose official language is French.
– About ¾ of Flemish are Roman Catholic, which separates them from
many other northern Europeans, who tend to be Protestant.
– Flemish separatists would like their country to be called Flanders
• Palestinians (Middle East)
– Estimated 9.5 million people; most live in the West Bank, Gaza Strip,
and the Golan Heights of Israel.
– A Palestinian has been defined as any person who was living in
Palestine prior to 1947. With the creation of Israel in 1948, many
Palestinians fled to neighboring countries (Jordan, Syria, Lebanon).
– A Palestinian country could be created in Israel to ease tensions in this
hostile region.
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Examples of States and Nation-States
• State
– Earth is divided into just under 200 countries. These countries are more
correctly termed states.
– In the past century, the number of states has increased by over 100.
• Nation-States
– Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland (Europe)
• Denmark—a small Scandinavian country who all speak Danish as their
primary language. Outside of Denmark, only a small section of northern
Germany also speaks Danish.
– Israel, Iran, Turkey (Middle East)
– Japan (Asia)
• Within Japan, 99.5% of the people are ethnic Japanese.
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How has pursuit of nation-state ideal
caused conflict?
• Conflict in Northern Ireland and Belgium (Europe)
– Northern Ireland—conflict between the Protestants and Roman
– Belgium—conflict between the Flemish and the Walloons
• Conflict in Israel and Lebanon (Middle East)
– Israel—conflict between the Jewish and Palestinians
– Lebanon—conflict between the Muslims and the Christians
• Conflicts in Europe and Middle East occurred as a desire for
independence, land, and to be governed by people who share
their ideology.
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• Almost all habitable land belongs to a
country today
• In 1940, there were only about 50
• Today, there are 192 countries (as
evidenced by UN membership)
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UN Members—Greatest increase in sovereign states has occurred in Africa.
Breakup of USSR and Yugoslavia stimulated the formation of more new states
during early 1990s.
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Where are States Located
• Korea: One State or Two?
– A colony of Japan until Japan was defeated in WWII.
• After WWII, Korea was divided into two sections at 38th parallel.
• North Korea—Communist gov’t, South Korea—Democratic gov’t
– North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, which began a 3
year war that ended w/ a cease-fire near the 38th parallel.
– Both Korean governments are committed to reunite the
country into one sovereign state.
• North Korea hurt progress by building nuclear weapons when it
lacked the ability to provide its citizens w/ food & electricity.
– In 1992, UN admitted N. & S. Korea as separate nations.
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North and South Korea
A nighttime satellite image
recorded by the US Air Force
shows the illumination of
electric lights in South Korea,
whereas North Korea has
virtually no electric lights, a
measure of its poverty and
limited economic activity.
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Where are States Located?
• China and Taiwan: One State or Two?
– Most other countries consider China and Taiwan as separate countries.
– However, China’s gov’t claims that Taiwan is a part of China.
– This situation arose from a civil war in China during the late 1940s
between the Nationalists and the Communists. After losing, the
Nationalists fled to Taiwan (1949), 120 miles off Chinese coast.
– Until they could defeat the Communists, the Nationalists argued they
could continue to govern one island of the country.
– Until 1971, the US regarded the Nationalists as the official gov’t of China,
so many Americans opposed acknowledging that China was under
control of the Communists.
– 1999—Taiwan’s president announced the Taiwan would regard itself as
a sovereign independent state.
• Taiwan is now the most populous state not in the United Nations.
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Where are States Located?
• Polar Regions: Many Claims
– The South polar region contains the only large landmasses
on Earth’s surface that are not part of a state.
– Several states claim portions of the region, and some claims
are overlapping and conflicting.
– US, Russia, and other countries do not recognize the claims
of any country in Antarctica.
– The Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959, provides a legal
framework for managing Antarctica. States may establish
research station but no military activities are permitted.
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Antarctica is the only
large landmass that is
not part of a
sovereign state.
It comprises 5.4
million square miles,
which makes it 50%
larger than Canada.
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Where Are States Located?
• Varying sizes of states
– State size varies considerably
• Largest state = Russia
– 11 percent of the world’s land area
• Smallest state = Monaco
– It is only 0.6 square miles.
– It is a Microstate = states with very small land areas
» About two dozen microstates in the world
– If Russia were the size of a piece of paper, then a microstate
would be the size of a single letter on the page.
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Monaco: The Smallest State
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• The concept of dividing the world into a collection of
independent states is a new concept.
– Prior to 1800s, Earth’s surface was organized in other ways, such as
city-states, empires, and tribes. Much of Earth was unorganized territory.
– Development of states can be traced to ancient Middle East in an area
known as the Fertile Crescent. The modern movement to divide the
world into states originated in Europe.
• Ancient & Medieval States
– Ancient Fertile Crescent—formed an arc between Persian Gulf and
Mediterranean Sea. Situated at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and
Africa, it was a center for land & sea communications in ancient times.
– First states to evolve in Mesopotamia were city-states, which were
sovereign states that comprise a town & surrounding countryside.
– Walls clearly identified boundaries of city-states. Periodically, one city
would gain military dominance & form an empire. Mesopotamia was
organized into a succession of empires by Sumerians, Assyrians,
Babylonians, & Persians. Egypt emerged as a separate empire to the
west of the Fertile Crescent.
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Where are States Located?
• Early European States
– Political unity reached its height during the Roman Empire, which
controlled most of Europe, North Africa, & SW Asia.
– Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century after a series of
attacks by people living on its frontiers & because of internal
– The European portion of the Roman Empire was fragmented into
a large number of estates owned by competing kings, dukes,
barons, & nobles.
– Around year 1100, a handful of powerful kings emerged as rulers
over large numbers of these European estates.
– This consolidation formed the basis for the development of states
such as England, France, and Spain.
– Most of central Europe, notably Germany & Italy, remained
fragmented into a large number of estates until the 19th century.
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Where are States Located?
• Colonies
– Colony—A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than
being completely independent.
– European states came to control much of the world through colonialism,
which is effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to
impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory.
– European states established colonies elsewhere for 3 basic reasons:
• Promote Christianity, Extract useful resources, Establish relative power
through the number of their colonies. Summarized as God, gold, & glory.
– Colonial era began in 1400s, when European explorers sailed westward
for Asia but encountered and settled in Western Hemisphere instead.
• Eventually, European states lost most of these colonies in Western
Hemisphere through independence movements.
• European states then turned their attention to Africa and Asia. European
colonization of Asia and Africa is termed imperialism, which is control of
territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society, whereas
colonialism is control of previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land.
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Colonial Possessions 1914—At outbreak of WWI, European states held
colonies in much of the world, especially in Africa and Asia. Most of the
countries in the Western Hemisphere at one time had been colonized by
Europeans but gained their independence in 18th or 19th centuries.
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Colonial Possessions 2006—most remaining colonies are tiny specks in
the Pacific Ocean, too small to appear on the map. The most populous current
colony is Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth of the US, with 4 million residents on
an island of 3,500 square miles. Puerto Ricans are citizens of US, but do not
participate in US elections and are not represented in Congress.
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European Colonialism
• Colonialism a physical action in which one state takes over control
of another, taking over the government and ruling the
territory as its own.
Two Waves of
1500 - 1825
1825 - 1975
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Stateless Nations
• Sovereignty-complete control
over a territory’s political & military
affairs. Some nations do not have
their own state-this can lead to
• Palestinians are the most well
known example—a stateless
nation in conflict with Israel over
• Kurds-about 20 million people
live in Kurdistan, which covers 6
states, since the 1991 Iraq WarKurdish Security Zone has been
virtually independent.
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Shapes of states—Countries have one of five basic shapes:
– Compact: Efficient
• Distance from center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Ideal compact state would be a circle w/ capital in center.
– Elongated: Potential Isolation
• Long & narrow shape (ex: Chile)—A region located at an extreme
end of the region may be isolated from the capital.
– Prorupted: Access or Disruption
• An otherwise compact state w/ a large projecting extension.
Proruptions are created to provide access to a resource or to
separate two states that otherwise would share a boundary ((ex:
Afghanistan (see next slide)).
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Prorupted State—The otherwise compact state of Afghanistan has a
proruption approximately 200 miles long and as narrow as 12 miles wide.
The British created this proruption to prevent Russia from sharing a border
with Pakistan.
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• 5 Basic Shapes of Countries (continued)
– Perforated States: South Africa
• Describe a state that completely surrounds another state
• South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho, so Lesotho must depend
almost entirely on south Africa for import and export of goods.
– Fragmented States: Problematic
• These states include several discontinuous pieces of territory
• 2 kinds of fragmented states: Those that are separated by water (ex:
Indonesia which comprises 13,677 islands between Pacific and
Indian Oceans) and those that are separated by an intervening state
(ex: Panama which was divided by the Panama Canal Zone until
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Shapes of States in S. Africa
Compact—Burundi, Kenya,
Rwanda, & Uganda
Elongated—Malawi & Mozambique
Prorupted—Namibia & Democratic
Republic of Congo
Fragmented—Angola & Tanzania.
Colors show the European colonial
rulers in 1914.
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Types of boundaries
– Physical—coincide w/ significant features of the
natural landscape
• Desert boundaries—The Sahara has generally provided to
be a stable boundary separating North and South Africa.
• Mountain boundaries—Argentina & Chile agreed to be
divided by the crest of the Andes Mountains.
• Water boundaries—Historically, they are good protection
against attack from another state. Law of the Sea (signed by
158 countries) has standardized the territorial limits of
countries to claim rights to bodies of water and the rights for
countries to fish (exclusive rights to fish w/in 200 miles of
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Physical Boundary:
Andes Mountains
Boundary between Chile
and Argentina
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Types of Boundaries (continued)
– Cultural—follow the distribution of cultural
• Geometric Boundaries—Part of US boundary w/ Canada is
a 1,300 mile straight line along 49 degree north latitude.
• Religious Boundaries—Religious differences often coincide
w/ boundaries between states. Example: British partioning of
India—Hindus got India & Muslims got Pakistan.
• Language Boundaries—After WWI, leaders of victorious
countries met at Versailles Peace Conference to redraw the
map of Europe. Language was the most important criterion
the allied leaders used.
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Geometric Boundary: Aozou Strip—The boundary between Libya and Chad is a
straight line, drawn by European countries early in the 20th century when the
area comprised a series of colonies. Libya, however, claims that the boundary
should be located 100 kilometers to the south and that it should have
sovereignty over this strip.
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Left-the Demilitarized Zone between North
Korea & South Korea is heavily defended
by both sides
Bottom left-the US-Canadian border is the
longest undefended border in the world.
Bottom right-the Rio Grande forms the
border between Mexico and the United
States which is porous enough to allow
millions of illegal immigrants to cross.
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Cyprus’s “Green Line” Boundary
– Cyprus, 3rd largest island in Mediterranean Sea, contains two
nationalities—Greek and Turkish.
– When Cyprus gained its independence from Britain in 1960, its
constitution guaranteed the Turkish minority a substantial share of
elected offices.
– After a series of attempts from both sides to take control of the
government, the northern part of the Island declared itself the
independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but only Turkey
recognizes it as a separate state.
– A wall was constructed between the two areas, and a buffer zone
patrolled by the UN was delineated across the entire island.
– The two nationalities had previously mingled. However, after the
wall was established, the two nationalities became geographically
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Cyprus Boundary
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Types of Boundaries (cont’d)
– Frontier—A zone where no state exercises
complete political control. It is a tangible area,
whereas a boundary is an invisible, imaginary line.
• Frontier provides an area of separation, but a boundary
brings two neighboring states into direct contact,
increasing the potential for violent face-to-face meetings.
• Almost universally, frontiers between states have been
replaced by boundaries. Ex: Most of the borders between
Saudi Arabia and its neighbors remained frontiers until
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Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula
Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers
rather than precise boundaries.
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Law of the Sea
Not on PP Guide but include in Notes!
• Starting in 1982, the oceans of the Earth have been regulated
by a treaty known as the Law of the Sea, established by the UN
Convention. This convention set up rules regarding water
boundaries and rights of usage for Earth’s oceans.
• Under this treaty, the coastal state has:
– Exclusive fishing rights and sovereignty over a territorial sea of up to 12
nautical miles from its coast.
– Limited jurisdiction over a territorial sea up to 24 nautical miles from its
coast (the right to enforce laws of immigration, sanitation, hot pursuit).
– An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of up to 200 nautical miles off its
coast for natural resource exploration and exploitation.
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Boundaries inside states
– Within countries, boundaries are drawn to separate different ethnicities
or to provide an advantage to a political party.
– Unitary states
• Places most power in hands of central gov’t
• Works best in nation-states characterized by few internal cultural differences
and a strong sense of national unity.
• B/c it requires effective communications w/ all regions of the country, smaller
states are more likely to adopt it. Unitary states are more common in Europe.
– Federal states
• Allocates strong power to units of local gov’t w/in a country.
• Under this system, local gov’t boundaries can be drawn to correspond w/
regions inhabited by different ethnicities.
• More suitable for large states (i.e. Russia, India, Canada, Brazil)
• Globally, there is a trend toward federations.
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The U.S. Federal Government –
Allows states within the state to determine “moral”
laws such as death penalty, access to alcohol, and
concealed weapons.
weapons law
requires the
posting of signs
such as this on
buildings that do
not allow
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Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?
• Electoral geography
– Boundaries within the United States are redrawn periodically to ensure
that each district has approximately the same population.
– In most US states, the job of redrawing boundaries is entrusted to the
state legislatures. The political party in control of the state legislature
naturally attempts to redraw boundaries to its own benefit. This process
is known as gerrymandering. Gerrymandering takes 3 forms:
• Wasted vote—spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the
• Excess vote—concentrates opposition voters in a few districts.
• Stacked vote—links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly
shaped boundaries.
– SC ruled gerrymandering illegal in 1985 but did not require
dismantling of existing oddly shaped districts.
• Through gerrymandering, only about 1/10 of congressional seats are
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Wasted Vote—In all of these diagrams, Party A has 52% and B has 48%. This
type spreads opposition supporters across many districts as a minority. If Party
A controls the redistricting process, it would win the election by putting 13 Party
A voters and 12 Party B voters in each district, thus winning all 5 districts.
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Excess Vote—Concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts. If Party
B controls the redistricting process, it could do this by putting 13 of its voters
and 12 of Party A voters in four of the five districts and concentrating 17 party
A voters and only 8 Party B voters in the 5th District, thereby giving Party B the
likelihood of winning four of five districts.
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Stacked Vote—Links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped
boundaries. If Party A controls the redistricting process, the trend is for state
legislatures to create three districts each with 15 of its voters and 10 of Party
B’s voters and two districts both with 10 of its voters and 15 of Party B’s voters.
That way, all 5 districts are safely in possession of one party, with a majority of
three for Party A and two for Party B.
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Iowa—A state that does not have gerrymandered congressional
districts. Each district is relatively compact and boundaries
coincide w/ county boundaries.
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North Carolina—Democrats gerrymandered congressional
districts to concentrate Republican voters. Democrats won 8 of
NC’s 13 seats in 2008, although Democrat Barack Obama won
NC by only 0.4%.
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congressional district
boundaries to
Democratic voters.
Republicans won 15
of Florida’s 25 seats in
2008, although
President Obama
carried the state by a
comfortable margin of
205,000 votes (2.5%).
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• Supernationalism
– Political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation among
national states to promote shared objectives.
– Tendency for states to give up political power to a higher
authority in pursuit of common objectives.
• Some examples of supernationalism:
– European Union, NAFTA, United Nations, NATO, Warsaw
Pact, League of Nations, Arab League
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• What are some ways in which supernationalism has
changed the political and economic geography of
– Created a larger market (greater trade, reduced tariffs)
– Greater international influence (more political/economic
– Open borders (for labor/tourists)
– Common currency
– Common policy (resources, trade, environment, military) or
Loss of control over individual policy
– Has made war less likely
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Supernationalism (States Cooperating)
• Political and military cooperation
– During Cold War era (late 1940s to early 1990s), global and
regional organizations were established to prevent a 3rd
world war.
– The United Nations (est. 1945)
• Established after WWII, it is the most important global organization
• Plays an important role in trying to separate warring groups in a # of
• UN tries to maintain strict neutrality
• Despite its shortcomings, the UN represents a forum where virtually
all states of the world can meet & vote on issues w/o resorting to war.
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• Regional Military Alliances
– Era of Two Superpowers
• Before WWI, there were 8 superpowers, so no state could dominate.
• During Cold War era, US and USSR were world’s superpowers.
• To maintain strength outside their countries, both US & USSR
established military bases in other countries.
• Because so much power was concentrated in these 2 countries, the
world became comprised of 2 camps, one for USSR & one for the US
– Military Cooperation in Europe
• After WWII, most European states joined NATO (for US) or Warsaw
Pact (for USSR). For NATO allies, the objective was to prevent
USSR from overrunning West Germany & other smaller countries.
• After Soviet Union collapsed, Warsaw Pact disbanded, and # of
troops under NATO command decreased. Many East European
countries joined NATO to provide an important sense of security
against any future Russian threat.
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(Left) Economic and military alliances in Europe during the Cold War
(Right) Post-Cold War economic and military alliances in Europe.
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Supernationalism (States Cooperating)
• Economic Cooperation
– Contemporary pattern of global power displays two key
differences from Cold War Era:
• Important elements of state power are increasingly economic rather
than military: China, Japan, and Germany have joined ranks of world
superpowers b/c of economic success, whereas Russia has slipped.
• The leading superpower is not a single state, but an economic union
of European states (European Union).
– European Union
• Currently has 27 member countries
• Main task is to promote development w/in the member states through
economic cooperation.
• EU has taken on more importance in recent years. It has removed
most barriers to free trade. Also, EU introduced the euro as common
currency, eliminating many differences in prices & interest rates.
• These actions has turned Europe into the world’s wealthiest market.
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• Devolution
– Breakup of a state (Balkanization)
– Relinquishing of autonomy to internal units
– Process by which regions w/in a state demand and gain
political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of
the central government.
• Examples of Devolution
– Breakup of a state: Yugoslavia, former USSR, AustriaHungary
– Demand for greater autonomy: Belgium (Walloons and
Flemish), India (Pakistan, Bangladesh), US (Hawaii, native
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How has Devolution Changed Europe?
• Changes resulting from devolution in Europe:
– Formation of new states/governments
– More power to regions (local control over policy, formation of
new legislatures).
– Regional separatism
– Political instability (civil war, fighting, hostility, ethnic
– Mass migration (refugees, emigration)
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• Terrorism
– Systematic use of violence to intimidate a population or to
coerce a government into granting its demands.
• From the Latin word meaning “to frighten”
• Use of bombing, kidnapping, hijacking, and murder to instill fear and
anxiety in a population.
• Terrorism differs from assassinations b/c its attacks are aimed at
ordinary people rather than at military targets or political leaders.
– Terrorism Against Americans—US suffered several attacks
• Examples: 9/11 attacks, Oklahoma City bombing
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United Flight 175 approaches (left) and crashes into it (right).
Tower 1 is already burning from the crash of American Flight 11.
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Aftermath of World Trade Center Attack—Laser technology was used
to create a topographic map of the World Trade Center site 8 days after the
attack. Colors represent elevation above sea level (green) or below sea level
(red) of the destroyed buildings. Rubble was piled more than 60 feet high
where the towers once stood.
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• Al-Qaeda
– Founded by Osama bin Laden. His father had established a
construction company in Saudi Arabia & become a billionaire
through close connections to the royal family. Bin Laden used his
inheritance to fund al-Qaeda.
– Bin Laden moved to Afghanistan during mid-1980s to support fight
against the Soviet-installed gov’t.
– He issued a declaration of war against the US in 1996 b/c of US
support for Saudi Arabia and Israel.
• Argued that Muslims had a duty to wage a holy war (jihad) against US
citizens b/c US was responsible for maintaining the Saud royal family and a
state of Israel dominated by Jews.
• Destruction of the Saudi monarchy and the Jewish state of Israel would
liberate from their control Islam’s three holiest sites: Mecca, Madinah, and
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• State support for terrorism
– Several states in the Middle East have provided
support for terrorism in recent years.
– Three increasing levels of involvement for state
support of terrorism:
• Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other
• Supplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists
• Using terrorists to plan attacks
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• State support for terrorism
– Libya
• Accused of sponsoring a 1986 bombing of a nightclub in Berlin,
Germany, popular w/ US military personnel then stationed there,
which killed 3 people, one of which was a US soldier.
– Afghanistan
• As part of a war against terrorism, US attacked Afghanistan in 2001
when its leaders, known as the Taliban, sheltered bin Laden and
other al-Qaeda terrorists.
• The Taliban had gained power in 1995 and had imposed strict
Islamic fundamentalist law on the population.
• 6 years of Taliban rule came to an end following US invasion. When
US attention shifted to Iraq and Iran, the Taliban were able to regroup
and resume an insurgency against the US-backed Afghanistan gov’t.
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Ethnic Groups in SW Asia—During Cold War, US and USSR viewed conflicts in
this region as part of a global struggle in support of or against the spread of
communism. Recently, US officials have regarded conflicts as part of a global war
on terror. As map shows, boundaries between ethnic groups do not match
boundaries between countries, especially Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, & Pakistan.
This mismatch plays a critical role in the region’s many wars.
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• State support for terrorism
– Iraq
• US claims of state-sponsored terrorism proved more controversial in
regard to Iraq than to Afghanistan.
• 2003—US led attack to depose Saddam Hussein from presidency.
• US justified actions by claiming that Hussein had created biological
and chemical weapons of mass destruction. Few countries supported
US assessment that Iraq still had WMDs.
• Iraq is divided into 150 tribes. After Hussein was toppled, the tribes
established control over their local territories. Now, most Iraqis have
stronger loyalty to a tribe than to a national gov’t.
• Iraq’s principle ethnic groups are split into regions: Kurds in north,
Sunnis in center, and Shiites in south.
• US expected an enthusiastic welcome after removing Hussein from
power. Instead, the US became embroiled in a violent struggle
among the various religious sects and tribes.
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Tribes in Iraq
Iraq is home to 150 tribes.
This map shows some of
the larger ones.
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Why Has Terrorism Increased?
• State support for terrorism
– Iran
• After election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as president in 2005,
relations between US and Iran deteriorated.
• US accused Iran of harboring al-Qaeda members. More troubling
was Iran’s aggressive development of a nuclear program. Iran
claimed that its nuclear program was for civilian purposes, but other
countries believed that it was intended to develop weapons.
– Pakistan
• Western Pakistan, along the border w/ Afghanistan, is a rugged,
mountainous region inhabited by several ethnic minorities where the
Taliban have largely been in control.
• Osama bin Laden was found and killed here by a US Navy Seals
team in 2011. This raised questions about whether or not the
Pakistan gov’t had harbored bin Laden and other al-Qaeda members.
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The End.
Up next: Development
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Chapter 1