Individual and Societal
Bilingualism
Individual
Bilingualism
Societal
Bilingualism
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
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Language and National
Boundaries
National
Language
Minority Status in:
German
Denmark, Belgium, France, Italy, Slovenia,Serbia,
Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan,
Hungary,
Turkish
Greek
Swedish
Czechia, Poland
Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania,
Moldova, Ukraine
Italy, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania,
Ukraine,Turkey
Finland
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 121.
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Linguistic Minorities
Language
Countries
Sami (Lapp)
Frisian
Basque
Catalan
Breton
Sorbian
Kashubian
Welsh
Gaelic
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia
Germany, Netherlands
Spain, France
Spain, France
France
Germany
Poland
UK
UK
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 122.
3/12
Problems for Linguistic Minorities
Education
Mother tongue could be
1. proscribed
2. tolerated
3. promoted
Political Access
May be unable to carry out transactions without interpreter or
bilingual civil servants
Voting
Viewed with suspicion
Economic Opportunities
Jobs
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 123 ff.
4/12
Languages and Nations
UK
Ireland
Spain
Malaysia
Norway
US
Canada
Singapore
India
5/12
UK Minority Languages 1
Indigenous Languages
Gaelic
Speakers:
81,000
(in 1931)
1918 allowed in schools
1958 more actively promoted
English at secondary level
Welsh
Speakers:
656,000 (in 1931 ?)
1953 promote bilingual education in Wales
Local autonomy to decide
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 124-126.
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UK Minority Languages 2
Non-Indigenous Languages
Punjabi
Bengali
Other
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 124-126.
7/12
The Norwegian National
Languages 1
Nynorsk
Bokmål
‘new Norwegian’
forerunner: Landsmål
like western dialects
some local press
poetry, literature (rural)
school: 20% children
‘book language’
forerunner: Riksmål (Dano-Norwegian)
like eastern dialects
national press, most books
country name: Noreg
school: most children
right-wing press: conservative forms
left-wing press: radical forms
country name: Norge
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 136-137.
8/12
The Norwegian National
Languages 2
Nynorsk
Bokmål
Both
all official documents
children must learn both
radio / TV use both extensively
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp. 136-137.
9/12
India without English 1
Eliminating English could have the following effects
1. Increased state, ethnic and linguistic loyalties leading to
political fragmentation
2. Indian languages do not have scientific and technological
tradition—vocabulary gap
3. Using Indian languages for technology, commerce, industry
would require massive amounts of translation—no way to keep
up
4. Only experts could do the translation and they should be
doing the research instead
T.K. Dutt (1967), cited in Wolfson (1989), pp. 282-283
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India without English 2
Effects of exclusive emphasis of regional language
1. Not enough teaching materials available in regional languages
2. Future jobs prospects fewer
3. Going abroad to study more difficult
4. Elite want to keep English to themselves
T.K. Dutt (1967), cited in Wolfson (1989), pp. 282-283
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The Power of Language
“Where language is a defining characteristic
(see p. 44) of a minority ethnic group wanting
independence, particularly where other (for
example physical) characteristics are not
significant (as in the case of Welsh), linguistic
factors are likely to play an important role in any
separatist movement they might undertake.”
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p. 127.
12/12
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