To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Study Guides ECHS C. Edge Chapter 1 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. Context Clues. Consider the underlined word in each of the following sentences and choose the most appropriate meaning based on context clues. When Jem’s arm healed, and his fear of never being able to play football was assuaged, he was seldom self-conscious about his injury. a. deciphered b. completed c. relieved d. impressed The Radleys kept to themselves, a predilection unforgivable in our town. a. forecast b. dilemma c. event d. inclination The people ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of stores around it, took their time about everything. a. rushed b. walked slowly c. skipped d. skated The house looked so eerie that we were sure a malevolent phantom lived inside. a. evil b. kind c. transparent d. cheerful Chapter 1 Questions 1. What does the Radley house mean to the children? What was the first “dare” made concerning this house? Chapter 1 Questions 2. How does the author establish a feeling of mystery in this chapter? Chapter 1 Questions 3. How did the Finches get to Montgomery? What was the “disturbance between the North and the South”? Chapter 1 Questions 4. Contrast Dill’s family situation with the Finch’s. Chapter 1 Questions 5. Who is narrating this story? What do we know so far about the character from whom we will be hearing this tale? Chapter 1 Activity EXPOSITION In the opening pages of a novel, the author tries to convey a great deal of information and seize the reader’s interest. Reread the first two pages of the book and record what you learned about the setting, the main characters, and the beginnings of a plot conflict. Chapter 2 and 3 Vocabulary Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right. Then use each word to fill in one of the sentences below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Inequities Fractious Disapprobation Mortification Vexations Transaction a. the act of conducting business b. annoyances c. humiliation d. unfair circumstances e. irritable f. disapproval Chapter 2 and 3 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The ___ young man caused displeasure to everyone around him. Racial segregation caused educational ___. His ___ was confirmed by a shake of his head and a frown. A signed contract was the end product of our ___. Delayed trains and crowded subways were our daily ___. Her ___ was increased by the teasing of her classmates. Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 1. Who is Jean Louise? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 2. What is the contrast between Jem and Scout’s reaction to school? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 3. Why does Scout tell Miss Caroline about Walter Cunningham? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 4. How does Atticus explain the Ewell family? According to Atticus, why must Scout attend school? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 5. What advice does Atticus give to Scout? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 6. Describe Atticus’ personality and philosophy? Chapter 2 and 3 Questions 7. What aspect of life is satirized in chapters two and three? Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Vocabulary Vocabulary: It is often possible to determine the meaning of the unfamiliar words from their context. This is called using context clues. Consider the underlined word in each sentence and choose the most appropriate meaning. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Vocabulary 1. The remainder of my schooldays were no more auspicious than the first. A. awesome B. favorable C. distrustful D. unhappy Given that Scout had a horrible first day of school, we can assume the most appropriate definition for auspicious would be ___. B. favorable Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Vocabulary 2. Why, one sprig of nut grass can ruin a whole yard…Miss Maudie’s face likened such an occurrence unto an Old Testament pestilence. A. unequalled event B. offense C. Bible story D. epidemic disease Based on knowledge of the biblical plagues that God thrust upon the Egyptians in order to convince the Pharoah to let his people go free and that this would be something to be avoided at all costs, we can assume that pestilence most likely means ___. D. epidemic disease Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Vocabulary 3. So, that was what you were doing, wasn’t it?...putting his life’s history on display for the edification of the neighborhood. A. process of instruction B. act of honor C. long awaited satisfaction D. disgrace Based on the fact that no one has seen Boo Radley in over 15 years and that most stories about him are superstitions and legends, we can assume that these shows that Jem, Dill, and Scout were performing were the long awaited evidence of what happened to Boo, so we can assume that the definition of edification would most likely be ___. C. long awaited satisfaction Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Dialect Dialect—way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. Southern dialect is used extensively in this novel to provide a more realistic picture of the people in this small southern town. Translate each of these examples of southern dialect into standard speech. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Dialect 1. “Looks like if Mr. Arthur was hankerin’ after heaven he’d come out on the porch at least.” It looks as if Mr. Arthur wanted to go to heaven, he would at least come out on the porch. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Dialect 2. “Gracious child, I was raveling a thread, wasn’t even thinking about your father.” Goodness child, I was just telling a story. I wasn’t even thinking about your father. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Dialect 3. “Yawl write, hear?” he bawled after us. “Don’t forget to write!” he called after us. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 1. What is the importance of the Radley’s oak tree in these chapters? What happens the last day of school to heighten the mystery about the Radley house? It begins to act as a device for the children to communicate with Boo Radley. Jem, Dill, and Scout sneak over to the Radley house to peek at Boo Radley, but Mr. Radley shoots his shotgun at them to scare them. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 2. In your own words tell one of the stories about Boo Radley. Describe the children’s reaction and Atticus’ reaction to this story. Boo stabbing his father in the leg with the scissors and Mrs. Radley running out of the house screaming, “he’s killing us all!” Atticus demands that they leave that family alone. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 3. Who is Miss Maudie Atkinson? Why is she important in these chapters? She is a neighbor who befriends the children. As Jem and Dill begin to leave Scout out of their play activities, she spends more time with Miss Maudie and learns some truth behind the legends of Boo Radley. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 4. What is significant about the neighbor’s conclusions about the identity of the person in the collard patch? Based on the statements made by Miss Maudie and Atticus, it seems apparent that they know who it was. (if you see a white n_gger, that’s him) Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 5. What plot is hatched by the boys before Dill returns to Mississippi? What is the result of these actions? They plan to go into the Radley’s backyard to sneak a peek in one of the windows to see if they can see Boo Radley. Mr. Radley catches them and shoots his gun at them to scare them. Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Questions 6. What is the general feeling children have toward the Radley place? Give examples and support your statement. They are scared of it, but find it fascinating. They are afraid to go touch it, but they continually look for ways to get closer to it. Chapter 7 Vocabulary Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right. Use each word to fill in the sentences that follow. 1. 2. 3. 4. Breeches Rendered Vigil Meditative a. a period of watchful attention b. knee-length trousers c. thoughtful, contemplative d. caused to become Answers: 1. b., 2. d., 3. a., 4. c. Chapter 7 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. When Grandfather was a boy, he wore ________________. The anxious parents kept their _____________ at the bedside of their ailing son. The light shining in his eyes ________ him helpless before his captors. The young man became ________ when asked to consider his future goals in life. Answers: 1. Breeches 2. Vigil 3. Rendered 4. meditative Chapter 7 Questions 1. How does Scout feel about school this term? Chapter 7 Questions 2. What happened to Jem’s pants? Who is responsible? Chapter 7 Questions 3. What is found in the Radley Oak in this chapter? Why do the children think the trinkets are for them? Chapter 7 Questions 4. The children suspect various characters. Cite each “suspicious” charaacter and the reason why Jem and Scout eliminate each possibility. Chapter 7 Questions 5. Compare the reactions of Scout and Jem when the tree is doctored up by Nathan Chapter 8 Vocabulary A difficult word can sometimes be deciphered without a dictionary. You can use the context to help you figure it out. In these sentences from chapter 8, use the context to choose the correct meaning of each underlined word. 1. For reasons unfathomable to the most experienced prophets in Maycomb County, autumn turned to winter that year. a. required b. prohibited c. comprehensible d. incomprehensible Answer: d Chapter 8 Vocabulary Mr. Avery said it was written on the Rosetta Stone that when children disobeyed their parents, smoked cigarettes and made war on each other, the seasons would change. Jem and I were burdened with the guilt of contributing to the aberrations of nature, thereby causing unhappiness to our neighbors and discomfort to ourselves. a. power b. ugliness c. ghosts d. abnormalities Answer: d Chapter 8 Vocabulary Miss Maudie puzzled me. With most of her possessions gone and her beloved yard a shambles, she still took a lively and cordial interest in Jem’s and my affairs. She must have seen my perplexity. a. bewilderment b. exhilaration c. remorse d. depression Answer: a Chapter 8 Questions 1. Why does Scout react to the snow by yelling, “The world’s endin’, Atticus…!”? Answer: Chapter 8 Questions 2. What is the significance of the reference point of Appomattox in Mr. Avery’s remark, “It hasn’t snowed in Maycomb since Appamattox.”? Answer: Chapter 8 Questions 3. Why do you think Boo Radley covered Scout as she watched the fire? How did she react when she learned the identity of her benefactor? Answer: Chapter 8 Questions 4. What character traits were manifest by Miss Maudie in her reaction to the burning of her house? How did she explain her attitude to Jem and Scout? Answer: Chapter 9, 10, and 11 Vocabulary Match the words on the left with the appropriate definitions on the right. Then use each word to fill in the blanks in the sentences below. 1. 8. Rectitude Guilelessness Obstreperous Rudiments Mausoleum Articulate Contemporary Cantankerous Answers:1. g., 2.c., 3.e., 4.b., 5.d., 6.h., 7.a., 8.f. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. a. of the current age b. the part to be learned first c. sincerity, straightforwardness d. large, magnificent tomb e. unruly or boisterous f. quarrelsome, grouchy g. moral virtue, rightness of principle h. to be able to put one’s thoughts into words Chapter 9, 10, and 11 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. A lawyer must be ___ in order to be persuasive before a jury. You must study the ___ of football before you get out on the field to play. The children were so ___ that the management asked them to leave the theatre. The general’s military victories were celebrated after his death by building a ___ in his honor. Answers: 1. articulate, 2. rudiments, 3. obstreperous, 4. mausoleum Chapter 9, 10, and 11 Vocabulary 5. ___ furniture tends to be less ornate than its Victorian counterparts. 6. Lack of sleep will cause even the most mild-mannered person to become ___. 7. After twenty years of unselfish service to his political party, no one would doubt the ___ of his motives. 8. It is refreshing to observe the ___ of young children. Answers: 5. contemporary, 6. cantankerous, 7. rectitude, 8. guilelessness Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 1. What is “Maycomb’s usual disease”? Who coins this phrase? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 2. Who is Tom Robinson? Why is Atticus defending him? Why does Judge Taylor appoint him? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 3. Why does Scout receive a spanking from Uncle Jack? For what reason did Atticus believe she deserved this punishment even after Jack admitted his error? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 4. What has Scout learned about injustice from Miss Caroline and the townspeople of Maycomb? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 5. What is the children’s perception of Atticus as described at the beginning of chapter 10? What event occurs in this chapter that changes the children’s concept of their father? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 6. Who is Mrs. Dubose, and what is her relationship to Jem and Scout? Why does Jem destroy Mrs. Dubose’s flower garden? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Questions 7. What actions of Mrs. Dubose frighten Jem? What is the explanation given to Jem regarding these actions? Why does Atticus feel that Mrs. Dubose is “the bravest person I ever knew.”? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Literary Device SYMBOLISM A symbol is a tangible object that represents an abstract set of ideas. Consider Mrs. Dubose’s camelias and how they grew back after they were mutilated by Jem. What could the camelias symbolize in this novel? Chapter 9, 10, 11 Activity ANALOGOUS ANALYSIS Consider Atticus’ and Miss Maudie’s warning not to kill a mockingbird. Why is it a sin in their eyes? As you continue reading the book, try to equate Tom Robinson and the unlikely Boo Radley with the mockingbird. How are they similar? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Vocabulary Consider the underlined words in the following sentences taken from the novel. Use context clues to determine the meaning of each word, and then check your definition with a dictionary. Record your responses in the chart provided. Jem was twelve. He was difficult to live with, inconsistent, moody. Bread lines in the cities grew longer, people in the country grew poorer. But these events were remote from the world of Jem and me. Everything he read he passed along to me, but with this difference: formerly, because he thought I’d like it; now for my edification and instruction. He traveled with the road show until his infallible sense of direction told him he was in Abbott County just across the river from Maycomb. Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Vocabulary Word inconsistent remote edification infallible Your definition Dictionary Definition Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 1. In what ways does Calpurnia’s church differ from the white people’s church? Why do you think the author presents us with this contrast at this point in the story? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 2. What do Jem and Scout learn about the injustice of white people during their visit to Cal’s church? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 3. What did Scout mean when she commented that Calpurnia “had a separate existence outside our household” and that she even had a “command of two languages.”? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 4. Why has Aunt Alexandra moved in for the summer? How does Atticus feel about this? How do the children feel about this? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 5. Why can it be said that “Aunt Alexandra fitted into the world of Maycomb like a hand into a glove, but never into the world of Jem and me (Scout).”? What sense of values did Aunt Alexandra try to impart to the children? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 6. What is Scout referring to when she says at the end of Chapter 13, “I know now what he was trying to do, but Atticus was only a man. It takes a woman to do that kind of work.”? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 7. Why did Dill run away from home? What is the difference between the way he perceives his relationship with his mother and the way Scout perceives his relationship with her father? Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Questions 8. What evidence do we have that Jem is starting to grow up and is beginning to identify with the adult world? Be specific. Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Writing Activities 1. The author uses sharp, clear language to give the reader an unmistakable first impression of Aunt Alexandra. “Enamored, upright, uncompromising, Aunt Alexandra was sitting in a rocking chair exactly as if she had set there every day of her life.” Use similar style to encapsulate the appearance and character of a person familiar to you in your own life. Chapter 12, 13, and 14 Writing Activities 2. Scout’s horizons are slowly expanding beyond the confines of her own home. What is she learning about the world at large from Dill, Aunt Alexandra, the townspeople of Maycomb, and Calpurnia? How do their values affect her own? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Vocabulary An analogy is an equation using words in which one pair of words must have the same relationship to each other as a second pair of words. For example: Finger is to hand as toe is to foot. A finger is a part of a hand just like a toe is a part of a foot. Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Vocabulary Complete the following analogies using the word choice below: Affluent amiable fragile inaudible perpetual placid 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Siren is to loud as heartbeat is to ___. Prosperous is to ___ as impoverished is to indigent. Bigotry is to tolerance as ___ is to turbulent. Genial is to ___ as brave is to courageous. ___ is to chronic as intermittent is to occasional. Fragrant is to flowers as ___ is to glass. Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 1. Why do you think Heck Tate and the men accompanying him paid a visit to Atticus? How did Jem and Scout react to this visit? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 2. How did the second gang that met Atticus at the jail compare with the first group that came to Atticus’ home? What was the result of Scout’s combination of innocence and straightforwardness when she addressed Mr. Cunningham? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 3. How is the author slowly building a web of tension leading up to the trial? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 4. How would you characterize the crowd that has come to the trial? Why do you think the author has described them in such detail? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 5. What did the men in the Idler’s Club mean as they echoed town sentiment saying, “the court appointed him [Atticus] to defend this nigger…but Atticus plans to defend him. That’s what I don’t like about it.”? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 6. Why do you think the author has slowed up the action of the novel during the trial scene by paying meticulous attention to every aspect of the courtroom? Chapter 15, 16, 17, and 18 Questions 7. On what single key issue does Atticus build his case? What kinds of strategies does he use to elicit the truth? Why do you think Mayella resents Atticus? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Vocabulary 1. He had the incredible temerity to challenge the policeman’s right to give him a ticket. a. shyness 2. b. trusting c. intelligent d. distrustful b. foolish c. legal d. absurd The ex-convict tried to expunge all evidence of former misdeeds from his records. a. add 5. d. stupidity The jurors had to maintain a discreet silence until the case was over. a. careful 4. c. cleverness Beyond a certain age, children become too cynical to believe in Santa Claus. a. serious 3. b. rashness b. obliterate c. belittle d. exaggerate The cold, brisk weather exhilarated the walkers. a. invigorated b. saddened c. annoyed d. tired Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 1. For what reasons did Scout come to pity Mayella even though she was testifying against Tom? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 2. What was the “subtlety of Tom’s predicament” on the day Mayella tried to seduce him? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 3. Compare Scout and Dill’s reactions to Mr. Gilmer’s prosecution. Why do you think Dill becomes so upset when Mr. Gilmer cross-examines Tom? Why does Dolphus Raymond believe that Dill won’t be affected like that in a few years? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 4. Why had Dolphus Raymond made himself into a town outcast? What commentary is he making about the town and its values? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 5. What techniques of persuasion did Atticus use during his summation speech to the jury? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 6. Why did the author make it seem like an airtight case in Atticus’ favor just prior to the jury’s decision? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 7. Why were the spectators at the trial so appalled when Tom said that he felt sorry for Mayella? What does this reveal about class structure in Maycomb County? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 8. What were the many things that Scout learned about injustice during her day as a spectator in court? Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 9. What did Atticus mean when he said to Aunt Alexandra, “This is their home…they might as well learn to cope with it…It’s just as much Maycomb County as missionary teas.” Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Questions 10. Why did Miss Maudie invite the children in for cake on the day after the trial and tell them, “It’s just a baby step, but it’s a step.” Chapter 19, 20, 21, and 22 Writing Activity NO CHEAP SHOTS! In this novel, as in life, nothing is either perfectly good or perfectly evil. It would have been easy to offer a blatant indictment of the Ewell’s crime, the town’s bigotry, Aunt Alexandra’s narrow-mindedness, Dolphus Raymond’s eccentricity, Mrs. Dubose’s nastiness and drug addiction. However, Harper Lee always counterbalances the evil with the good in order to portray the real complexities of life. Describe how each of these possible indictments are tempered by positive counterpoints. Why do you think the author always falls short of making outright indictments against the society being described? What do you think she is really trying to convey about they nature of bigotry and injustice? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Vocabulary Circle the synonyms for the underlined word in each word group. Then use each underlined word in an original sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. furtive Adamant Sordid Squalid Brevity clandestine straightforwardness forlorn unyielding weak eager generous degraded filthy repulsive sordid wretched conciseness width length Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 1. How does Atticus justify Bob Ewell’s provocative behavior in order to mollify the children? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 2. How did Atticus’ remark that “It’s all adding up and one of these days we’re going to pay the bill for it,” foreshadow the Civil Rights struggles of the late 1950’s and 60’s when this book was written? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 3. What is the difference between the Cunninghams and the Ewells? Why did Atticus select a Cunningham for the jury? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 4. As a result of the convistion, what conclusion does Jem draw about Boo Radley’s seclusion? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 5. What was the implicit irony in the Maycomb ladies’ concern for the poverty of the Mrunas? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 6. Why do you think the author juxtaposed the meeting of the Missionary Circle and the trial scene? What is the real significance of Mrs. Merriweather’s statement to Scout, “You are a fortunate girl. You live in a Christian home with Christian folks in a Christian town.”? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 7. During her afternoon with the ladies, what was Scout coming to realize about herself when she mused, “There was no doubt about it, I must soon enter this world…”? However, which world did Scout prefer? Why? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 8. Why do you think it was important for Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie to hide their sorrow at Tom’s death? Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 9. Was Tom justified in losing faith in “white man’s justice”? Explain your answer. Chapters 23, 24, and 25 Questions 10. What was the reaction of the majority of Maycomb County to Tom’s death? What was Mr. Underwood’s opinion as stated in his newspaper? What analogy did he use to describe Tom’s killing? Why do you think the author presented opposing points of view on the subject of Tom’s death? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Vocabulary Define the following words and then complete the paragraph with the appropriate words. turmoil eccentricities notoriety spurious squandering The millionaire’s ___ were publicized in all of the metropolitan newspapers. He was criticized for ___ his fortune on ___ business ventures. His latest scheme to give away five million dollars gained him such ___ that his life become one of constant ___. Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 1. Why was Scout upset by her teacher’s indictment of Hitler? Why did Jem react so violently when Scout tried to talk to him about it? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 2. According to Atticus, why did Bob Ewell continue to hold a grudge against everyone connected with the Robinson case even though he had won in court? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 3. What misconception did Atticus have about the way Bob Ewell was killed? Why did Sheriff Tate want people to think Ewell fell on his own knife? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 4. What do you think Scout meant when she said that to reveal Boo Radley’s part in Bob Ewell’s death would be “like shootin’ a mockingbird,”? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 5. What insights came to Scout as she stood on Boo Radley’s porch after taking him home? Chapter 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 Questions 6. What message is Atticus trying to convey to his daughter at the end of the book when he says, “Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them.”?