Preparing for the ITERS-R, ECERS-R and FCCERS-R Assessments Kim Vanover PHILOSOPHY OF EARLY LEARNING • • • • Children need To learn on their own and from peers and adults. Both orderly structure and unplanned, spontaneous events. Freedom to make choices and boundaries within which they can make choices. • To belong to a greater community and to be treated as a unique individual. • A comfortable and positive sense of personal identity and a respect for people who are different. • Independent play and teacher planned activities. PHILOSOPHY OF EARLY LEARNING • Exceptional children need • Everything typically developing children need plus • Individualized treatment and immersion into the full classroom experience. • Respect for their own unique abilities and exposure to a children with a wide variety of skills. Interview Questions • Provisions for children with disabilities • Could you describe how you try to meet the needs of the children with disabilities in your group? • Do you have any information from assessments on the children? How is it used? • Do you need to do anything special to meet the needs of the children? Please describe what you do. • Are you and the children’s parents involved in helping to decide how to meet the children’s needs? Please describe. • How are intervention services such as therapy handled? • Are you involved in the children’s assessments or in the development of intervention plans? What is your role? Elements present in creating effective learning environments • Themes: An effective teaching tool is the use of themes, which serve to guide the teaching, activities, classroom organization and decoration, conversation and play during the year. Elements present in creating effective learning environments • Classroom centers: Having a number of learning centers serves to provide variety in stimulating learning experiences, meet the individual needs of children, simultaneously bring structure and opportunities for change within the school day. Elements present in creating effective learning environments • Outdoor environments: Outdoor play time should be an extension on the learning opportunities provided within the classroom, even as children receive the physical and social benefits of exercise and movement. Implementing Themes • Apparent to an outsider • Reflected in at least 3 books • Found throughout the classroom/space POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • “Catching children being good”— Children are anxious to gain our approval and attention. Therefore, affirming desirable behaviors is likely to encourage the child to repeat such behaviors. Example: “Thank you for sharing your toy, Susie! What a wonderful thing to do!” or “Johnny, I really loved the polite words you used when you asked for some more juice!” POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • Modeling—Children watch adults closely! Most of us have had that uncanny (or sometimes uncomfortable) feeling of hearing our words or seeing our actions reproduced in miniature by the children in our care. Therefore, one of your best teaching strategies is simply modeling the words, actions, and behaviors you hope to see in your children. POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • Personal experience—Providing opportunities for children to experience solving a problem, creating something, or trying a new skills—with much positive feedback for each element of success—is another primary teaching strategy. In fact, all of us learn best through our own experiences. POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • Successive approximation—While this term may not be familiar, this fact of learning will be very familiar to us all. We all learn things in small increments. For example, first we learned to crawl, then pull up, then stand alone, then take a step, then run, skip, and jump. Likewise, a child first enjoys cuddling with someone while looking at colorful pictures in a book; then begins to associate the pictures with the story; then begins to realize that the print is conveying the story; then begins to express curiosity about letters, etc. When we applaud a small step toward success, this encourages a child to take the next step required. Don’t wait until the whole process is complete to cheer a child on! POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • Gentle guidance—As a child moves through such sequences, gentle questions or suggestions are a positive strategy for assisting the child in moving to the next level of success. POSITIVE DISCIPLINE AS A STRATEGY FOR LEARNING • Redirection—When a child is experiencing frustration with a task or another person, one of the most helpful strategies may be to redirect the child to another task or another area of the room, defusing the frustration and anger. Interview Questions Discipline • Do you ever find it necessary to use strict discipline? Please describe the methods you use. • Do you use activities with the children that encourage them to get along well with each other? • What do you do if you have a child with a very difficult behavior problem? Helping children understand language This item looks at the language staff use with children throughout the day during routines and play. Consider how much talking to children is done by staff . . . Consider that way that staff talk to children . . . Also consider classroom noise ( e.g., loud music, constant crying, lack of sound-absorbing materials)- does it interfere with the children’s ability to hear language? Consider what kind of talking is done with children . . . Listen to find out how staff help children enjoy language . . . Indoor Space • • • • • • Space is in good repair Accessible to people with disabilities Ample indoor space Controlled ventilation Natural lighting that can be controlled Supervision Indoor Space Indoor space • Can the ventilation in your room be controlled? If yes, ask: How is this done? Furniture • • • • • Enough furniture (cubbies) Seats are comfortable and supportive Child-sized tables and chairs for toddlers Furniture promotes self-help Convenient, organized storage for extra toys and supplies • Comfortable adult seating Furnishings Furniture for routine care and play • Do you use any other toys or materials in addition to what I observed? If yes, ask: Where are they stored? Could you please show me? • If cots or mats are not visible during the observation, ask: Where are the children’s cots or mats stored? DECORATING TO SET THE CLASSROOM MOOD • Display • Use all areas in and around your room: walls, doors, changing areas, bathrooms, windows, bulletin boards in the class and hallway. • Change your displays to match your classroom themes (at least montly). Visitors should be able to guess your theme by looking around your room. • Photographs and artwork should be at children’s eye levelsome within easy reach. • Many colorful, simple pictures and/or photographs must be displayed throughout the room- art work done by toddlers must be displayed. • 75% of display must be protected DECORATING TO SET THE CLASSROOM MOOD • Displays should show people from many cultures, races, age groups, abilities and non gender stereotyping roles. • Display pictures of the children in your classroom and their families. • Have a parent information board that includes health information, lesson plans, classroom schedule, menus, and upcoming events. • A hanging display must be available for all children to look at. ITERS-R • Talk to the children about displayed material *must be observed DECORATING TO SET THE CLASSROOM MOOD • For infants only: • Cribs should be labeled with each child’s name and birth date. • Decorate the crib ends and/or nearby wall with family pictures and/or objects from home, whenever possible. • Post decorative and fun biographical facts on cribs to help staff learn about the children and their likes and dislikes. (best practice) Display Display for children • Do you add to or change what is displayed in your room, such as the pictures on the wall? If yes, ask: about how often? Setting the mood • Sounds and Music: • The teacher’s vocal tone, classroom volume, and background music set the mood of the room. • Remember, “children learn what they live,” so, if the teacher shouts or uses a loud voice, the children will also shout and speak loudly. If the teacher speaks softly, gently, and kindly, the children are likely to follow that example! • It is important to have excitement in classrooms, but constant, loud voices do not help learning. Personal Care Routines “I will not obsess about sanitation” 7. Meals/snacks Are feeding practices appropriate? Infants put to bed with bottles Bottles propped for feeding Children eat while walking, playing Children forced to eat Meals and Snacks •Water offered between meals •Do they meet USDA guideline requirements? •Are the foods served age-appropriate? •Are accommodations made for children’s allergies/dietary restrictions? •Allergies posted and appropriate substitutions made Maintaining basic sanitary procedures: Proper handwashing for adults and children Properly sanitized eating surfaces Food served under sanitary and safe conditions Meals/snacks Meals/snacks • What do you do if parents provide insufficient food for their children or if the food they provide does not meet children’s needs? • What do you do if children have food allergies? • Do you have a chance to talk with parents about their child’s nutrition? If yes, ask: What sort of issues do you discuss? Schedule • What do you do if a toddler seems tired before naptime or hungry before mealtime? Is flexibility possible in nap or meal times? If yes, ask: how would that be handled? 8. Nap Several issues to consider: - Schedule - Sanitation issues - Provisions (cribs, cots, mats) - Supervision Schedule - when children are actually provided with nap time Inappropriate = nap usually does not meet the needs of the children in the group · too late · too early · too long · too short · not dependable Sanitary issues: Unsanitary = unclean so spread of disease (skin, respiratory) from child to child is not minimized Sanitary provisions for nap · nap area is uncrowded · clean, individual bedding- not shared · children’s bedding stored to avoid contamination · mats and cots easily washed and sanitized Provisions for Nap • Cots, mats, or cribs used • Space used for napping and not for play • Safety concerns Nap is personalized: •Crib/cot in same place each day •Familiar routines used •Special blanket or soft toy for toddlers Supervision during nap • Sleeping children need to be within sight and sound of staff • Sufficient supervision means that there are enough staff in the room to handled emergencies and children’s needs • Insufficient supervision means that napping children are not within hearing and easy sight of staff or staff are present but not actively supervising Nap/rest • Nap • If nap is not observed, ask: Since I was not here to see naptime, how is nap handled? More specific questions can then be asked: • Where do the children sleep? How are the cots/mats arranged? • Who supervises naptime? How is supervision handled? • What do you do if a child is tired before naptime? • What do you do if a child wakes up very early from nap? 9. Diapering / Toileting What is the diapering procedure? Diapering/Toileting • Check every 2 hours • Meets individual needs 10. Health practices Minimizing the spread of germs: Proper handwashing procedures are followed when needed. Special attention given to the possibility of contamination from blood borne pathogens, such as the hepatitis B virus, HIV, or hepatitis C. Staff are good models of health practices Staff show children that they care for their own health Maintaining personal hygiene, washing, brushing teeth, clean clothing Eating and drinking healthy in front of children Getting exercise and rest Making sure things are kept clean Dressing appropriately Health Practices Health practices • Is smoking allowed in the child care areas, either indoors or outdoors? • Are extra clothes available for the children, in case they are needed? • Do you make any health-related information available to the parents? If yes, ask: Can you give me some examples? Greeting/departing • Greeting/departing • If neither greeting nor departing are observed, ask: Can you describe what happens when children arrive and leave? Follow up with more specific questions if needed, such as: • Do parents usually bring the children into the room? • What is done to prepare for children’s leaving? • If a child has difficulty letting his or her parent leave or has difficulty leaving the center at the end of the day, how is this handled? • Do parents ever spend time in the classroom at drop-off and pick-up times? • Is it possible for staff to talk to parents at pick-up times? If yes, ask: what sort of things are discussed? • Is a written record of each infant’s day given to parents? If yes, ask: May I see an example? Safety Practices Safety practices • Do you ever transport children? How is this handled to ensure their safety? • What provisions do you have for handling emergencies? • Specific follow-up questions may be needed, such as: • How would you handle an emergency? • Do you have anyone on staff that is trained in infant/toddler first aid including management of a blocked airway (choke-saving) and rescue breathing? • Is there a first aid kit available for you to use? Can you please show it to me? • Is there a telephone you would use to call for help in an emergency? Setting the mood • Use music to help set a mood: soft music for naptime; upbeat music for free play, dancing, and outside fun; marching rhythms or songs for transitioning to the next activity. • Play music that represents different cultures, but make selections that are developmentally and culturally appropriate for children. Our culture has lots of music that is inappropriate for children, including scary, violent, explicit or controversial content—these should be avoided. Using Learning Centers • Important notes about centers • Here are a few tips to remember when deciding how to improve your classroom with centers: • Have a minimum of 5 centers in each room for Toddlers and Twos. • Separate centers are not necessary in Infant classrooms, with the exception of a cozy, it is important to have materials out and available to the children representing all interest areas. • Quiet centers must be separated clearly from the noisy centers. • Children should be able to freely choose which centers or activities they wish to use for much of the day (any time that children are awake and able to play) Iters, Fccers • Substantial portion of the day- 1/3 of the day, ECERS Using Learning Centers • It is important that you move around the room and interact with the children while they are involved in free playtime. • Encourage children to play in small groups and different centers. This reduces the chance of children competing for the same toys or for your attention. • Try not to interrupt play that is going well. • Talk, talk, talk, read, read, read and sing, sing, sing with your children all day long. • Use all centers to support your curriculum lesson plans, and classroom themes. Types of Centers Quiet Centers Cozy Reading Writing Types of Centers Noisy Centers Dramatic Play Blocks Music TV/Video/Computer Types of Centers Buffer Centers Sand and Water Computers (with headphones) Science and Nature Math and Numbers Fine Motor Listening (with headphones) Art Materials for Learning Opportunities opportunities for children to choose what they will work on, from a developmental point of view Accommodates to individual learning styles Broadens the range of information children can take in Materials that are appropriate: Vary by children’s ages and interests Provide challenge but minimize frustration Are generally open-ended rather than closed Fine motor • Arrangement and use – Floor space is preferred play space for children under 2 ½ years. – Provide materials with differing levels of difficulty. – Center should be accessible for much of the day. ITERS, FCCERS – Substantial portion of the day- ECERS Fine motor ITERS • Materials – Toys that involving grasping, texture, and cause/effect. – Additional toys rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration and relate to classroom themes. – Sufficient toys to reduce the chance for conflict. 10 toys for a group of 5 infants- 15 toys for a group of 4 toddlers and 1 additional per child if over 5 in the group – Infants: nesting cups, busy boxes, rattles, cradle gyms, containers to fill and dump. – Toddlers • • • • • • Pop beads Shape sorters Large stringing beads Puzzles Stacking rings Crayons Fine motor ECERS • Materials – Additional toys rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration and relate to classroom themes. – Sufficient toys to reduce the chance for conflict. – Preschoolers (3 of each type must be accessible for a substantial part of the day) • Small building toys: Lincoln logs, interlocking toys • Art materials: crayons, scissors • Manipulatives: string beads, peg boards, sewing cards • Puzzles Fine motor FCCERS • Materials – Additional toys rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration and relate to classroom themes. – Sufficient toys to reduce the chance for conflict. – Infants/Toddlers- 10 different appropriate materials – Preschoolers (3 of each type must be accessible for much of the day) • Small building toys: Lincoln logs, interlocking toys • Art materials: crayons, scissors • Manipulatives: string beads, peg boards, sewing cards • Puzzles Fine motor • Interaction Talk about sorting, size comparison, opposites, cause and effect, names of shapes, and concepts. Ask simple questions. - Provider interacts with children in relation to their play- 2 observations FCCERS – Promote “language for reasoning” as you talk about sorting, size comparison, opposites, cause and effect, names of shapes, and concepts.- E Fine motor • Curriculum focus areas – – Physical development Cognitive development Fine motor • • When are the manipulatives and other fine motor materials accessible for children to use? Do you have any additional fine motor materials that you use with the children? If yes, ask: Could you please show these to me? Math ECERS/FCCERS • Arrangement and use – Organized space – Supplies which can be organized according to type – Must have at least one teacher-directed activity every two weeks – Accessible for a substantial portion of the dayECERS Math • • • Materials to experience Counting Measuring Comparing quantities Recognizing shapes Written number 3-5 of each type for a substantial portion of the day- ECERS 5 different materials for each age groupFCCERS (2 shape, 2 number) Math • Concepts are…. · Same-different · Matching · Classifying · Sequencing · Cause and effect · Spatial relationships · One-to-one correspondence Math activities encourage the development of concepts Math • Interaction – Promote “language for reasoning” as you talk about sorting, sizes, opposites, cause and effect. Discuss “why” you sort things in one way or another, “why” one cup holds more than another; comparisons in quantity such as tall and thin, short and fat, etc. – Place pictures of numbers next to an array of items that equals that number ( for example, the number 4 and 4 blocks) and compare this with another number (the number 10 and 10 blocks.) – Sing number songs, such as “Ten Little Indians” or “Five Little Chickadees”. – Count with children through everyday activities such as setting the table: count plates, cups, spoons, napkins. – 1 example during Free play and 1 during routinesFCCERS Interview Questions Math/number • Could you give me some examples of math activities you do with the children in addition to what I’ve seen? • Are there any other math materials used with the children? How is this handled? TV/Video/Computers Use of TV, video, and/or computers • Are TV, videos, or computers used with the children? How are they used? • How do you choose the TV, video, or computer materials to use with the children? • Are other activities available to children while TV or videos are used? • How often are TV, video, or computers used with the children? For what length of time are these available? • Do any of the materials encourage active involvement by the children? Please give some examples. • Do you use TV, video, or the computer related to topics of themes in the classroom? Please explain. Science and Nature • Arrangement and Use – Organized space – Works well in combination with or close to Sand and Water Center – Must have at least one teacher-directed activity every two weeks- ECERS/FCCERS – Space for at least 3 children – Accessible for a substantial part of the day Science and Nature • Materials – – – – Collections of natural objects (leaves, rocks, bugs, feathers, shells, etc.) Living things (fish, plants, etc.) Books, games, puzzles and toys relating to science and nature Activities (magnets, magnifying glasses, scales, cooking implements, measuring equipment) – Additional materials, with rotation to provide variation, encourage exploration, and relate to classroom themes. • *This center must include 3 to 5 of each type.- ECERS • 9 examples with 3 of 4 categories for preschoolers/schoolagersFCCERS • Outdoor experience with nature 3 time a week ECERS 2 times FCCERS/ITERS- indoor daily all scales. Science and Nature • Inappropriate materials – – – – Turtles Lizards Birds Poisonous plants Science and Nature • Interaction – Talk with children about everyday occurrences in nature, such as the weather and seasons. – Encourage “language for reasoning,” as you talk about sorting, size comparison, opposites, cause and effect, and other concepts. Discuss “why” you might sort things in one way or another, what makes an object is heavier or lighter than another, “why” a certain cause creates a certain effect. Ask “what if” questions (What would happen if we did so and so? What would happen if a bird was heavy like this rock? What happens if a sea creature outgrows its shell?) – Encourage open discussion with your children. Welcome children’s imaginative comments and questions! Interview Questions Nature/science • Do children bring in nature or science things to share? How do you handle this? • Can you give me some examples of nature/science activities you do with the children in addition to what I’ve seen? About how often are these activities done? • Do you use nature/science books or AV materials with the children? Please describe. Science and Nature ITERS • Related experiences: -Must have at least one outdoor experience with nature at least 2 times a week. (must include living plants or animals) – Indoor experience with nature daily. (blowing bubbles is a great science experience for all ages Science and Nature • Materials – At least 2 nature/science pictures, books, or toys that represent nature realistically. – Living things indoors (fish, plants, etc.) – Additional materials, with rotation to provide variation, encourage exploration, and relate to classroom themes. *Must be accessible for one hour daily. Science and Nature Nature/science – How often are children taken outdoors? Could you describe any experiences they have with nature when they are outdoors? Dramatic Play/ITERS • Arrangement and use – Organized space – Sufficient supplies to prevent conflict – Accessible daily for much of the day Dramatic Play-ITERS • Materials Infants: – Dolls – Soft animals – Pots and pans – Toy telephones – Additional props, rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration, and relate to classroom themes • 3-5 of each example • 2 or more dolls and soft animals observed accessible Dramatic Play Toddlers: – Child sized play furniture – Play building with props (barn, doll house, fire station) – Baby doll furniture (high chair, bed, stroller) – Props with a variety of themes: housekeeping, occupations, fantasy and leisure – Dress-up clothes: 2 to 3 examples of clothing for both genders – Food items, dishes, pots, pans – Props that represent diversity: dolls (3 races), food and clothing that represent different races and cultures (2 additional examples). – Telephones – Soft animals – Additional props and clothes, rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration, and relate to classroom themes Dramatic Play • Interaction – Engage children in creating interactive stories or puppet plays. – Encourage children to take pretend trips. – Engage with the children in pretend play.* must be observed once during the observation – Encourage small groups of children to play together in this area. – Avoid excessive teacher direction. – Avoid forcing gender-appropriate choices (girls may choose to be a fireman; boys may want to dress up.) Dramatic Play Promoting acceptance of diversity – Are there any activities used to help children become aware of diversity? If yes, ask: Can you give some examples? Dramatic Play- ECERS • Arrangement and use – Organized space – Sufficient supplies to prevent conflict Dramatic Play • Materials – Child sized play furniture – Play building with props (barn, doll house, fire station) – Baby doll furniture (high chair, bed, stroller) – Props with a variety of themes: housekeeping, occupations, fantasy and leisure – Dress-up clothes: 2 to 3 examples of clothing for both genders – Food items, dishes, pots, pans – Props that represent diversity: dolls, food and clothing that represent different races and cultures – Telephones – Puppets and stage – Masks and hats – Additional props and clothes, rotated to provide variation, encourage exploration, and relate to classroom themes Dramatic Play- FCCERS • Many and varied for each age group.- two themes are required for preschoolers and older • Child-sized play furniture for toddlers and preschoolers • Materials to represent diversity- 2 examples • Provider facilitates dramatic play- observed Dramatic Play • Interaction – Engage children in creating interactive stories or puppet plays. – Encourage children to take pretend trips. – Engage with the children in pretend play. – Encourage small groups of children to play together in this area. – Avoid excessive teacher direction. – Avoid forcing gender-appropriate choices (girls may choose to be a fireman; boys may want to dress up. Interview Questions Dramatic play • Are there any other dramatic play props children can use? Please describe them. • Are props for dramatic play ever used outside or in a larger indoor space? • Is there anything you do to extend children’s dramatic play? Art- ITERS • Arrangement and use – Does not have to be in an organized area – Accessible daily for children 12 months and older. Art • Materials – – – – – – – Crayons Non-toxic markers with washable ink Brushes and paint Finger paints Play dough Paper Additional materials that relate to the classroom themes and that reflect the developmental readiness of children – Sufficient supplies to reduce the chance of conflict *children must have access to 3 different materials on a weekly basis Art • Inappropriate materials – – – – – Edible materials Shaving cream Glitter Small objects such as beads Styrofoam peanuts Art • Interaction – Encourage individual expression. – Do not require children to participate. *A minimum of 2 additional activities must be available. – Do not create teacher-directed work. – Talk to children about their art work, using open-ended comments, such as • “Tell me about your picture, Sam.” • “I see red and blue in your picture.” • “I’d like to hear more about what is happening in your picture.” – Encourage children to create art work that relates to classroom themes. Art • Art – Are art materials used with the children? If yes, ask: What materials are used? Can I see these art supplies? Are edible materials ever used for art? – How often are art materials used with the children? – How do you choose what art materials to offer the children? Art- ECERS • Arrangement and use for children 2 ½ and older – Accessible to a sink (that is, a sink is in the same room) – Organized art area – Space for at least 3 children – Accessible for a substantial part of the day Art • Materials for children 21/2 and older – *Drawing: paper; crayons; non-toxic, washable markers; pencils; chalk – *Painting: brushes, paint, finger paints, paper – *3-Dimensional: play, clay, wood – *Collage: fuzzy balls, buttons, shredded paper, items from nature – *Tools: scissors with rounded ends, tape, hole punch – Additional materials relating to classroom themes – Sufficient supplies to reduce the chance of conflict. • *Of these five material categories, four must be accessible for a substantial portion of the day, and drawing must be one of the four. Art • Inappropriate materials – – – – – Edible materials Shaving cream Glitter Small objects such as beads Styrofoam peanuts Art • Interaction – Encourage individual expression. – Do not require children to participate. – Do not create teacher-directed work. – Talk to children about their art work, using open-ended comments, such as • “Tell me about your picture, Sam.” • “I see red and blue in your picture.” • “Tell me about your feelings as your drew the picture.” • “I’d like to hear more about what is happening in your picture.” – Encourage children to create art work that relates to classroom themes. Art- FCCERS • Individual expression encouraged • 3 different drawing materials used with Toddlers weekly • 3 materials from 4 of the types accessible daily for preschoolers and older • 3D materials used monthly for preschoolers and older Interview Questions Art • Are three-dimensional art materials such as clay or wood for gluing, ever used? If so, how often? • How do you choose what art activities to offer the children? • Do you offer art activities that children can work on over several days? Please describe some examples. Music • Arrangement and use – Accessible daily for much of the day. ITERS/FCCERS – One hour daily- ECERS – At least 2 music toys rotated monthy. – Must be used with a purpose Music • Materials – 10 musical toys, no less than 1 per child based on maximum attendance permitted. ITERS – 10 musical toys, 3 per age group- FCCERS – Enough for ½ children in the group- music to play independently 4yr and older- ECERS – Music representing diverse cultures and different languages * at least 3 different types of music used regularly; involving a variety of instruments; and including a variety of musical styles, rhythms, and volumes Music • Interaction – Sing informally to the children *must be observed at least once ITERS, FCCERS – Encourage creativity—let them go! – Encourage children to dance, clap or sing along. *must be observed- ITERS Music • Music and movement – Do you use any music with the children? If yes, ask: how is this handled? How often is this done? – Do you have any other musical toys or instruments that the children can use? Could you please show me? – What types of music are used with the children? Can you give me some examples? Books- ITERS • Arrangement and use – – – – Book area set up for independent use Soft seating Accessible daily for much of the day Added or changed monthly Books • Materials – Books must be in good repair *no more than 3 in poor repair (FCCERS also) – A wide selection of books: varying races, ages, abilities, animals, familiar objects and familiar routines. (FCCERS also) – At least 12 appropriate infant/toddler booksbut no less than 2 for each child in group. Books • Inappropriate materials – Any books with violent or frightening content. – Books that are not age-appropriate. Books • Interaction – – – – – – – – – All book times must be warm and interactive. Encourage independent and small group reading. Read a book with one or two children. *must be observed Listen to a child “read” a book to you. Talk about characters and places in the books. Ask children questions about pictures in the books. Talk to children about objects in the books. Help children relate stories to current classroom themes. Participation encouraged only while children are interestedchildren not forced to participate. – Use books with children periodically throughout the day.*must be observed Books • Using books – Do you add to or change the books that are put out for the children to use? If yes, ask: How often do you do this? What kinds of books are added? Books- ECERS • Arrangement and use – Organized center devoted to reading – Soft seating – Accessible for a substantial part of the day Books • Materials – Receptive language materials, such as posters and flannel board stories – A variety of books: fantasy and factual; people, animals and science; diversity requirements – How many? 2 per child- in each age groupFCCERS Books • Inappropriate materials – Any books with violent or frightening content. – Books that are not age-appropriate. Books • Interaction – – – – – – – – Encourage independent and small group reading. Read a book with one or two children. Listen to a child “read” a book to you. Talk about characters and places in the books. Ask children questions about pictures in the books. Talk to children about objects in the books. Help children relate stories to current classroom themes. Read around the room! Posters, labels, displays, magazines, and children’s work are all great reading opportunities. Interview Question Books and pictures • Are there any other books used with the children? How is this handled? • How do you choose books? Cozy- ITERS/FCCERS • Arrangement and use – – – – Quiet space, out of traffic or walkways Space protected from active play Substantial amount of softness. Accessible daily for much of the day Cozy • Possible Materials – – – – – – – Bean bags or other soft structures Washable pillows Books Stuffed animals Puppets Felt board Soft toys must be available in classroom: at least 10- 2 per child if more than 5 children in group. Cozy • Interaction – Encourage calm, quiet discussion between peers and teachers. – Take advantage of one-on-one reading opportunities or quiet play in this space.*must be observed – Use this space when a child wants or needs some alone time. Cozy- ECERS • Arrangement and use – – – – Quiet space, away from the traffic of your room Space protected from active play Very soft seating and toys Good Space for 1 to 2 children Cozy • Materials – – – – – – Bean bags or other soft structures Washable pillows Books Stuffed animals Puppets Felt board Cozy • Interaction – Encourage calm, quiet discussion between peers and teachers. – Take advantage of one-on-one reading opportunities in this space. – Use this space when a child wants or needs some alone time. Sand and Water • Arrangement and use – Organized space – Variety of toys – Sand or Water accessible daily for at least one hour for children 18 months and older- All Scales – Provisions for sand & water both indoors and out- ECERS – Different activities done Sand and Water • Materials – – – – – Sand/water table Tubs Boxes Buckets Sand and water toys: scoops, funnels, trucks and cars, people, animals – Additional materials relating to classroom themes. – Anything that can be poured can be substituted for sand or water. Sand and Water • Interaction – Close supervision! – Discuss textures and concepts, such as wet or dry, empty or full, hot or cold, soft or rough, lumpy or smooth. – Encourage pretend play – Encourage working together Sand and Water Sand and water play – Do the children use sand or water? If yes ask: – How often is this done? – Are any toys used for the sand and water play? Could you please describe them or show me? – Are there any other activities or materials used with sand or water in addition to what I saw today? Could you tell me about them? Blocks- ITERS • Arrangements and use – Required for children 12 months and older – Uninterrupted space away from traffic – Space must be large enough that children are not crowded – Blocks organized and labeled by type, size and shapes – Accessible for much of the day Blocks • Materials – Must have at least three types of blocks- 10 of each type. – Blocks must be stackable (Toys that fit together or are 2 inches or smaller in diameter are not considered blocks) – Accessories: transportation toys, people, animals. *must have at least 5 toys from each category Blocks- FCCERS • Sets of 2 different types for each age group (12 months- 7 years). • Variety of accessories- transportation, people, animals Blocks • Interaction – Promote “language for reasoning” as you talk about sorting, size comparison, and cause and effect. – Do simple block play with children. *must be observed – Talk with the children about what they are building, what it would be used for, etc. – With children who seem hesitant to begin, provide a demonstration of a sample activity; then back off and let the children take it from there. Blocks • Curriculum focus area – Creative expression – Physical development – Social development Blocks- ECERS • Arrangements and use – Uninterrupted space away from traffic – Blocks organized and labeled by type, size and shapes – Space for 2 to 3 children – Accessible for a substantial part of the day Blocks • Materials – Must have at least two types of blocks • Children age 2 ½ and older must have enough space, blocks and accessories for three children to build waist high structures. – Blocks must be stackable (Toys that fit together or are smaller than 2 inches in diameter are not considered blocks—see find motor center.) – Accessories: people, animals, vehicles, signs, maps Blocks • Interaction – Promote “language for reasoning” as you talk about sorting, size comparison, and cause and effect. Discuss “why” the structure fell when the biggest block was placed on top of the smaller ones, etc. – Talk with the children about what they are building, what it would be used for, etc. – With children who seem hesitant to begin, provide a demonstration of a sample activity; then back off and let the children take it from there. Interview Questions Blocks • How often is block play available? About how long are the blocks available for play? • Do the children play with blocks outdoors? Active Physical Play • Arrangement and use – Open space indoors for much of the day – Outdoor area where infants/toddlers are separated from older children. – Two types of surfacing – Some protection from elements • One hour of outdoor time each day, weather permitting (all ages free of restraint) Active Physical Play • Materials- 7-9 skills encouraged – Infants: • • • • • Outdoor pad or blanket Crib gym Push toys Sturdy things to pull up on Ramps for crawling Active Physical Play • Materials- 7-9 skills encouraged • • • • • • • • • • Large push-pull wheel toys Riding Toys: with/without pedals Balls/bean bags Age-appropriate climbing equipment Slide/ Stationary equipment Balance board Tumbling mats Tunnels Large cardboard boxes Hoops Active Physical Play • Interactions – Close supervision! – Talk about what the children see, hear, small and feel outside. – Play age-appropriate games with the children. – Sing songs, dance and laugh with the children outside. Active Physical Play • Active physical play – Are any areas used by this group for active physical play, including space indoors and outdoors? If yes, and not observed, ask: Could you please show me these areas? How often are they used, and for about how long?