The Great War Revisited:
Measuring Human Costs In
Warfare
Mrs. Fairbairn and Mrs. Olivé
What are some of the results of a
war?
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Death and human carnage
Building destruction
Disease
Governmental collapse
Civil War
Refugees (displaced individuals)
Lesson Objectives:
Students participating in today’s lesson will be able to do the following:
• Identify the events which led to the eruption of
“The Great War”.
• Define key terms and people involved in “The
Great War”.
• Analyze the negative and positive consequences of
warfare.
• Use various technology resources to analyze
different types of photographs .
• Use technology resources in order to analyze
primary and secondary resources.
Key Terms
Utilize your text or the Internet resources listed to define the following
key terms and people.
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Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Gavrilo Princip
Woodrow Wilson
Nicholas Romanov II
Otto Von Bismarck
Kaiser Willhelm
Nicholai Lenin
David Lloyd George
Georges Clemenceau
Grigory Rasputin
isolationism
communism
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Zimmerman Note
U-Boat
Mustard Gas
“no-man’s land”
democracy
3-isms (nationalism, imperialism,militarism)
Versailles Treaty
“dough boy”
propaganda
mobilization
Triple (Alliance, Entente)
The Great War Timeline
Activity: Use the dates provided to create an annotated timeline.
• Archduke F. Ferdinand
assassinated in Sarajevo
1914.
• Austria declares war on
Serbia 1914.
• Russia declares war on
Austria 1814.
• Germany declares war on
Russia 1914.
• France (ally to Russia)
declares war on Germany
1914.
• Britain (ally to France)
declares war on Germany.
• Japan enters war as an ally
to Britain.
• Germany introduces
submarine blockade to
Britain 1915.
Timeline continued:
• Lusitania sunk by German
U-boat 1915.
• Italy declares war on
Germany 1916.
• Rasputin is murdered in
1916.
• Bolshevik Revolution in
1917.
• Romanov family
imprisoned by Bolsheviks
in 1917.
• Zimmerman Note 1917.
• U.S. abandons
isolationism in 1917entering war.
• Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates
throne 1918.
• Romanov family
assassinated in 1918.
• Treaty of Versailles signed
in 1919.
Militarism
The 3-ism’s destroyed 100 years of relative peace in Europe.
• Late 1800’s saw a rise in
militarism.
• War was painted in romantic
colors.
• As tensions grew the great
powers expanded their
militaries.
• There was a growing fear of
war, citizens sought quick
solutions and remedies giving
military leaders more
importance in society-thus more
power and control.
• Activity:
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Team up with another
classmate in order to accomplish
the following: Utilize information
in your text and or web sites
sighted in order to outline the
following players involved in
World War I:
The Central Powers
The Allied Powers
Be sure to include information
about past histories of these
countries in your outline.
Describe how the other 2-isms
contributed to the rising tensions of
Europe. (Nationalism, Imperialism)
The “Powderkeg of Europe”
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June 28, 1912 Archduke Francis
Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
were assassinated by a young
“Black Hand” revolutionary
member named Gavrilo Princip.
The archduke’s motorcade was
traveling through Sarajevo the
capitol of neighboring Bosnia.
There were 3 other attempts by
conspirator’s yet Gavrilo was
successful. As their car was making
a U-turn he fired 2 shots into the
back seat killing the archduke and
his wife.
• Background (it’s all in a date June 28)
• Serbians were outraged that the
archduke would have a parade
on this date:
• Serbia was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire in 1389.
• In 1912, Serbia had finally
freed itself from Turkish rule.
• But Bosnia (home to many
Serbs) was still under AustrianHungarian rule.
Peace Unraveled-Due to one action
• Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum Serbia’s partial refusal to
some of the terms led to Austria’s declaration of war on
Serbia on July 28, 1914.
• Austria sought help from Germany, Serbia sought help
from Russia, Russia asked for help from France.
• The decision by the German’s to use the Schlieffen Plan in
order to avoid a two-front war brought Britain into the
conflict as well.
• Each side blamed each other, each side felt justified in
their actions.
• The United States sold materials to both sides with the
interest of staying neutral.
The Western Front
• Soon after the start of the war a stalemate
developed. Germany dug in to fight a 2-front war.
• On the Western Front a system of trenches
provided an underground network of linked
channels from the Swiss frontier to the English
Channel.
• Soldiers roasted in the summer and froze in the
summer not to mention sharing their food with rats
and their beds with lice.
Geography Activity
• Using an outline map of
students will complete a map of
Europe representing the years
1914-1918.
• Students should include the
following information on their
map:
• All countries outlined in Europe
Norway, Sweden, Russia,
Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Ottoman Empire, Greece, Bulgaria,
Serbia, Bosnia, Romania, Italy,
France, Switzerland, Belgium,
Netherlands, Luxemburg, Spain,
Portugal, Great Britain, Ireland,
Denmark, Africa.
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All Water sources outlined:
Mediterranean sea, Black Sea,
Atlantic Ocean, Somme River,
Baltic Sea, Rhine River, Danube
River, North Sea.
Important Locations:
Sarajevo, the Dardanelles,
Tanneberg, Caporetto, Gallipoli,
Verdun, Ypres, use a red arrow to
indicate the route of the Schlieffen
Plan.
After completing this map students
will compare a map of Europe in
1920’s. Answer the following
question: What differences are
there in your map and the map of
Europe in the 1920’s?
Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918
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Belgium
45,550
British Empire 942,135
France
1,368,000
Greece
23,098
Italy
680,000
Japan
1,344
Montenegro
3,000
Portugal
8,145
Romania
300,000
Russia
1,700,000
Serbia
45,000
United States 116,516
Austria-Hungary 1,200,000
Bulgaria
87,495
Germany
1,935,000
Ottoman Empire 725,000
Germany
Russia
France
Aus-Hun
Britain
U.S.
2,000,000
1,800,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
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Deaths
Diagnosis and Medical Treatments in the Great War
Directions: Log onto the website Medical Front in World War I *
and then complete the chart where a blank has been left. Afterward,
complete the follow-up questions by referring to the statistical data
found at the website for Spartacus Educational *. (Your teacher may
choose to download the information for you and have booklets ready
for your use.)
*Medical Front Website: From the homepage,
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/
http://www.raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/medical/medtitle.ht
m, and then log onto the additional sites for the manual and
amputation information.
*Spartacus website:
http://www.spatacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWdeaths.htm and also click
on USA Army casualities for unusual deaths and the gas deaths page
to find out how many died or were injured from this technology first
used in warfare.
Trumbo’s thoughts
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In an introduction written in 1970,
Trumbo (author of Johnny Got His
Gun) does a bit of arithmetic for us.
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Numbers have dehumanized us.
Over breakfast coffee we read of
40,000 American dead in Vietnam.
Instead of vomiting, we reach for the
toast.
Our morning rush through crowded
streets is not to cry murder but to hit
that trough before somebody else
gobbles our share.
An equation: 40,000 dead young men
= 3,000 tons of bone and flesh, 124,00
pounds of brain matter, 50,000
gallons of blood, 1,840,000 years of
life that will never be lived, 100,000
children who will never be born.
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Let us use his same arithmetic
for World War I;
9,000,000 dead young men equal
1,350,000,000 pounds of bone and
flesh, 27,900,000 pounds of brain
matter, 11,250,000 gallons of
blood,
414,000,000 years of life that will
never be lived, and 22,500,000
children who will never be born.
The dry if imposing figure
"9,000,000 dead" seems a little
less statistical when we view it
from this perspective.
The Dead
(War Sonnet III by, Rupert Brooke)
• Blow out, you bugles, over the
rich Dead! There’s none of
these so lonely and poor of old,
But, dying, has made us rarer
gifts than gold. These laid the
world away; poured out the red
Sweet wine of youth ;gave up
the years to be Of work and joy,
and that unhoped serene, That
men call age; and those who
have been, Their sons, they
gave, their immorality.
Total War
Government’s committed everything they had to
winning the war
• Committing all of their
nation’s resources.
• Introducing economic
restraints.
• Unconsciously changing
gender roles by requiring
women to support the war
effort outside the home.
• Controlling public
opinion.
• Both sides waged a
Propaganda War.
• The public was
introduced to horrible
acts, and stories often
exaggerated versions
of incidents and
sometimes altogether
made up.
Propaganda
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As generally understood, propaganda is
opinion expressed for the purpose of
influencing actions of individuals or
groups... Propaganda thus differs
fundamentally from scientific analysis.
The propagandist tries to "put
something across," good or bad. The
scientist does not try to put anything
across; he devotes his life to the
discovery of new facts and principles.
The propagandist seldom wants careful
scrutiny and criticism; his object is to
bring about a specific action. The
scientist, on the other hand, is always
prepared for and wants the most careful
scrutiny and criticism of his facts and
ideas. Science flourishes on criticism.
Dangerous propaganda crumbles
before it.
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Alfred McLung Lee & Elizabeth Bryant Lee, The Fine Art
of Propaganda, 1939.
Propaganda
• A message designed to promote a product,
service, or an idea through the use of
influence or persuasion.
In our everyday life we are exposed to
different forms of Propaganda:
• Printed Materials
(Newspapers,
Magazines, etc.)
• Posters
• Neon signs
• Billboards
• Commercials
• Direct Mail
• Window Displays
• Point of Purchase
Displays
• Telephone Directories
• Cold Calls
Purpose of Propaganda:
• Manufacturers advertise to try to persuade
people to buy their products.
• Political parties, candidates, social
organizations, and special interest groups,
advertise in order to promote a cause.
Propaganda Techniques
All propaganda begins with basic appeal
• Attention getting headlines
• Slogans
• Testimonials (T.V. Stars,
athletes, etc.)
• Product characters (fictional
characters, cartoon animals)
• Repetition (the more often
heard the better, when and
where is the best time to
advertise?)
Your Assignment
• Cooperatively create a
propaganda campaign
to persuade people to
support the war effort.
• Recall the examples
which have already
been given.
The United States Enters The War
1917
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The Republic Must Awake” Senator
Warren G. Harding (www.loc.gov)
Why did the United States trade
neutrality for a world war?
Unrestricted Submarine warfare:
German sub attacks on passenger ships
and cargo ships-carrying American
citizens.
1915 after sinking of Lusitania (128
Americans aboard) Germany agreed
with Wilson that U-boats would give
surface warnings. In 1917 it was
evident Germany had resumed
unrestricted warfare.
Cultural ties: Many citizens felt cuture
and language ties to Britain..
Zimmerman Notes: British intercepted
a note from Germany’s Arthur
Zimmerman.
The Tide Turns
in favor of the Allied Powers
• Although few American
troops were involved in
comparison, to the other
nations they proved to be:
• Good fighters
• Morale boost
• United States provided
financial aid to debt
ridden countries.
• Germans launched an allout offensive in March
1918.
•Allies counterattacked
exhausting Germans.
•German forces pushed back
across France and Belgium-in
September Generals reported
there would be no hope of
winning.
•German citizens were
exhausted and hungry they
called for kaiser to step down
as the tsar had.
•William II stepped down in
November-he fled to exile in
the Netherlands.
The Tide Turns
continued
• Austrian-Hungarian
empire at the same time is
tottering.
• Within its empire the
nationalities are revolting,
splitting the empire apart.
• The new German
government sought an
armistice at 11 am
November 11, 1918.
• Activity: Within groups
students will research the
following:
• The Costs of World War I.
• Reparations for World War I.
• The Big Three.
• The Treaty of Versailles 1919.
• After the research is complete,
draw a political cartoon
illustrating the viewpoint of the
Germans after the treaty
signing.
Versailles Treaty Simulation:
Directions: You are one of several diplomats attending the
Peace Treaty Conference in Versailles, France after the
armistice is declared in November 1918.
1.Your job, should you decide to accept it, is to argue the
particular position of your assigned nation. Utilize the
worksheets with a synopsis of each country’s point of view.
2.Within your group delegate the following roles: Nation
leader, advisors to the leader, and public relations officer.
Please note: your grade will be determined by your ability to
effectively debate your country’s position. Good Luck,
Sir/Madam…
Can there be positive results from
warfare?
• Technological
advancements
(weapons)
• Advancements in
medicine
• Advancements in
transportation
Closure
• Individually you need
to write what your
personal impressions
of this war are.
• Focus on the effect
this war had on
American society.
• Remember to include
in your write up the
specific reasons why
you feel society in
America changed or
why you feel there
was no change.
• You will have 1 class
period to complete this
assignment.
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The Great War Revisited: Measuring Human Costs In Warfare