The Great War Revisited: Measuring Human Costs In Warfare Mrs. Fairbairn and Mrs. Olivé What are some of the results of a war? • • • • • • Death and human carnage Building destruction Disease Governmental collapse Civil War Refugees (displaced individuals) Lesson Objectives: Students participating in today’s lesson will be able to do the following: • Identify the events which led to the eruption of “The Great War”. • Define key terms and people involved in “The Great War”. • Analyze the negative and positive consequences of warfare. • Use various technology resources to analyze different types of photographs . • Use technology resources in order to analyze primary and secondary resources. Key Terms Utilize your text or the Internet resources listed to define the following key terms and people. • • • • • • • • • • • • Archduke Francis Ferdinand Gavrilo Princip Woodrow Wilson Nicholas Romanov II Otto Von Bismarck Kaiser Willhelm Nicholai Lenin David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Grigory Rasputin isolationism communism • • • • • • • • • • • Zimmerman Note U-Boat Mustard Gas “no-man’s land” democracy 3-isms (nationalism, imperialism,militarism) Versailles Treaty “dough boy” propaganda mobilization Triple (Alliance, Entente) The Great War Timeline Activity: Use the dates provided to create an annotated timeline. • Archduke F. Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo 1914. • Austria declares war on Serbia 1914. • Russia declares war on Austria 1814. • Germany declares war on Russia 1914. • France (ally to Russia) declares war on Germany 1914. • Britain (ally to France) declares war on Germany. • Japan enters war as an ally to Britain. • Germany introduces submarine blockade to Britain 1915. Timeline continued: • Lusitania sunk by German U-boat 1915. • Italy declares war on Germany 1916. • Rasputin is murdered in 1916. • Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. • Romanov family imprisoned by Bolsheviks in 1917. • Zimmerman Note 1917. • U.S. abandons isolationism in 1917entering war. • Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates throne 1918. • Romanov family assassinated in 1918. • Treaty of Versailles signed in 1919. Militarism The 3-ism’s destroyed 100 years of relative peace in Europe. • Late 1800’s saw a rise in militarism. • War was painted in romantic colors. • As tensions grew the great powers expanded their militaries. • There was a growing fear of war, citizens sought quick solutions and remedies giving military leaders more importance in society-thus more power and control. • Activity: • • • • Team up with another classmate in order to accomplish the following: Utilize information in your text and or web sites sighted in order to outline the following players involved in World War I: The Central Powers The Allied Powers Be sure to include information about past histories of these countries in your outline. Describe how the other 2-isms contributed to the rising tensions of Europe. (Nationalism, Imperialism) The “Powderkeg of Europe” • • • June 28, 1912 Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated by a young “Black Hand” revolutionary member named Gavrilo Princip. The archduke’s motorcade was traveling through Sarajevo the capitol of neighboring Bosnia. There were 3 other attempts by conspirator’s yet Gavrilo was successful. As their car was making a U-turn he fired 2 shots into the back seat killing the archduke and his wife. • Background (it’s all in a date June 28) • Serbians were outraged that the archduke would have a parade on this date: • Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1389. • In 1912, Serbia had finally freed itself from Turkish rule. • But Bosnia (home to many Serbs) was still under AustrianHungarian rule. Peace Unraveled-Due to one action • Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum Serbia’s partial refusal to some of the terms led to Austria’s declaration of war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. • Austria sought help from Germany, Serbia sought help from Russia, Russia asked for help from France. • The decision by the German’s to use the Schlieffen Plan in order to avoid a two-front war brought Britain into the conflict as well. • Each side blamed each other, each side felt justified in their actions. • The United States sold materials to both sides with the interest of staying neutral. The Western Front • Soon after the start of the war a stalemate developed. Germany dug in to fight a 2-front war. • On the Western Front a system of trenches provided an underground network of linked channels from the Swiss frontier to the English Channel. • Soldiers roasted in the summer and froze in the summer not to mention sharing their food with rats and their beds with lice. Geography Activity • Using an outline map of students will complete a map of Europe representing the years 1914-1918. • Students should include the following information on their map: • All countries outlined in Europe Norway, Sweden, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Romania, Italy, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Africa. • • • All Water sources outlined: Mediterranean sea, Black Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Somme River, Baltic Sea, Rhine River, Danube River, North Sea. Important Locations: Sarajevo, the Dardanelles, Tanneberg, Caporetto, Gallipoli, Verdun, Ypres, use a red arrow to indicate the route of the Schlieffen Plan. After completing this map students will compare a map of Europe in 1920’s. Answer the following question: What differences are there in your map and the map of Europe in the 1920’s? Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Belgium 45,550 British Empire 942,135 France 1,368,000 Greece 23,098 Italy 680,000 Japan 1,344 Montenegro 3,000 Portugal 8,145 Romania 300,000 Russia 1,700,000 Serbia 45,000 United States 116,516 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Bulgaria 87,495 Germany 1,935,000 Ottoman Empire 725,000 Germany Russia France Aus-Hun Britain U.S. 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 Deaths Diagnosis and Medical Treatments in the Great War Directions: Log onto the website Medical Front in World War I * and then complete the chart where a blank has been left. Afterward, complete the follow-up questions by referring to the statistical data found at the website for Spartacus Educational *. (Your teacher may choose to download the information for you and have booklets ready for your use.) *Medical Front Website: From the homepage, http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/ http://www.raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/medical/medtitle.ht m, and then log onto the additional sites for the manual and amputation information. *Spartacus website: http://www.spatacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWdeaths.htm and also click on USA Army casualities for unusual deaths and the gas deaths page to find out how many died or were injured from this technology first used in warfare. Trumbo’s thoughts • In an introduction written in 1970, Trumbo (author of Johnny Got His Gun) does a bit of arithmetic for us. • Numbers have dehumanized us. Over breakfast coffee we read of 40,000 American dead in Vietnam. Instead of vomiting, we reach for the toast. Our morning rush through crowded streets is not to cry murder but to hit that trough before somebody else gobbles our share. An equation: 40,000 dead young men = 3,000 tons of bone and flesh, 124,00 pounds of brain matter, 50,000 gallons of blood, 1,840,000 years of life that will never be lived, 100,000 children who will never be born. • • • • • • Let us use his same arithmetic for World War I; 9,000,000 dead young men equal 1,350,000,000 pounds of bone and flesh, 27,900,000 pounds of brain matter, 11,250,000 gallons of blood, 414,000,000 years of life that will never be lived, and 22,500,000 children who will never be born. The dry if imposing figure "9,000,000 dead" seems a little less statistical when we view it from this perspective. The Dead (War Sonnet III by, Rupert Brooke) • Blow out, you bugles, over the rich Dead! There’s none of these so lonely and poor of old, But, dying, has made us rarer gifts than gold. These laid the world away; poured out the red Sweet wine of youth ;gave up the years to be Of work and joy, and that unhoped serene, That men call age; and those who have been, Their sons, they gave, their immorality. Total War Government’s committed everything they had to winning the war • Committing all of their nation’s resources. • Introducing economic restraints. • Unconsciously changing gender roles by requiring women to support the war effort outside the home. • Controlling public opinion. • Both sides waged a Propaganda War. • The public was introduced to horrible acts, and stories often exaggerated versions of incidents and sometimes altogether made up. Propaganda • As generally understood, propaganda is opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing actions of individuals or groups... Propaganda thus differs fundamentally from scientific analysis. The propagandist tries to "put something across," good or bad. The scientist does not try to put anything across; he devotes his life to the discovery of new facts and principles. The propagandist seldom wants careful scrutiny and criticism; his object is to bring about a specific action. The scientist, on the other hand, is always prepared for and wants the most careful scrutiny and criticism of his facts and ideas. Science flourishes on criticism. Dangerous propaganda crumbles before it. • Alfred McLung Lee & Elizabeth Bryant Lee, The Fine Art of Propaganda, 1939. Propaganda • A message designed to promote a product, service, or an idea through the use of influence or persuasion. In our everyday life we are exposed to different forms of Propaganda: • Printed Materials (Newspapers, Magazines, etc.) • Posters • Neon signs • Billboards • Commercials • Direct Mail • Window Displays • Point of Purchase Displays • Telephone Directories • Cold Calls Purpose of Propaganda: • Manufacturers advertise to try to persuade people to buy their products. • Political parties, candidates, social organizations, and special interest groups, advertise in order to promote a cause. Propaganda Techniques All propaganda begins with basic appeal • Attention getting headlines • Slogans • Testimonials (T.V. Stars, athletes, etc.) • Product characters (fictional characters, cartoon animals) • Repetition (the more often heard the better, when and where is the best time to advertise?) Your Assignment • Cooperatively create a propaganda campaign to persuade people to support the war effort. • Recall the examples which have already been given. The United States Enters The War 1917 • • • • • • The Republic Must Awake” Senator Warren G. Harding (www.loc.gov) Why did the United States trade neutrality for a world war? Unrestricted Submarine warfare: German sub attacks on passenger ships and cargo ships-carrying American citizens. 1915 after sinking of Lusitania (128 Americans aboard) Germany agreed with Wilson that U-boats would give surface warnings. In 1917 it was evident Germany had resumed unrestricted warfare. Cultural ties: Many citizens felt cuture and language ties to Britain.. Zimmerman Notes: British intercepted a note from Germany’s Arthur Zimmerman. The Tide Turns in favor of the Allied Powers • Although few American troops were involved in comparison, to the other nations they proved to be: • Good fighters • Morale boost • United States provided financial aid to debt ridden countries. • Germans launched an allout offensive in March 1918. •Allies counterattacked exhausting Germans. •German forces pushed back across France and Belgium-in September Generals reported there would be no hope of winning. •German citizens were exhausted and hungry they called for kaiser to step down as the tsar had. •William II stepped down in November-he fled to exile in the Netherlands. The Tide Turns continued • Austrian-Hungarian empire at the same time is tottering. • Within its empire the nationalities are revolting, splitting the empire apart. • The new German government sought an armistice at 11 am November 11, 1918. • Activity: Within groups students will research the following: • The Costs of World War I. • Reparations for World War I. • The Big Three. • The Treaty of Versailles 1919. • After the research is complete, draw a political cartoon illustrating the viewpoint of the Germans after the treaty signing. Versailles Treaty Simulation: Directions: You are one of several diplomats attending the Peace Treaty Conference in Versailles, France after the armistice is declared in November 1918. 1.Your job, should you decide to accept it, is to argue the particular position of your assigned nation. Utilize the worksheets with a synopsis of each country’s point of view. 2.Within your group delegate the following roles: Nation leader, advisors to the leader, and public relations officer. Please note: your grade will be determined by your ability to effectively debate your country’s position. Good Luck, Sir/Madam… Can there be positive results from warfare? • Technological advancements (weapons) • Advancements in medicine • Advancements in transportation Closure • Individually you need to write what your personal impressions of this war are. • Focus on the effect this war had on American society. • Remember to include in your write up the specific reasons why you feel society in America changed or why you feel there was no change. • You will have 1 class period to complete this assignment.