Accelerated Growth for the
Late Beginning Listener…
Types, Tools, Teams, and Tactics
August 2-3, 2012
Mississippi Bend Area Education Agency
Kathryn Wilson, M.A., CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT
Walker & Wilson 2011
Agenda
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Introduction
Types: Who are they? Why do they start late?
Tools That Work!
Transitioning to Spoken Language from a Manual
Approach
Teams of Parents & Professionals
Tactics: Lessons with Late Starters
Integration of Speech, Language, Listening &
Standards/Application
Learner Objectives
Participants will be able to…
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Describe the different types of late beginning listeners and
possible reasons for beginning spoken language after the age
of five years.
Identify tools and resources critical to the success of
individuals beginning the learning of spoken language.
Describe the modifications in professional practices necessary
to serve late-beginning listeners.
Learner Objectives
Participants will be able to…
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Explain the roles of educators, SLPs, and parents when
spoken language is initiated past the optimal age.
Explain the specific needs of children who are transitioning to
spoken language from a manual approach.
Demonstrate knowledge of integrated lesson plans i.e.
academics, speech, language, and listening.
Develop lesson plans integrating academic content related to
the Iowa Core Standards with speech, language, and auditory
targets.
Being Late:
The Consequences
Walker & Wilson 2011
Introduction
Walker & Wilson 2011
Points to ponder…
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What do parents want for their child?
– I want my child to….
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What are the advantages of being able
to understand and use spoken
language?
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If accelerated spoken language growth
is essential to achieve the long-term
goal, what is the most effective
modality for the acquisition of spoken
language?
Auditory Brain Development
What Do We Know?
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The infant brain is loaded with auditory
designated tissue.
Initially neurons in the auditory cortex
are like laborers with no job assignments.
Neuro-plasticity is greatest during the
first 3 ½ years of life.
The auditory system is not fully
developed until age 15.
Auditory Brain Development
What Do We know?
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Before 3 ½ is optimal. The auditory
system is not mature until age 15 so.…
How late is too late? 6? 7? 8?
Our task..
Preparing children for the
workplace in the 21st Century
By the mid-1990s, entry level jobs
required higher reading skills than the
lowest 40-50% of our high school
students. Education is not doing
worse………
Walker & Wilson 2011
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…the job market now demands higher
minimum verbal and math skills to find
employment than it does to go to
college. (p. 151 Fielding, et al., 2007)
Walker & Wilson 2011
Can we all agree?
In the US, public schools deliver 85% or
more of their curriculum by reading
textbooks, whiteboards, worksheets,
and computer screens. Students
must read well to do well. It
matters little what else they learn in
elementary school if they do not learn
to read at grade level. (p. 48, Fielding
et.al., 2007)
Walker & Wilson 2011
For children who are deaf or
hard of hearing…
The median Reading Comprehension
subtest score corresponds to about a
4.0 grade level at age 18. (Gallaudet
Research Institute, 2003)
Walker & Wilson 2011
Not solely a public school
problem…
The achievement gap in reading is
created BEFORE the first day of
Kindergarten
Walker & Wilson 2011
Incoming Kindergarten
Targets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Speak fluently and in complete sentences with a
vocabulary of about 5,000 words.
Recognize & name 10-15 alphabet letters/sounds.
Hear & repeat beginning/ending sounds.
Count in order from 1-20.
Recognize numbers and quantities up to 10.
Settle into new groups or situations.
Concentrate on a task for 5 minutes
Come to school speaking English, if other
languages are spoken at home.
Walker & Wilson 2011
Past Performance (4th grade
reading level) is not good
enough…
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Students in Grades 3-8 must achieve a proficiency
target of 71.6% in reading and 88.6% in
math…meaning 71.6% of ALL students must
achieve Level III or Level IV in reading.
– Students performing at Level III consistently demonstrate
mastery of grade-level subject matter and skills and are
well prepared for the next grade level.
– Students performing at Level IV consistently perform in a
superior manner clearly beyond that required to be
proficient at grade-level work.
– ARE YOUR STUDENTS ACHIEVING PROFICIENCY?
Walker & Wilson 2011
And better “reading
instruction” …
WILL NOT cure the poor reading scores
of late beginning listeners with severe
language delay.
Walker & Wilson 2011
Late Beginning
Listeners…
Walker & Wilson 2011
Who Are They?
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A/O
Education/relatively
good language
– Incomplete signal for
learning spoken language
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Good Language learned
via a non-auditory
system
– Dependent on visual input
– May/may not have utilized
appropriately fit hearing
aids/FM
– Newly implanted child will
not be able to process
connected discourse
through hearing alone.
Implications for the
mainstream….
Who Are They?
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Delayed language
learned pre optimal
amplification or via non
auditory system
– Placement in special
classes or “sitting” in the
mainstream
– Implanted with the
expectation that the CI will
“fix” the language delay
– Changes in speech
production will take time
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Little or no language of
any kind
– Self-contained
– Language processing
concerns?
– Parents may not have
demonstrated commitment
to any communication
approach or amplification
Who Are They?
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Early Start-Downhill from there
– UNHS alone is not enough
– Early identified infants require aggressive
audiological management and optimal
amplification in combination with early
intervention
– Factors contributing to poor outcomes for
this group:
Quality of Services
 Consistency of services
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Who Are They?
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Children from non-English
speaking homes
– Inconsistent or no amplification
– No language system—primarily gestural
– Little or no home-school communication
– Low expectations
– Limited/no access to optimal audiological
management & technology
Implanted very late- seeking a
miracle
Essentially nothing working in child’s favor to
suggest spoken language potential
– Length of deprivation
– No formal communication system of any
kind
– Inconsistent or no use of amplification
– Parent wants YOU to “fix” the problem
 This situation requires thorough, complete,
and careful documentation of all information
shared with parents.
Evaluation…
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Discuss the types of late beginning
listeners on your caseload or in your
class. Develop a list of questions
regarding your concerns about these
students; what you are currently doing
to help them close the gap, and what
you expect to learn during this
workshop to effectively meet the
needs of late beginning listeners.
Typical Scenario:
Late Start + Large Gaps between
Language Age & Class Age
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Mainstreamed for all possible subjects: math,
science, SS, PE
Time for special intervention is determined by
subjects child can be “taken out” for
TOD: reading/language + tutoring (post-test)
SLP: spoken and/or written language (using
commercially available language curricula,
vocabulary program, lists of idioms, etc.
Goal: “Keep his head above water"
The Tools that Promote Planning
and Facilitating Accelerated
Growth
Walker & Wilson 2011
Practices that work..
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What It Takes
Assessment & Application of the Data
Time
Increased Instructional Time
Retention
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Long Term Planning
Superb Teaching
Walker & Wilson 2011
What It Takes…
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Tool to dialogue with parents about
critical conditions for the late starter
Tool to dialogue among school team
members about necessary conditions
at school
Walker & Wilson 2011
Assessing the Situation
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Conduct diagnostic testing to determine deficient subskills.
Look at the data to identify the weak subskill(s) and
pinpoint the need(s).
 The deficient sub-skill is __________ for late
beginning listeners with a large gap between CA/grade
placement and reading level.
Understand the data
Develop and implement a long-term plan to close the
language gap.
Re-test
Walker & Wilson 2011
Time: What does “Increased
Instructional Time” mean?
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A drastic increase in face-to-face time
– “It is eyeball-to-eyeball, highly energetic, and highly
interactive.”
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A drastic decrease in “screen time,”
worksheets and “practice exercises”
– “Direct instructional time is too valuable to waste
practicing. Students can practice later in the day or after
school.”
Walker & Wilson 2011
Time: What does “Increased
Instructional Time” mean?
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Time to focus on the deficit subskill(s).
– Direct instruction is proportional to the
deficiency. The greater the deficiency,
the more time they get.
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Some children may require instruction
that is 4 or 5 times more powerful
than the rest of the students (Crawford,
2007)
Walker & Wilson 2011
Example:
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Vocabulary Target: Age appropriate vocabulary
At age 5.0 SS 56 of and percentile rank of 0.2 on
the PPVT-4.
Johnny is entering Kindergarten with the language
of the typical 2 year, 3 month old—~3 years
behind.
Service Delivery for Johnny’s Pre-school Services:
– Speech-Language Services 150 minutes weekly
– TOD – 120 minutes weekly
1 hr direct instruction daily = Annual Growth BUT
No Catch-Up GrowthWalker & Wilson 2011
Accelerated Growth Plan..
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Time for annual growth = 60 minutes
(based on past two years of data)
At Chronological Age 6.0, Johnny’s Vocabulary Age will be
____ if he makes annual growth. The difference between his
C.A. and L.A. is still ____years.
If we double the daily minutes for direct instruction (120
minutes) in Kindergarten, we can project that he will make
annual growth plus a year of catch-up growth. At the end of
Kindergarten, his Language Age is projected to be
_____years.
If we provide the same amount of instruction during 1st grade,
we can project a Language Age of _______at the end of 1st
grade.
Walker & Wilson 2011
An Accelerated Growth Plan for
Oral Language-
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Brainstorm major areas of instruction
in spoken language development
Vocabulary Development, _______,
_______, ________
Now put them on Steroids…
Walker & Wilson 2011
What would Vocabulary
Development look like
on Steroids?
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Rapid Acquisition of Vocabulary handout
Get organized!!
– About where new words come from
– With weekly Lists at school & home
– With weekly emails to entire team
– With clear incentives for child
Get MOVING!! through your hierarchy as rapidly as
possible.
– Get off of input and onto use quickly to help
child “own” a new word.
Walker & Wilson 2011
What would Speech
Development look like
on Steroids?
Walker & Wilson 2011
What other deficient languagebased sub-skills need steroids
before reading can improve?
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__________
__________
__________
Walker & Wilson 2011
Take away…
Directing instruction to the deficient subskill is fundamentally different than reteaching the morning’s lesson (p. 237.
Fielding et. al., 2007)
Walker & Wilson 2011
More Tools….
Walker & Wilson 2011
The BIG Question…
Retention OR Social Promotion
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What does the research say?
– Grade retention and social promotion are
not effective strategies
– Reading deficits account for the majority
of retentions
– Students who are retained actually do
worse in the long run—give up on
themselves as learners
Reasons to Retain:
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Time
Time
TIME
AND….
TIME to do something different i.e.
provide appropriate, specific
remediation to address deficits. 2003 NASP
Position Statement on Student Grade Retention and Social Promotion
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“Most important is to advocate for
implementation of educational
interventions that are supported by
research first, continue monitoring the
child's achievement trajectory, and
then revisit the progress made.”
NASP..(retrieved from http://www.cdl.org/resourcelibrary/articles/grade_retention.php)
Remember the “typical scenario?”
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Appropriate Scenario: “Teach him to
swim!”
Rather than patching holes year to year,
consider child’s long range goals and work
backward.
GNIKNIHT
SDRAWKCAB…
GRADUATION
(2024)
Knowledge of
Academic
Subjects
(2016+)
Reading
(2014)
Walker & Wilson 2011
Language
(2012)
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Consider gap between LONG RANGE
goal and current level of function
…then make a long term plan
Developing a Long Term
Plan
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What is the purpose of a Long Term
Plan
What are the components of a Long
Term Plan?
Background & History: Hunter
Hunter…
C.A.
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
Projecting…
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
L.A.
1.0
no data
no data
no data
3.0
3.6
4.0
4.6
5.0
C.A.-L.A. Grade
2.0
pre-k
pre-k
pre-k
K
4.0
1
4.6
5.0
5.6
6.0
2
3
4
5
Superb TeachingBig #2!
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Quantity of Direct Instructional Time
Quality of Instruction-Where are you?
– I create minimal growth.
– I create average growth.
– I create accelerated growth.
Point to Ponder…"Adults who consistently do not
and cannot create double annual growth should not
continue to be in charge of creating it for that
critical population of students who require it.”
(Fielding, 2009)
Walker & Wilson 2011
Evaluation
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Develop a Long-Term Plan for the following case:
15 points
Andrew is 9 years of age. Andrew was identified
with a severe-profound hearing loss at 18 months
of age. He utilized hearing aids and a TC approach
until 4 years of age. He received a CI and
transitioned to a spoken language approach at that
time. Recent testing indicates his expressive
language/vocabulary is like that of the typical 4
year old.
Walker & Wilson 2011
Transitioning to Spoken
Language from a
Manual Approach
Walker & Wilson 2011
Service Delivery:
Transition from Manual/Oral to
Auditory, Language Age
Appropriate
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Transition Involves:
Multiple stages
– Begin @ Beginning
– Although child is older, auditory learning is not necessarily slow
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Likely change in placement
– Use assessment of competencies for transition from manual to
spoken learning environment (w/out interpreter)
(Boston Center checklist: “Children with CIs Who Sign: Guidelines”)
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Change in interpreter’s role
– Interpreter → Language Facilitator → no role
– A written plan attached to IEP re: interpreter’s role
handout)
(sample plan
New Expectations for
Parents and Professionals
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“His implant went down this week so
we sent his interpreter into class
with him until he can get remapped.”
Optimal Amplification is a “must” not a “perk”
– Top priority for AUD and TOD and SLP
– FM or SF functioning well in classroom
– SF system for individual sessions
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“We have been signing with her for
six years. Do we just drop the
signs?”
Initially accept child’s signs but don’t teach new sign
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“Are you saying we go all the way
back to the “Learning to Listen”
sounds with an eight year old?”
Go back to the beginning (of auditory hierarchy)
Evidence of progress with perception will likely be
faster than with babies d/t _________________
Insure Success Success
Success for Late Starters:
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“You’re asking him to do something
new and hard (listen) when he’d
rather do what he’s comfortable
with. (sign or cue) How am I
supposed to keep him motivated?”
Increase auditory/ Decrease visual in all
communication using K & B’s top ten:
K & B’s Top Ten Strategies for
Early SUCCESS with Late
Beginning Listeners
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Insure optimal listening conditions. Always
control ____ and ____.
Insure auditory attention before speaking
Provide abundant context with your auditory input
(show object, look at object, model the action)
Provide opportunities all day long for the child to
hear common phrases, questions, directions
repeated-repeated-repeated in a natural way
Auditory input before showing pictures,
performing action
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Use Parentese (even with a 10 year old)
Use Acoustic Highlighting
Allow time to process after input is given (count to
10)
If he fails to process through audition alone, use
A-V-A, auditory sandwich, give the visual input
then “put it back into hearing”
_____________________________________
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“He already has so much language. I
can’t break down everything I need
to say to him into short phrases!”
For children who transition to auditory/oral with
sophisticated manual language…(in the beginning)
– For longer utterances, give via vision +
audition
– then “put it back into hearing”
– until child can process 3 critical elements
– At that point, auditory first for ALL info using
The Biggest Challenge?
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Changing speech patterns learned
on a non-auditory model…
For improved speech in a late starter,
GO BACK to the beginning!
Allow the child to progress through
stages
Use audition as avenue for speech
change
The priority is VOICE VOICE VOICE
The Team of Parents and
Professionals for the Late
Beginning Listener
Walker & Wilson 2011
The Traditional Team…
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Parents
Administrators
Teacher of the Deaf
Regular Classroom Teacher
Speech-Language Pathologist
Walker & Wilson 2011
Big Questions about service
delivery to late starters
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What are the critical areas of
instruction for late starters?
What knowledge, skills and abilities
are needed to provide this instruction?
Who is responsible for each area?
How can the traditional team possibly
cover all this material?
Walker & Wilson 2011
Parent Guidance for the
Late Beginning Listener
“I have always considered educating my
kids as one of my primary jobs as a
parent. The public schools are there
to help me do my job.” –Dave Bond,
Superintendent, Kennewick, WA, School District
Walker & Wilson 2011
Parent Guidance for the
Late Beginning Listener
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Parental Roles and Responsibilities:
What are they?
…..
…..
Walker & Wilson 2011
Why must parents participate
in weekly sessions?
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Parents of late beginning listeners
need guidance and support to
– focus on learning through listening
– eliminate established communication habits that
slow auditory learning
– learn, practice, and consistently apply a variety
of strategies and techniques
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Wait time
Acoustic highlighting
Repetition
Walker & Wilson 2011
….
….
– identify appropriate ways to carry-over weekly
goals at home
– become child’s advocate and be accountable for
what happens in between sessions.
– adjust child’s activities or schedule to reflect
NEW priority for spoken language/literacy
development
– other ideas???
Walker & Wilson 2011
Dialoguing with Administrators:
It’s our job (or “your job”)
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There are three compelling reasons to have
courageous conversations:
– First, it is impossible to create an environment of
trust without risking speaking your truth.
– Second, if you do not express matters that
concern you, it will add to your level of stress.
– Third, when you don’t say what’s on your mind,
your sense of personal satisfaction and
competence suffers. (Sanderson, 2006)
Dialoguing with
Administrators
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Gather good data.
Make an appointment.
Pre-script/role play what you want to say. Make notes and use
them during the meeting.
Define the problem clearly with examples. Use simple charts
or graphs that make it easy for the administrator to see the
current and long-term picture for the child and the school
system.
Be straightforward and clear about what outcome/changes you seek.
Tell the administrator the impact that making necessary changes will
have from a positive perspective.
Walker & Wilson 2011
The Traditional Curriculum
and Spoken Language Targets:
Integration of Speech, Language,
and Listening with Academics
Walker & Wilson 2011
Lesson Plan for a Late Beginning
Listener/Integration of
Audition/Speech/Language &
Academics
View/analyze/discuss video & lesson plan that
includes goals from the:
 Core Standards
 Auditory Learning Guide
 Model for Normal Language Development
– New Vocabulary & New Language
Structures
 Normal Speech Milestones
 +Strategies that promote auditory learning
See Sample Lesson Plan: Lexie
Walker & Wilson 2011
Lesson Plan for a Late Starter
Integration of Audition/Academics
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Lexie Language Sample 2006 (age 4 1/2)
Open
Uh-oh
No
Doggie
Daddy
Stop
More
Milk
Bye-bye
Bird
Meow
Horse
Lexie: Language Sample 2008
(age 6- one year into aggressive LS
program)
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Look.
See, it dirty.
How ‘bout this one?
Look! Look!
What is that?
No, but thank you.
What doing?
It writing.
Sunny go down
It night.
It dark.
This one.
I want this one.
All the dress missing
Help you.
I need help.
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Oh, wait.
I get it.
I got it!
Hey!
I take it off.
Ooo, shiny
So shiny”
No!
Don’t take it off!
Turn page
Stay there.
Close door.
Don’t open.
Potty!
I got potty!
I need potty!
Walker & Wilson 2011
Independent Practice
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Work with partners to develop an
integrated lesson plan using the Core
Standards and language, speech, and
auditory hierarchies described in class.
Include in the plan:
A brief description of your student i.e.
age/grade level/language
age/communication approach.
Walker & Wilson 2011
Independent Practice
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At least 2 standards, 1 language
target, 1 speech target and 1 auditory
target.
Include a description of your
materials, activity, and procedure.
Walker & Wilson 2011
Evaluation

Write a 2-3 page paper (doublespaced) describing what you have
learned and your implementation plan.
Include specific information about
what changes you will make in your
practice and teaching and how you
expect your students to benefit as a
result of your participation in this
professional learning activity. .
Walker & Wilson 2011
“We never really leave our non-reading children
behind. We may forget about them, but we are
chained to them socially and economically. Like a
ship and its anchor, we must either lift them up or
drag them along behind us. It is time to teach our
children to read. It’s the promise of education.
There is no ethical or professional way to sidestep
the obligation to deliver on that promise.”
(L. Fielding, 2007)
Walker & Wilson 2011
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