Presentation By Janet Hale
Curriculum Mapping Consultant
All that is shared in this slideshow is based on
the work of Dr. Heidi Hayes Jacobs…
Mapping the Big Picture
1997, ASCD
Getting Results with
Curriculum Mapping
2004, ASCD
Active Literacy
Across the Curriculum
2006, Eye On Education
and …
Keys to Curriculum
Mapping: Strategies
and Tools to Make It
Susan Udelhofen
2005, Corwin Press
A Guide To
Curriculum Mapping:
Implementing, and
Sustaining the
Janet Hale
December, 2007
Corwin Press
(Latin Root)
= A Path Run
In Small Steps
Jacobs (2006) states:
Consider the following reality. Johnny
has a flotilla of teachers…the total
number of teachers that Johnny
has over his thirteen years from
K-12 ranges from between forty
and sixty-five. Curriculum mapping
does not guarantee that all of these
teachers will become intimately
acquainted with Johnny’s needs or his
experience. What it can do is provide a
real data base allowing any of his
teachers to find what he has
experienced and is experiencing
currently, and it can communicate
Jacobs, H.H. (2006) Active
literacy across the curriculum.
Larchmont, NY: Eye On
with more precision with any of the
flotilla of teachers through
technology. (pp. 114-115)
“Why Map?”
Three Common Reasons Why
Learning Organizations
Choose To Map…
• Marie Strangeway, CM Consultant
3 Base Reasons To Map
Issue Motivated InitiativeTurns to mapping to address
a specific problem or series
of problems.
Low test scores in ____
(e.g., Reading, Writing,
Math, AYP Subgroups,
Etc.). All are looking for
quick results in a specific area or
areas. Be aware: CM is not designed
to be a “quick fix” and then discarded.
3 Base Reasons To Map
Grass Roots Initiative - Turns to mapping
because some administrators, faculty,
and/or parents have learned about mapping
and believe that it will help students
improve and succeed. They know or feel
there are gaps, redundancies, and
absences in the curriculum
and want to create horizontal
and vertical communication. Be aware:
CM is designed to provide ongoing evidence via
curriculum maps and other data that empowers
teachers to discover inconsistencies and then
create consistencies in curriculum: PreK-12+.
3 Base Reasons To Map
Good to Great – A school or district is
successful by current standards,
however is looking to stay competitive
or to continually improve Adequate
Yearly Progress (AYP) scores.
They are looking to mapping to
become the tool and catalyst for
ongoing curricular dialogue and to
lead to ongoing professional
Be aware: CM is designed
to fully align curriculum and
improve learning: PreK-12+.
Regardless of what is or was the
purpose(s) for your initiative…
Good to
(Diary Maps, Projected Maps,
Consensus Maps, Essential Maps)
All Types of Curriculum Maps are…
Designed BY Teachers FOR Teachers
to aid in generating ongoing
collaborations focused on student learning.
Collaboration = To work together,
especially in a joint intellectual effort
Is there Scientifically Based Research? Yes!
The Indiana Center For Evaluation…
Analyzed one-third of Ohio’s schools that showed
substantial improvement to find the key effective
strategies educators considered to be responsible
for causing the marked improvements.
Curriculum mapping was one of the six most
effective practices having a positive effect on
student performance; which correlated closely with
the characteristics of effective schools.
Source: A Case Study of Key Effective Practices in
Ohio’s Improved School Districts, 2002
The complete Ohio Study is available at > Materials >
Curriculum Mapping Research.
Curriculum =
A Path Taken
In Small Steps
Curriculum Mapping
= Systemic Change
It is about
“doing business”
Please realize up front
that your teachers
will be learners
for quite some time,
and as with all learners
knowledge must be
presented in small
steps to be sustained…
Small steps are okay since curriculum
mapping is never “done”…
“Stop asking me if we are almost there,
we’re Nomads for crying out loud!”
It will take more time than you think
it will to learn “all about mapping” and
get the mapping process started and
established in your school or district.
If you are implementing CM only in
one school, you will want to create a
CM Council. If an entire district is involved,
you will want to create a CM Cabinet.
All members of either configuration begin
with a half-year to a full year of CM learning
known as the prologue…
Since a districtwide curriculum mapping
initiative is an major task,
and well worth it, it cannot be achieved
with just a few persons at the helm!
Plan now to train an incredible crew of
teachers and administrators to steer
the CM ship and keep it on course!
Curriculum Mapping
CM Coordinator
• Serves as the liaison between district
administrators; collective CM intra-organizations;
and CM Consultant, if applicable.
• Coordinates the CM initiative’s implementation
and ongoing professional development topics.
• Takes on the responsibility of becoming one of the
district’s CM “resident experts.”
• Collaboratively develops, revises, and publishes
CM District Strategic Plan with input from
collective CM intra-organizations/administrators.
• Responsible for carrying out the district’s
CM multi-phase implementation and ongoing
accountability and progress processes.
Curriculum Mapping
CM Cadre
• A team of approximately five to seven people
who have a high interest in curriculum design,
and an understanding of administrative insight
into the district’s curriculum issues and
demands. These team becomes the district’s
“resident experts” in all aspects of CM
implementation and application.
• Serve as the district’s lead CM trainers and
• Attend all CM Cabinet meetings, and when
appropriate, CM Council meetings.
Curriculum Mapping
CM Cabinet
• A district-based representative group
(member size per school site will vary depending
on site’s teacher population) consisting of
CM Coordinator, CM Cadre, administrators,
technology support, and teachers representing
the diversity of all grades and curricular areas in
the district. The CM Cabinet members become
confident in all aspects of CM implementation,
components, and processes during the
Curriculum Mapping
CM Cabinet
• After the mapping initiative has gone
through its beginning stages of
implementation (Year One with all
teachers), the members continue to
support the establishment of this model as
it takes an average of three years before
mapping becomes a natural, normal way
of conducting professional business
• Each CM Cabinet member dually serves
as a CM Council member at his or her
respective school site.
Curriculum Mapping Cabinet
Equal teacher
for all schools,
all grades,
all disciplines,
District Curriculum Cabinet
and special
education, plus
and technology
from each
Elem entary School
Elem entary School
Elem entary School
M iddle School
High School
Mapping the Big Picture, Dr. Heidi Hayes Jacobs. ASCD, 1997.
Curriculum Mapping
CM Council
• Each school-site in the district creates and
maintains its own CM Council with support
from the other CM intra-organizations and
CM Coordinator.
• A CM Council consists of teachers, technology
support, and/or administrators that represent all
grade levels and content areas within the
school site (usually a ratio of one CM Council
member to every five to six teachers/staff
members) and becomes confident in all aspects
of CM implementation, components, and
• Each CM Council member assists a small-group
of five to six, mixed-group staff members in
their initial and/or ongoing learning of CM and
related components and processes
School Level
CurriculumAt the
(a CM Council per school site)
Equal teacher
for all grades,
all disciplines,
Curriculum Council
and special
education, plus
and technology
CM Cabinet and Councils:
A Few Considerations…
• Provide job descriptions of member’s
roles, expectations, and if offered,
compensations, before commitment
• Consider having teachers serve for
1, 2, or 3 years (rotation-style: some
new join, while some established depart)
• Generate agendas, pre-readings, or
expectations for all officially attending
(meeting are always open to anyone
who wants to attend)
CM Cabinet and Councils:
A Few Considerations…
• Members help plan future CM
professional staff development based on
needs teachers express through CM
review cycles either at personal school
site (Council) or entire district (Cabinet)
• When new teachers are hired annually,
or during the school year, CM Cabinet
and Council members aid in training
the new staff members in the mapping
process and recording maps in the
mapping system.
Plan to …
• Read and discuss CM books and materials
• Watch and discuss CM videos
• Participate in on-line CM courses and/or
CM video conferencing
• Attend CM trainings or conferences
• Correspond or meet with a CM consultant or
• Visiting CM schools or districts
You will also need to purchase your CM
technology system and practice writing
Projected/Diary Maps to learn how to
write and record all map elements.
The role of school-site administrators is
critical in a successful and sustainable
curriculum mapping initiative.
• Each building principal needs to learn all about
mapping just as if he or she is going to be mapping
classroom learning. (Many administrators choose
to map their professional environments to better
understand the teachers’ learning curve.)
• All administrators need to learn about the
selected mapping system and become familiar
with all its components including its search and
report features.
• Consider what can be “let go of” so the focus can
be centrally on mapping during the first year or two
of implementation.
The Role of Administrators
and CM Cabinet/Councils include
motivating and encouraging…
• Include CM in action plans/school policies
• Work toward clear short and long-range
goals for solving curricular problems
• Make connections between mapping and
other initiatives
• Use, use, use the recorded map data
to conduct teacher collaborations
and to make
curricula decisions
based on a variety
of data comparisons
When curriculum mapping is taken to all teachers
in a learning organization it can not be executed in
quite the same manner as other initiatives have
been done in the past. Marzano, Waters, and
McNulty (2005) state that “incremental [first-order]
change fine tunes the system through a series of
small steps that do not depart radically from the
past. Deep [second-order] change alters the
system in fundamental ways, offering a dramatic
shift in direction and requiring new ways of
thinking and acting” (p.66).
Curriculum mapping cannot be executed or
established in a few meetings or in-services.
Its implementation most often alters how a school
or district functions in the most fundamental ways.
Peter Senge’s influential
book Schools That Learn
(2000) contends that if
schools are to be
successful in an
increasingly competitive
world—and if educators
are to help students
overcome systemic
schools must become
organizations staffed by
individuals who know
how to learn and grow.
Vol. 63(6) (p. 39)
Bena Kallick’s
Mental Model Shifts for Change through Systems Thinking
Level I Events
An initiative begins through a series of presentations
that may include professional development,
faculty meetings, etc. The learning organization’s
members may or may not mentally connect
the separate meetings at this time.
Level II Patterns/Trends
After a series of meetings has taken place
wherein members have been provided opportunities
to explore their tacit mental models
through reflection and inquiry,
they begin to connect the individual experiences
and they begin to merge into patterns or trends.
Level III Systemic Structure
After a period of time wherein members
participate in formal and informal experiences
regarding the patterns or trends,
they begin to reconfigure the repetitions into
a new mental structure that brings synergy
to the series of events and patterns or trends.
Level IV Mental Models
This new mental structure naturally becomes an
explicit mental model wherein members consciously
act on it and it moves to being a deep belief
and a part of the learning organization’s
system and culture.
Kallick, B. (2006). Keynote presentation. Santa Fe, New Mexico,
Twelfth National Curriculum Institute.
Myth #1: People are happy doing what they
are doing now.
Truth #1: People are miserable when they are
not feeling successful in their professional
lives, or they fail to sense personal mastery.
Myth #2: People resist change because of
irrational fear.
Myth #2: People resist change because they
have been burned before or changes that are
poorly planned, badly executed, and resulted
in more work with fewer results.
Dr. Douglas Reeves, Standards and Assessment Conference 2005
Myth #3: You can’t make significant changes
until you have buy-in from everyone.
Truth #3: Resistance to change is an
organizational reality. The volume (noise)
exceeds the volume (quantity) of the
Myth #4: You must have perfect research to
support a proposed change.
Myth #2: Perfect research does not exist:
“Try it, test it, improve it” is far superior to
waiting for the illusion of perfection. You
need sufficient research and common sense.
Dr. Douglas Reeves, Standards and Assessment Conference 2005
Myth #5: The risk of change is so great that
you must wait until you have things perfectly
organized before implementing a change
Truth #5: There is no risk-free alternative. The
risks of change must be compared to the very
significant risks of continuing current
The Reality of Change
Change is never convenient,
never universally popular,
never without opposition, never risk-free,
and never gets easier over time.
Dr. Douglas Reeves, Standards and Assessment Conference 2005
Focus on Transitions for the
Old to the New
…William Bridges has argued that
often in the process of moving
from something with which we’re
comfortable to something which
is unknown, people experience a
sense of loss. (9) This sense of
loss is much like that which we
experience in the death of a
friend or relative…
(9) Bridges. W. (1991) Managing Transitions:
Making the Most of the Change.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Navigating Comprehensive School Change:
A Guide for the Perplexed
Thomas G. Chenworth and Robert B. Everhart
Time, Resources, and Focus
Available for the New initiative
Total Number of Old, Continuing, = BURNOUT
Pending, and New Initiatives
Dr. Douglas Reeves, Standards and Assessment Conference 2005
Pre-plan how teachers will be
supported by the School Board and
District/School Site Administrators:
• Preferably Weekly Early Release
or Late Start Days
• Inservice Days
Grade Level
• After-School Workshops
• Small Group Mentoring
• Summer Workshops
A Red Flag!
Mapping is a 21st century practice…
• Computer-phobic teachers, who struggle
to employ technology will be a concern
given the mapping is done using
technology and most often using a
commercial, on-line mapping system
may need additional support to help
them with their technology struggles
• Lack of computer access (enough
computers) and adequate bandwidth
so that the entire district can be on-line
simultaneously without a slow down.
CM & Technology Staff Development
• According to experience
and comfort with
CM processes and
elements and
technology (general
and mapping-system
• According to
demonstrated or
voiced competencies
High CM.
High CM.
Low CM.
Low CM.
Data Entry
For Mappers
Getting Results
ASCD, 2004,
will have
in ongoing
HIGH training…
You may want to consider a
Range of P.D.
After-Initial-Training Venues
• Hands-On Labs
• Small-group
Work Sessions
• One-to-One
• Peer Coaching
Low CM.
One-on-one support
may be necessary for
some teachers until
they are comfortable
with the processes.
Remember, the entire mapping process proves
worthwhile when teachers use their maps to
make curricula and other decisions for the
school and/or the district.
Also, be aware that you will need to think
about how to training new-to-a-school or
district teachers in what is curriculum mapping
and how to map using the mapping system
and its features.
• Establish district and individual school
site strategic plans and monitor process
and needed adjustments.
•Target priority items/problems
needing improvement as part of the
action plans.
• Prepare for the emotional factors that
come with second-order change.
Great … Curriculum Mapping!
Here they go… Adding one
more thing to our already
overloaded plate!
Here is the major paradigm shift.
Curriculum Mapping
The reason that it does not feel this
way at the onset of the initiative is
everyone is on a major learning curve.
Administration plays a critical role in
supporting teachers during this time
of change. Most teachers do want to
change, but need adequate amounts
of time (preferably every week)
to map, collaborate, and address the
problems mapping is aiding to answer
regarding curriculum design, revision,
and refinement of student learning and
Plan now to read, learn, and grow over the
next few years about “all things” mapping!
It is a simple concept, yet complex process,
that one can not grasp in a single sitting.
• Remember to read Curriculum Mapping
and related books and reference
• Watch Curriculum Mapping videos
• Take a Curriculum Mapping on-line
• Attend local and regional Curriculum
Mapping seminars or conferences
• Plan to attend the national Curriculum
Mapping Institute held every July
Information concerning upcoming seminars, materials, resources.
consulting and training is available at

CM Thoughts for Administrators