Tier 2
Behavior Interventions
ISM Continuing
Building Leadership Teams
Are you ready
for targeted
instruction and
supports?
Framework for the Tiers
Tier 1 Review
Our Moral Purpose
• The moral purpose of the highest
order is having a system where all
children learn, the gap between high
and low performance becomes greatly
reduced, and what people learn
enables them to be successful citizens
and workers in a morally based
knowledge society.
- Michael Fullan, 2003
We know that …
• Schools employing high quality instructional
practices that are responsive to the needs of
students from diverse backgrounds demonstrate
student achievement that is well above average
despite high representation of culturally diverse
students from economically disadvantaged
backgrounds.
- National Research Council
Ohio Integrated Systems Model for
Academic and Behavior Supports
Academic System
1-5% Intensive
Individualized
Interventions
5-10% Targeted
Interventions
80-90% SchoolWide
Interventions
Adapted from OSEP
Effective School-Wide
Interventions
Behavioral System
1-5% Intensive
Individualized
Interventions
5-10% Targeted
Interventions
80-90% SchoolWide
Interventions
Decisions about tiers of
support are data-based
Key Features
of an Effective Integrated Model
Academic
& Behavior
Supports
Across
3-tiers
Culturally
Responsive
Practices
Data-Based
Decision
Making
Administrative
Leadership
Collaborative
Strategic
Planning
(CPS)
ScientificallyBased
Research
Definition of
Positive Behavior Support
PBS is a broad range of systemic and
individualized strategies for achieving
important social and learning outcomes
while preventing problem behavior.
PBS’s key attributes include proactivity,
data-based decision making, and a
problem-solving orientation.
Horner, 2000; Lewis & Sugai 1999; Sugai, et al., 2000; Weigle, 1997
Guiding Principles
1.
Student misbehavior can be changed.
2.
Environments can be created to change behavior.
3.
Changing environments requires change in adult behavior.
4.
Adult behavior must change in a consistent and systematic
manner.
5.
Systems of support are necessary for both students and
adults.
PBS “Big Ideas”
• PBS is not a curriculum - it is a framework for
systems to identify needs, develop strategies,
and evaluate practice toward success
• The goal of PBS is to establish host
environments that support adoption &
sustain use of evidence-based practices
(Zins & Ponti, 1990)
SST13 at SWOSERRC
“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we...
teach? punish?
Why can’t we finish the last sentence as
automatically as we do the others?”
John Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, page 2
The Challenge
• Punishing problem behaviors (without
a proactive support system) is
associated with increases in (a)
aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy,
and (d) dropping out.
• Mayer, 1995
• Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991
Impact of 491 Office Referrals
in an Elementary School in Ohio...
Administrative
Time Lost
7,365 minutes
123 hours
20 work days
* Based on 15 minutes
per referral.
Adapted from Barrett et.al.
Student Instructional
Time Lost
22,095 minutes
368 hours
61 school days
* Based on 45 minutes
out of the classroom.
*** $6,500 or more spent per year for an instructional
leader to process office referrals.
* Based on an average salary of $70,000
Impact of 3057 Office Referrals
in a Middle School in Ohio...
Adapted from Barrett et.al.
Administrative
Time Lost
45,855 minutes
764 hours
95 work days
* Based on 15 minutes
per referral.
Student Instructional
Time Lost
137,565 minutes
2,292 hours
382 school days
* Based on 45 minutes
out of the classroom.
*** $35,000 or more spent per year for an instructional
leader to process office referrals.
* Based on an average salary of $70,000
Ineffective
Instruction
Sets the
Occasion
for Student
Failure
“BIG IDEAS”...
Positive Behavior Supports
•
•
•
Clear Expectations
Comprehensive Instruction in Expected Behaviors
Consistent Encouragement of Expected
Behaviors and Correction of Behavior Errors
•
Community Connections
Tier 1: Schoolwide…
• Purpose:
– Maximize learning for all students
– Strong, research-validated core curriculum;
80-90% of students are meeting
performance indicators
– Minimize need for interventions (number &
intensity)
– Use school-wide data to evaluate and
improve the instruction for all students in
reading/behavior
Schoolwide…
(cont’d)
• Characteristics:
– Explicit, focused, differentiated, high-quality general
education instruction in academic and social
competencies
– Based on concepts of universal design for learning,
demonstrating understanding of importance of
culture in teaching and learning
– Core curriculum meets the needs of the student
population
– Family involvement
– All students receive instruction in core curriculum
School-wide Positive Behavior
Supports (PBS)
• Establishing clear school-wide expectations
• Providing comprehensive instruction in expected
behaviors
• Establishing System for providing consistent
encouragement of expected behaviors and correction of
behavior errors
• Building community connections
1. Clear Expectations
• 3-5 Overarching behavioral expectations
• Agreed upon
• Clearly communicated with behavioral examples
• Overtly taught in all settings (classroom & nonclassroom)
• Understood by all
• Posted & distributed widely
• Consistently implemented by all adults
2. Comprehensive Instruction
in Expected Behaviors
• Determine all non-classroom settings
• Describe what 3-5 school-wide expectations look
like in each setting, including classrooms
• Develop lesson plan to teach expectations by
setting
• Lesson components to include: modeling,
examples, non-examples, practice, and feedback
• Overtly taught in all settings
• Understood by all
• Posted & distributed widely
• Consistently implemented by all adults
Effective Instruction
• Model
- Tell why
- Show how
- Explain rules
• Lead
- Guided practice
• Assess
- Can they do it
This is a specific
- SCIENCE-BASED procedure for
teaching
Maintaining Desired/Expected Student Behavior
Encouraging Consequences
• Verbal praise
• Free-reading time
• Certificates
• Field trip
• Displaying student work • Behavior Contracts
• Humor
• Stickers
• Tangible Rewards
• Power of Choice
• Grades
• Food
• Special Activities
• Coupons for
Restaurants
• Game
Consider Reinforcement
1. How should we acknowledge appropriate
behavior?
2. When should we acknowledge appropriate
behavior?
3. What is the most natural manner?
4. What backup reinforcers will we need?
5. What are our goals for reinforcing?
6. How will we monitor ourselves?
Consistent Consequences
• Responding to negative behavior
– Immediate and consistent
– Try to keep with natural consequences
– Use the least amount necessary to get
desired behavior
– Always set students up for reinforcement
– Correction and re-teaching
Maintaining Desired/Expected Student Behavior
Corrective Consequences
• Loss of privileges
• Behavior Contracts
• Redirection
• Crisis Planning
• Planned ignoring
• Proximity & Movement
• Restitution
• Modeling
• Confiscation
• Eye Contact
• Re-teaching
• Cueing (verbal &
nonverbal)
• Time-out
Consider Response to Problems
1. How should we consequate inappropriate
behavior?
2. When should we consequate inappropriate
behavior?
3. What is the most natural manner?
4. What backup consequences will we need?
5. What are our goals for consequating
inappropriate behavior?
6. How will we monitor ourselves?
4. Community Connections
Relationships • Relationships • Relationships
• Within the school
community
• Within the broader
community
• School-based and schoollinked supports
Community Connections
• It’s important when designing Schoolwide Positive Behavior
Supports, that ALL key stakeholders within your school
community have input into the decision making at all levels
• Input from students, parents, and staff is important in the
establishment of schoolwide expectations
• The support of the entire community, including families, for
the reinforcement of expectations and correction of behavior
errors will be needed for success
Community Connections
• Creating respectful and caring relationships
within your school community will enhance
your PBS system
–
–
–
–
Student to student
Staff to student
Staff to parent
School to community at large
• Community partners can be a critical piece
of your PBS plan: mental health providers,
social services, local businesses, etc.
. Creating the right conditions
will raise the achievement
of all students and close
achievement gaps
Are you ready
for targeted
instruction and
supports?
What Are Targeted
Interventions?
• The purpose of the targeted tier is to identify
students who are at risk for not reaching
behavior standards and provide sufficient and
appropriate systematic instruction so that
students’ performance rapidly reaches or
exceeds established standards thereby
preventing school failure.
• Targeted supports are part of a continuum of
services available to all students.
What Makes Something a
Targeted Intervention?
• Matches the needs of the school
• Should be able to be implemented within 3-5
days
– Similar across students
– Staff trained in the intervention
– Materials are on hand
• Function-based
• Data collected to monitor outcomes
• Formal system exists for informing
parents/family of progress
Which Targeted Interventions?
• Matching students to appropriate
targeted supports is the key to
success…
– Define the problem
– Generate a functional hypothesis as to why
the problem is occurring
– Access a standard supplemental program
or customize a targeted intervention that is
linked to the hypothesis
Who Receives Targeted
Interventions?
– Schoolwide data or teacher reports indicate:
• Schoolwide PBS are not sufficient to impact student
behavior
• Student is on the verge of failure
• Behavioral problems consistently distinguish a student
from his or her peers
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Who Receives Targeted
Interventions?
• Students are selected for targeted supports
based on:
– School-wide indicators (e.g., office referral data)
– Direct assessment procedures (e.g., teacher
nomination, sociograms, observations, checklists,
interviews)
– Insufficient practice through core instruction
– Data-based decision making
– Pre-established decision rules
– Validation of data
Who Receives Targeted
Interventions?
• Students identified as “at-risk” for behavior
problems by having 2-5 Office Referrals
• Small groups of students with relatively
homogenous behavior (skipping class, bus
referrals)which may be location specific
• Students are expected to have a rapid
response to intervention
Students with 2 or more office referrals
SST13 at SWOSERRC
More than 50% of referrals coming from
one location (non-classroom)
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Why establish team
decisions?
• Building-based system
– ensure supports are provided to students
for whom school-wide practices have not
facilitated success.
• Structured problem solving process
– ensure effective intervention practices are
implemented for each student or issue
brought to the team.
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Targeted Interventions:
Building Blocks
• Teach/build pro-social replacement
behaviors
• Build maintenance and generalization
strategies to promote use
• Attend to possible function of the problem
behavior
What Should Targeted
Interventions Include?
•
•
•
•
•
Collaborative Problem Solving
Decision Rules for Selecting Students
Checks for Adherence to Intervention
Checks for Reliability of Data Collected
Predetermined Decision Rules for
Moving Between Tiers
• On-going, High Frequency Progress
Monitoring and Graph of Student Data
How Are Targeted Interventions
Selected?
• Selecting supplemental programs that are
scientifically based.
– Scientifically-Based Research is “research that involves the
application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures
to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to
educational activities and programs” (NCLB).
• Customized targeted intervention that is linked to the
hypothesis
• Targeted interventions that incorporate culturally
responsive practices
What Could Targeted
Interventions Look Like?
– Behavioral contracts
– Social skills training
– Check-in/ Check-out
– Mentors
– Re-teaching schoolwide expectations in
small groups/ targeted
areas
Communication with Family
• Parents/Guardians should be aware of Tier 1
supports
– Open House
– Family Nights
– Conferences
• Parents/Guardians must be involved in Tier 2
intervention plans
– Informed of need and participation in Tier 2
– Update on progress
Why Do Implementation
Checks?
• Research-based programs are only research-based
IF implemented as planned.
• Support teacher implementation and effective
instructional techniques
• Need to understand if the program is being
implemented to understand outcome data
• Key piece when talking about need to increase
intensity for an individual child. Need evidence of
implementation across the tiers.
• This can be uncomfortable. Here are some things
that can help. . .
How to Make Implementation
Checks Viewed More Positively
• Clear supportive purpose: coaching tool, to make
things better
• No surprises
• NOT connected to evaluation (clear it with the
association)
• Clarity on who has access to the checks
• Clear expectations and procedures
• Have a discussion with teacher before hand
• Have teachers self rate before a 2nd person comes
in
Decision Rules to Move
Out of Tier 2
• Establish decision rules about when to fade
support (back to Tier 1 only) or when to
increase support (move to Tier 3)
• Need enough data to see a trend: general
rule is 7 data points
• Three-Point Rule for increasing support
– 3 consecutive data points below the aimline to
consider increasing support
Tier 2: Challenges
• Who Does Interventions?
• Scheduling around students rather than
adults
• Insuring Integrity and follow-up support
• Training
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Team Time
• What do we have in our building that
looks like Tier 2 instruction/intervention?
• How could we modify current Tier 2
interventions and supports to increase
efficiency and effectiveness?
• “What’s the smallest change that will
lead to the largest gain?”
BREAK
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Data-Based Decision Making
for Tier 2
Building A Tiered System of
Intervention Supports
• Examine Schoolwide Positive Behavior
Supports System (Behavior Analysis Guide)
• Examine Schoolwide Data - Office Discipline
Referral Data
• If the School Has the “Big Ideas” of PBS in
Place and the Average ODR per day per month
per student is above the system standard,
consider supplementing the Schoolwide PBS
System (Behavior Analysis Guide)
System Standards - SWIS
Summaries
(Sugai & Horner, 2006)
Consider School-wide systems
if…
• >40% of students
received 1+ ODR
• >2.5 ODR/student
• Modify universal
interventions
(proactive schoolwide discipline) to
improve overall
discipline system
– Teach, precorrect, &
positively reinforce
expected behavior
Bullying Prevention &
Intervention in PBS
• Supplement to universal supports rather
than an “add-on.”
• Embedded into existing school-wide
expectations.
Ross & Rossetto Dickey,
October, 2007
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Main Ideas
• “Bullying” is aggression, harassment, threats,
or intimidation when one person has greater
status, control, power than the other.
• Most bullying and harassment behaviors,
although common and frequent, are exhibited
outside of adult supervision.
• Bullying behavior typically becomes more
likely because the “victims” or “bystanders”
provide rewards for bullying behaviors.
SST13 at SWOSERRC
• What does NOT work
– Identifying the “bully” and excluding him/her from
school
– Pretending that the bullying behavior is the “fault”
of the student/family/victim.
• What DOES work
– Define, teach, and acknowledge school-wide
behavior expectations
– Teach all children to identify and label
inappropriate behavior: not respectful, not
responsible, not safe
– Teach all students a “stop signal” to give when
they experience problem behavior
– Teach all students what to do if someone delivers
the “stop signal”
SST13 at SWOSERRC
More Main Ideas
• All “bully proofing” skills are more
effective if the school has first
established a set of school-wide
expectations.
• Focus on “respectful” behavior, NOT
bullying
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Teach Social Responsibility
• Teach school-wide expectations first
• Focus on “non-structured” settings
• Use same teaching format for Stop,
Walk, Talk
– If someone directs problem behavior
toward you
– If you see others receive problem behavior
– If someone tells you to stop
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Staff Consistency
• Staff meeting to share curriculum and
practice
• Includes How Adults Respond
• Data Collection for Evaluation
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Consider classroom system if…
• >60% of referrals
come from
classroom
• >50% of ODR
come from <10%
of classrooms
• Enhance universal &/or
targeted classroom
management practices
– Examine academic
engagement & success
– Teach, precorrect for, &
positively reinforce
expected classroom
behavior & routines
Classwide Integrated Systems
June 11, 2008
or
August 7, 2008
8:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.
at
Southwestern Ohio SST at SERRC
Classroom teachers:
This session is designed
especially for you.
Consider non-classroom targeted
systems if…
• >35% of referrals
come from nonclassroom
settings
• >15% of students
referred from nonclassroom
settings
• Enhance universal
behavior management
practices
– teach, precorrect for, &
positively reinforce
expected behavior &
routines
– increase active
supervision (move, scan,
interact)
Consider targeted group interventions
if….
• >10-15 students
receive >2 ODR
• Provide functional
assessment-based,
but group-based
targeted
interventions
– Standardize &
increase daily
monitoring,
opportunities &
frequency of positive
reinforcement
Why ODRs May Not Be
Enough
• May miss students in settings with persistent
or violent behavior who may not generate
office referrals
• May not identify students with severe
“internalizing” behaviors
• May not identify students with many “minors”
but few “majors”
• May not reflect that some teachers refer and
some don’t
Kincaid, Childs, & Putnam,
SST13 at SWOSERRCOctober, 2007
Now that We Identified the
Students………What
Interventions Should We Use?
• Interventions should be directly linked to the
student’s area of concern
• Targeted interventions should be
“scientifically-based”
• Intervention content should be linked to the
school-wide systems (e.g. check-in check-out
goals use same expectation language)
How Do We Tell if Tier 2
Interventions are Working?
• School Level: How many of our students are needing
functional assessments and individual behavioral
intervention plans?
• Targeted Intervention Level: Are students
• Individual Student Level: Are students reaching
behavioral goals?
Troubleshooting Targeted
Interventions
• Were the supports/interventions implemented
as designed?
• Are students matched to appropriate
supports/intervention?
• Do supports/interventions need to be
modified?
• Does instruction need to be provided in a
smaller group?
• Does instruction need to be provided more
frequently or last longer?
Team Time: Data Examination
• Are we collecting all the (right) data for
effective and efficient decision-making?
• How do our school-wide data compare with
standards for our school’s grade range?
• What do our data patterns tell us about which
systems to focus on for collaborative problem
solving?
Tier 2 Targeted
Interventions
What to do? What to do?
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Important Themes
• Part of a continuum – must link to
school-wide PBS system
• Efficient and effective way to identify
students
• Assessment = simple sort
• Intervention matched to presenting
problem but not highly individualized
Important Theme
Common misperception is that these
strategies will “fix” the student and the
classroom teacher does not need to be an
active participant since “specialists” or
outside staff are often involved in the
intervention – Important to stress that
these interventions will require high level
of involvement among ALL staff within the
school building
The Team …
• Building planning team, behavior support team, grade
level team looking at behavior data, etc.
• Develops decision rules and reviews data to make
decisions about who should receive targeted intervention
support(s).
• Collaborative process
• Focuses on supporting students who require more support
than is available for all students
Implementing Targeted
Interventions
• Key features:
– Continuously available
– Rapid access
– Low effort by teachers
– Consistent with school-wide expectations
– Implemented by all staff/faculty
– Perceived as acceptable and helpful in the
cultures represented by your student body
Implementing Targeted
Interventions
• Key features (continued)
– Flexible intervention based on data
– Functional assessment (brief, group
focused)
– Adequate resources
– Continuous monitoring of student
behavior for decision-making
Why do Targeted
InterventionsWork?
• Improved structure
• Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior.
• System for linking student with at least one positive adult.
• Student chooses to participate.
• Student is “set up for success”
• First contact each morning is positive.
• “Blow-out” days are pre-empted.
• First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive.
• Increase in contingent feedback
• Feedback occurs more often.
• Feedback is tied to student behavior.
• Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Why do Targeted Interventions
Work?
• Program can be applied in all school locations
• Classroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor)
• Elevated reward for appropriate behavior
• Adult and peer attention delivered each target period
• Adult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of day
• Linking behavior support and academic support
• For academic-based, escape-maintained problem behavior
incorporate academic support
• Linking school and home support
• Provide format for positive student/parent contact
• Program is organized to morph into a selfmanagement system
• Increased options for making choices
• Increased ability to self-monitor
performance/progress
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Questions to Consider when
Planning Targeted Supports
• Can the core curricular content be delivered
in small group?
• Can we change the focus of content around
the “big ideas”?
• Should we provide additional lessons
resulting in more opportunities for practice?
• Can concepts be pre-taught?
Tier 2 Targeted
Interventions
•Those using existing
resources
•Those requiring additional
resource support
Tier 2 Interventions
Using Existing Supports
• BEP / Check-in Check-out
• In-school Mentoring program
• Social skills training
– Character ed. Built into the curriculum as needed
– Pre-teaching / Re-teaching expectations
• Self-Management
• Positive Peer Reporting
• Behavior Contracts
• Academic skills (pre-teach; re-teach; small group)
• Structured peer tutoring
• Plans for new students
Tier 2 Interventions
Requiring Additional
Resources
• Groups: Social skills, Anger
management, Organization
• Mentoring (more intensive program)
• Homework Club
• Newcomer club
• Peer tutoring
• Academic skill groups
Tier 2 Interventions
Using Existing
Resources
SST13 at SWOSERRC
Behavior Education Program
(BEP)
• Morning check-in (Get BEP Form)
• Give BEP form to each teacher prior to
each period.
• End of day check-out
– Points tallied
– Reward
• BEP form copy taken home and signed.
• Return signed copy next morning.
Check-in
• Focus is on academic & social compliance
– AM / PM
• Teach strategies/objectives to accomplish
• All staff must prompt/reinforce student use
SST13 at SWOSERRC
BEP/Check and Connect Cycle
BEP Plan
Morning
Check-In
Weekly BEP Meeting
9 Week Graph Sent
Daily Teacher
Evaluation
Home
Check-In
Afternoon
Check-In
Program
Update
EXIT
AWL B ra gg inÕ Dr a gonsÕ
Check a nd Conn e ct
Da te: ___________________________
Class
B E RES P ECT F UL
B E RES P ONSI B LE
B E A P RO B LE M
(de fine)
(de fine)
SOLVER (de
M o r n in g G o al: _____ __
G o al me t?____ _ ____
A fter n o on G o a l: ______ _
G o al me t?____ _ _____
1.
If I m ee t m y g o al of ____ _ in th e m o rn in g, I w ill e ar n ___________.
2.
If I m ee t m y g o al of ____ _ in th e after n oo n, I w il l ear n ____________.
3.
L o n g -ter m g o al:__________________________
Pare n t sig n ature : _________________________
___.
______
fine)
AWL B ra gg inÕ Dr a gonsÕ
Check a nd Conn e ct
Da te: ___________________________
2=Grea t!
1=O K
0=N ot s o grea t
Class
B E RES P ECT F UL
B E RES P ONSI B LE
B E A P RO B LE M
(de fine)
(de fine)
SOLVER (de
C heck and C onn ec t!
2
1
0
fine)
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
M o rn in g G o al: __/20 p o in ts
P oin ts ear n ed: _ _____ _ /20
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
C heck and C onn ec t!
A fter n o on G o a l: __/26 p oin ts
P oin ts ear n ed: _ _____ _ __/26
P o sitive C o n seq u en ces
1. If I m ee t m y goal of __/2 0 p oints in the m orning, I w ill ear n___________.
2. If I m ee t m y goal of __/2 6 p oints in the afte rnoo n , I w il l ear n____________.
3. L ong -ter m g oal:__________________________
Pare nt signature: _________________________
___.
______
Mentoring
• Focus on “connections” at school
– Developing at least one positive relationship with an adult at school
– Not monitoring work
– Not to “nag” regarding behavior
• Staff volunteer
– Not in classroom
– No administrators
• Match student to volunteer
– 10 minutes min per week
It is important to be ready to meet with a student on a regular,
predictable, and consistent basis. Goal is not to become a
“friend” but a positive adult role model who expresses sincere
and genuine care for the student.
Social Skills Instruction
• Identify critical skills (deficit or performance problem)
• Develop social skill lessons
– “Tell, show, practice”
– Match language to school-wide expectations
• Generalization strategies
• Led by the classroom teacher
Clear and specific activities for all staff to follow
must be provided to promote generalization and
make sure that staff use strategies.
Self-Management
• Teach self-monitoring & targeted social skills
simultaneously
• Practice self-monitoring until students accurately selfmonitor at 80% or better
• Periodic checks on accuracy
It is not simply giving students a self-evaluation
checklist. You must teach and practice the skills
until they are fluent. You must reinforce both
accurate self-evaluation and appropriate
behavior.
Positive Peer Reporting
• Train students with specific examples and modeling
• Tell students that they will earn points during a certain
time period for reporting on the appropriate behavior
of targeted peers
• Announce the start of the time period
• At the end of the time period, prompt students to
report on the appropriate behavior of the target
students
• Provide feedback and reinforcers to students for
participating (making the positive comments)
Behavior Contracts
With the student, collaboratively
identify:
•Behaviors to work on
•Attainable goals
•How appropriate behavior will be
acknowledged
Be havi or C on tract for Joh nn y
T his is a contrac t to help supp ort J ohnn y for the rest of the sc hoo l yea r.
Johnn y agrees to :

D o his hom ew ork eac h da y

Ge t his plann er signed by h is teac hers eac h da y

A sk for h elp or a break if he ge ts upse t (for exam ple, a desk awa y, ge t a drink,
talk to som eone)
Teac hers and staff a t A W L a nd Johnn yÕs pare nts agree to :

He lp Johnn y w ith h is w ork if he needs it

S ign his plann er eac h da y w hen he br ings it to them

He lp Johnn y know w hen he is star ting t o ge t upse t

He lp Johnn y us e g oo d coping sk ill s w hen he ge ts angr y
____________________________________
____________
Johnn y S tude nt
Da te
____________________________________
____________
Ms. Ma th Teac her
Da te
____________________________________
____________
Ms. Read ing Teac her
Da te
____________________________________
____________
Ms. M om
Da te
____________________________________
____________
Dr. Sc hoo l Ps ychologist
Da te
Academic Support
• Homework
– Is there a way to build support within the
school day? Homework check, homework
buddy, time to start on homework at school.
• Remediation
– Direct instruction in addition to the current
curriculum
• Accommodation
– Within instruction
• Pre-teaching / Re-teaching
Structured Peer
Tutoring
• Within the classroom
• Monitored by the teacher
• Use of specific, structured intervention
such as repeated readings, previewing,
flashcards, cover-copy-compare, etc.
• Initially, students will need close and ongoing teacher supervision to ensure
success
Newcomer students
Have a systematic plan to orient
new students and teach
expectations:
• Orientation packet
• Orientation program led by
students and/or teachers
• Video that shows the expectations
• Peer or adult buddy
Tier 2 Interventions
Requiring Additional
Resources
Support Groups
•Classwide or small group
•Led by: school psychologist,
counselor, social worker, teacher
or administrator
–Social Skills
–Anger Management
–Organization
–Study Skills
Mentoring
• Regular contact in school (1:1 adult and student)-at
least 10 minutes per week
• Monthly/quarterly out-of-school events (picnic, Reds
Game, etc.)
• More intensive program including out-of-school
activities will require leadership and coordination
Homework Club
• Students remain after school (everyday 1/2
hour) or 1 day per week (1-2 hours) to
complete work
•Students are paired up with “reminder”
buddies who check in on work completion
• Provide monitoring of completion and
incentives for meeting goals
Newcomer Group
• Club for students who are new to the
school or returning after an extended
absence.
• Place to review expectations, monitor
progress, connect with other students
Peer Tutoring
• Tutors must be taught how to teach
• Tutors must be taught what to do if tutee does
not comply
• Tutors must be given the option to drop out at
any time without penalty
• Monitoring to make sure that the intervention
is being implemented as planned
Academic Skills Groups
•Led by IA, teachers, support staff,
parent volunteer
•2-3 times per week
–Small-group reading (PALS, Repeated Readings,
6-minute solution)
–Small-group math skill review
–Other
Data-based
Decision Making
There is a menu of targeted
interventions available.
How do you choose the one
that matches your data?
Just a reminder…..
Who Receives Targeted Interventions?
• Students identified as “at-risk” for behavior problems
by having 2-5 Office Referrals
• Small groups of students with relatively homogenous
behavior (skipping class, bus referrals)which may be
location specific
• Students are expected to have a rapid response to
intervention
Data -> Intervention
• If data show location is a concern (i.e.. All
referrals are occurring in cafeteria) --> What
targeted intervention addresses this need?
• If data show a disproportionate percentage of
referrals are from new students --> What
targeted intervention addresses this need?
• If data show most referrals are for fighting -->
What targeted intervention addresses this
need?
Data indicate Social-Behavior
Concerns
If inappropriate behavior has potential to
interfere with friendships and/or
academics, you might want to try:
•
•
•
•
--> Social Skills Training
--> Self-Management
--> Positive Peer Reporting
--> BEP / Check-in
Data Indicate Emotional
Concerns
If students have circumstances that may
impact performance (death, frequent
mobility) or “feel alone”, are shy,
unhappy, isolated, you might want to try:
•--> Adult Mentoring
•--> Showcasing talents
Data Indicate Academic
Concerns
If students have difficulty mastering academic
material, difficulty with organization, or referrals occur
in class when trying to “avoid” difficult work, you
might want to try:
•
•
•
•
•
--> Academic skill groups
--> Peer tutoring
--> Pre-teaching / Re-teaching concepts
--> Organizational or homework group
--> BEP / Check-in
Data Indicate New Student
Concerns
• If students who have recently enrolled or
have been away for an extended period of
time are having difficulty, you might want to
try:
• --> Student orientation (student or adult - led)
• --> Student orientation materials
(expectations, etc.)
• --> Newcomer club
Useful Resources When
Choosing Tier 2 Interventions
• Think about the match with your core, ease of
implementation, cost, research base, skills targeted
• Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports:
www.pbis.org
– Includes information about PBS across all three tiers,
on-line resource library and links to other websites
• Maryland’s PBS website: www.pbismaryland.org
– Examples of PBS implementation and tools including
middle schools and high schools
• Intervention Central: www.interventioncentral.org
– Scripted interventions for behavior, and academic skills
Examples and
Practice
You Can Do It K-12 School
Using data to make decisions
regarding the need for targeted
supports.
1. Read through the description of You Can
Do It School.
2. As the PBS team, review the attached
data and use the questions to guide your
discussion around targeted supports.
You Can Do It School
Designing targeted supports
1. Your PBS team must now design
a strong targeted intervention.
Use the information from the
presentation and questions on the
activity sheet to guide your
discussion.
2. Select a reporter to share out for
your group.
Descargar

Tier 2 Behavior Interventions