Tier 2 Behavior Interventions ISM Continuing Building Leadership Teams Are you ready for targeted instruction and supports? Framework for the Tiers Tier 1 Review Our Moral Purpose • The moral purpose of the highest order is having a system where all children learn, the gap between high and low performance becomes greatly reduced, and what people learn enables them to be successful citizens and workers in a morally based knowledge society. - Michael Fullan, 2003 We know that … • Schools employing high quality instructional practices that are responsive to the needs of students from diverse backgrounds demonstrate student achievement that is well above average despite high representation of culturally diverse students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. - National Research Council Ohio Integrated Systems Model for Academic and Behavior Supports Academic System 1-5% Intensive Individualized Interventions 5-10% Targeted Interventions 80-90% SchoolWide Interventions Adapted from OSEP Effective School-Wide Interventions Behavioral System 1-5% Intensive Individualized Interventions 5-10% Targeted Interventions 80-90% SchoolWide Interventions Decisions about tiers of support are data-based Key Features of an Effective Integrated Model Academic & Behavior Supports Across 3-tiers Culturally Responsive Practices Data-Based Decision Making Administrative Leadership Collaborative Strategic Planning (CPS) ScientificallyBased Research Definition of Positive Behavior Support PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior. PBS’s key attributes include proactivity, data-based decision making, and a problem-solving orientation. Horner, 2000; Lewis & Sugai 1999; Sugai, et al., 2000; Weigle, 1997 Guiding Principles 1. Student misbehavior can be changed. 2. Environments can be created to change behavior. 3. Changing environments requires change in adult behavior. 4. Adult behavior must change in a consistent and systematic manner. 5. Systems of support are necessary for both students and adults. PBS “Big Ideas” • PBS is not a curriculum - it is a framework for systems to identify needs, develop strategies, and evaluate practice toward success • The goal of PBS is to establish host environments that support adoption & sustain use of evidence-based practices (Zins & Ponti, 1990) SST13 at SWOSERRC “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we... teach? punish? Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” John Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, page 2 The Challenge • Punishing problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. • Mayer, 1995 • Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991 Impact of 491 Office Referrals in an Elementary School in Ohio... Administrative Time Lost 7,365 minutes 123 hours 20 work days * Based on 15 minutes per referral. Adapted from Barrett et.al. Student Instructional Time Lost 22,095 minutes 368 hours 61 school days * Based on 45 minutes out of the classroom. *** $6,500 or more spent per year for an instructional leader to process office referrals. * Based on an average salary of $70,000 Impact of 3057 Office Referrals in a Middle School in Ohio... Adapted from Barrett et.al. Administrative Time Lost 45,855 minutes 764 hours 95 work days * Based on 15 minutes per referral. Student Instructional Time Lost 137,565 minutes 2,292 hours 382 school days * Based on 45 minutes out of the classroom. *** $35,000 or more spent per year for an instructional leader to process office referrals. * Based on an average salary of $70,000 Ineffective Instruction Sets the Occasion for Student Failure “BIG IDEAS”... Positive Behavior Supports • • • Clear Expectations Comprehensive Instruction in Expected Behaviors Consistent Encouragement of Expected Behaviors and Correction of Behavior Errors • Community Connections Tier 1: Schoolwide… • Purpose: – Maximize learning for all students – Strong, research-validated core curriculum; 80-90% of students are meeting performance indicators – Minimize need for interventions (number & intensity) – Use school-wide data to evaluate and improve the instruction for all students in reading/behavior Schoolwide… (cont’d) • Characteristics: – Explicit, focused, differentiated, high-quality general education instruction in academic and social competencies – Based on concepts of universal design for learning, demonstrating understanding of importance of culture in teaching and learning – Core curriculum meets the needs of the student population – Family involvement – All students receive instruction in core curriculum School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) • Establishing clear school-wide expectations • Providing comprehensive instruction in expected behaviors • Establishing System for providing consistent encouragement of expected behaviors and correction of behavior errors • Building community connections 1. Clear Expectations • 3-5 Overarching behavioral expectations • Agreed upon • Clearly communicated with behavioral examples • Overtly taught in all settings (classroom & nonclassroom) • Understood by all • Posted & distributed widely • Consistently implemented by all adults 2. Comprehensive Instruction in Expected Behaviors • Determine all non-classroom settings • Describe what 3-5 school-wide expectations look like in each setting, including classrooms • Develop lesson plan to teach expectations by setting • Lesson components to include: modeling, examples, non-examples, practice, and feedback • Overtly taught in all settings • Understood by all • Posted & distributed widely • Consistently implemented by all adults Effective Instruction • Model - Tell why - Show how - Explain rules • Lead - Guided practice • Assess - Can they do it This is a specific - SCIENCE-BASED procedure for teaching Maintaining Desired/Expected Student Behavior Encouraging Consequences • Verbal praise • Free-reading time • Certificates • Field trip • Displaying student work • Behavior Contracts • Humor • Stickers • Tangible Rewards • Power of Choice • Grades • Food • Special Activities • Coupons for Restaurants • Game Consider Reinforcement 1. How should we acknowledge appropriate behavior? 2. When should we acknowledge appropriate behavior? 3. What is the most natural manner? 4. What backup reinforcers will we need? 5. What are our goals for reinforcing? 6. How will we monitor ourselves? Consistent Consequences • Responding to negative behavior – Immediate and consistent – Try to keep with natural consequences – Use the least amount necessary to get desired behavior – Always set students up for reinforcement – Correction and re-teaching Maintaining Desired/Expected Student Behavior Corrective Consequences • Loss of privileges • Behavior Contracts • Redirection • Crisis Planning • Planned ignoring • Proximity & Movement • Restitution • Modeling • Confiscation • Eye Contact • Re-teaching • Cueing (verbal & nonverbal) • Time-out Consider Response to Problems 1. How should we consequate inappropriate behavior? 2. When should we consequate inappropriate behavior? 3. What is the most natural manner? 4. What backup consequences will we need? 5. What are our goals for consequating inappropriate behavior? 6. How will we monitor ourselves? 4. Community Connections Relationships • Relationships • Relationships • Within the school community • Within the broader community • School-based and schoollinked supports Community Connections • It’s important when designing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports, that ALL key stakeholders within your school community have input into the decision making at all levels • Input from students, parents, and staff is important in the establishment of schoolwide expectations • The support of the entire community, including families, for the reinforcement of expectations and correction of behavior errors will be needed for success Community Connections • Creating respectful and caring relationships within your school community will enhance your PBS system – – – – Student to student Staff to student Staff to parent School to community at large • Community partners can be a critical piece of your PBS plan: mental health providers, social services, local businesses, etc. . Creating the right conditions will raise the achievement of all students and close achievement gaps Are you ready for targeted instruction and supports? What Are Targeted Interventions? • The purpose of the targeted tier is to identify students who are at risk for not reaching behavior standards and provide sufficient and appropriate systematic instruction so that students’ performance rapidly reaches or exceeds established standards thereby preventing school failure. • Targeted supports are part of a continuum of services available to all students. What Makes Something a Targeted Intervention? • Matches the needs of the school • Should be able to be implemented within 3-5 days – Similar across students – Staff trained in the intervention – Materials are on hand • Function-based • Data collected to monitor outcomes • Formal system exists for informing parents/family of progress Which Targeted Interventions? • Matching students to appropriate targeted supports is the key to success… – Define the problem – Generate a functional hypothesis as to why the problem is occurring – Access a standard supplemental program or customize a targeted intervention that is linked to the hypothesis Who Receives Targeted Interventions? – Schoolwide data or teacher reports indicate: • Schoolwide PBS are not sufficient to impact student behavior • Student is on the verge of failure • Behavioral problems consistently distinguish a student from his or her peers SST13 at SWOSERRC Who Receives Targeted Interventions? • Students are selected for targeted supports based on: – School-wide indicators (e.g., office referral data) – Direct assessment procedures (e.g., teacher nomination, sociograms, observations, checklists, interviews) – Insufficient practice through core instruction – Data-based decision making – Pre-established decision rules – Validation of data Who Receives Targeted Interventions? • Students identified as “at-risk” for behavior problems by having 2-5 Office Referrals • Small groups of students with relatively homogenous behavior (skipping class, bus referrals)which may be location specific • Students are expected to have a rapid response to intervention Students with 2 or more office referrals SST13 at SWOSERRC More than 50% of referrals coming from one location (non-classroom) SST13 at SWOSERRC Why establish team decisions? • Building-based system – ensure supports are provided to students for whom school-wide practices have not facilitated success. • Structured problem solving process – ensure effective intervention practices are implemented for each student or issue brought to the team. SST13 at SWOSERRC Targeted Interventions: Building Blocks • Teach/build pro-social replacement behaviors • Build maintenance and generalization strategies to promote use • Attend to possible function of the problem behavior What Should Targeted Interventions Include? • • • • • Collaborative Problem Solving Decision Rules for Selecting Students Checks for Adherence to Intervention Checks for Reliability of Data Collected Predetermined Decision Rules for Moving Between Tiers • On-going, High Frequency Progress Monitoring and Graph of Student Data How Are Targeted Interventions Selected? • Selecting supplemental programs that are scientifically based. – Scientifically-Based Research is “research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to educational activities and programs” (NCLB). • Customized targeted intervention that is linked to the hypothesis • Targeted interventions that incorporate culturally responsive practices What Could Targeted Interventions Look Like? – Behavioral contracts – Social skills training – Check-in/ Check-out – Mentors – Re-teaching schoolwide expectations in small groups/ targeted areas Communication with Family • Parents/Guardians should be aware of Tier 1 supports – Open House – Family Nights – Conferences • Parents/Guardians must be involved in Tier 2 intervention plans – Informed of need and participation in Tier 2 – Update on progress Why Do Implementation Checks? • Research-based programs are only research-based IF implemented as planned. • Support teacher implementation and effective instructional techniques • Need to understand if the program is being implemented to understand outcome data • Key piece when talking about need to increase intensity for an individual child. Need evidence of implementation across the tiers. • This can be uncomfortable. Here are some things that can help. . . How to Make Implementation Checks Viewed More Positively • Clear supportive purpose: coaching tool, to make things better • No surprises • NOT connected to evaluation (clear it with the association) • Clarity on who has access to the checks • Clear expectations and procedures • Have a discussion with teacher before hand • Have teachers self rate before a 2nd person comes in Decision Rules to Move Out of Tier 2 • Establish decision rules about when to fade support (back to Tier 1 only) or when to increase support (move to Tier 3) • Need enough data to see a trend: general rule is 7 data points • Three-Point Rule for increasing support – 3 consecutive data points below the aimline to consider increasing support Tier 2: Challenges • Who Does Interventions? • Scheduling around students rather than adults • Insuring Integrity and follow-up support • Training SST13 at SWOSERRC Team Time • What do we have in our building that looks like Tier 2 instruction/intervention? • How could we modify current Tier 2 interventions and supports to increase efficiency and effectiveness? • “What’s the smallest change that will lead to the largest gain?” BREAK SST13 at SWOSERRC Data-Based Decision Making for Tier 2 Building A Tiered System of Intervention Supports • Examine Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports System (Behavior Analysis Guide) • Examine Schoolwide Data - Office Discipline Referral Data • If the School Has the “Big Ideas” of PBS in Place and the Average ODR per day per month per student is above the system standard, consider supplementing the Schoolwide PBS System (Behavior Analysis Guide) System Standards - SWIS Summaries (Sugai & Horner, 2006) Consider School-wide systems if… • >40% of students received 1+ ODR • >2.5 ODR/student • Modify universal interventions (proactive schoolwide discipline) to improve overall discipline system – Teach, precorrect, & positively reinforce expected behavior Bullying Prevention & Intervention in PBS • Supplement to universal supports rather than an “add-on.” • Embedded into existing school-wide expectations. Ross & Rossetto Dickey, October, 2007 SST13 at SWOSERRC Main Ideas • “Bullying” is aggression, harassment, threats, or intimidation when one person has greater status, control, power than the other. • Most bullying and harassment behaviors, although common and frequent, are exhibited outside of adult supervision. • Bullying behavior typically becomes more likely because the “victims” or “bystanders” provide rewards for bullying behaviors. SST13 at SWOSERRC • What does NOT work – Identifying the “bully” and excluding him/her from school – Pretending that the bullying behavior is the “fault” of the student/family/victim. • What DOES work – Define, teach, and acknowledge school-wide behavior expectations – Teach all children to identify and label inappropriate behavior: not respectful, not responsible, not safe – Teach all students a “stop signal” to give when they experience problem behavior – Teach all students what to do if someone delivers the “stop signal” SST13 at SWOSERRC More Main Ideas • All “bully proofing” skills are more effective if the school has first established a set of school-wide expectations. • Focus on “respectful” behavior, NOT bullying SST13 at SWOSERRC Teach Social Responsibility • Teach school-wide expectations first • Focus on “non-structured” settings • Use same teaching format for Stop, Walk, Talk – If someone directs problem behavior toward you – If you see others receive problem behavior – If someone tells you to stop SST13 at SWOSERRC Staff Consistency • Staff meeting to share curriculum and practice • Includes How Adults Respond • Data Collection for Evaluation SST13 at SWOSERRC Consider classroom system if… • >60% of referrals come from classroom • >50% of ODR come from <10% of classrooms • Enhance universal &/or targeted classroom management practices – Examine academic engagement & success – Teach, precorrect for, & positively reinforce expected classroom behavior & routines Classwide Integrated Systems June 11, 2008 or August 7, 2008 8:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m. at Southwestern Ohio SST at SERRC Classroom teachers: This session is designed especially for you. Consider non-classroom targeted systems if… • >35% of referrals come from nonclassroom settings • >15% of students referred from nonclassroom settings • Enhance universal behavior management practices – teach, precorrect for, & positively reinforce expected behavior & routines – increase active supervision (move, scan, interact) Consider targeted group interventions if…. • >10-15 students receive >2 ODR • Provide functional assessment-based, but group-based targeted interventions – Standardize & increase daily monitoring, opportunities & frequency of positive reinforcement Why ODRs May Not Be Enough • May miss students in settings with persistent or violent behavior who may not generate office referrals • May not identify students with severe “internalizing” behaviors • May not identify students with many “minors” but few “majors” • May not reflect that some teachers refer and some don’t Kincaid, Childs, & Putnam, SST13 at SWOSERRCOctober, 2007 Now that We Identified the Students………What Interventions Should We Use? • Interventions should be directly linked to the student’s area of concern • Targeted interventions should be “scientifically-based” • Intervention content should be linked to the school-wide systems (e.g. check-in check-out goals use same expectation language) How Do We Tell if Tier 2 Interventions are Working? • School Level: How many of our students are needing functional assessments and individual behavioral intervention plans? • Targeted Intervention Level: Are students • Individual Student Level: Are students reaching behavioral goals? Troubleshooting Targeted Interventions • Were the supports/interventions implemented as designed? • Are students matched to appropriate supports/intervention? • Do supports/interventions need to be modified? • Does instruction need to be provided in a smaller group? • Does instruction need to be provided more frequently or last longer? Team Time: Data Examination • Are we collecting all the (right) data for effective and efficient decision-making? • How do our school-wide data compare with standards for our school’s grade range? • What do our data patterns tell us about which systems to focus on for collaborative problem solving? Tier 2 Targeted Interventions What to do? What to do? SST13 at SWOSERRC Important Themes • Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBS system • Efficient and effective way to identify students • Assessment = simple sort • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized Important Theme Common misperception is that these strategies will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention – Important to stress that these interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building The Team … • Building planning team, behavior support team, grade level team looking at behavior data, etc. • Develops decision rules and reviews data to make decisions about who should receive targeted intervention support(s). • Collaborative process • Focuses on supporting students who require more support than is available for all students Implementing Targeted Interventions • Key features: – Continuously available – Rapid access – Low effort by teachers – Consistent with school-wide expectations – Implemented by all staff/faculty – Perceived as acceptable and helpful in the cultures represented by your student body Implementing Targeted Interventions • Key features (continued) – Flexible intervention based on data – Functional assessment (brief, group focused) – Adequate resources – Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making Why do Targeted InterventionsWork? • Improved structure • Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. • System for linking student with at least one positive adult. • Student chooses to participate. • Student is “set up for success” • First contact each morning is positive. • “Blow-out” days are pre-empted. • First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive. • Increase in contingent feedback • Feedback occurs more often. • Feedback is tied to student behavior. • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded. SST13 at SWOSERRC Why do Targeted Interventions Work? • Program can be applied in all school locations • Classroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor) • Elevated reward for appropriate behavior • Adult and peer attention delivered each target period • Adult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of day • Linking behavior support and academic support • For academic-based, escape-maintained problem behavior incorporate academic support • Linking school and home support • Provide format for positive student/parent contact • Program is organized to morph into a selfmanagement system • Increased options for making choices • Increased ability to self-monitor performance/progress SST13 at SWOSERRC Questions to Consider when Planning Targeted Supports • Can the core curricular content be delivered in small group? • Can we change the focus of content around the “big ideas”? • Should we provide additional lessons resulting in more opportunities for practice? • Can concepts be pre-taught? Tier 2 Targeted Interventions •Those using existing resources •Those requiring additional resource support Tier 2 Interventions Using Existing Supports • BEP / Check-in Check-out • In-school Mentoring program • Social skills training – Character ed. Built into the curriculum as needed – Pre-teaching / Re-teaching expectations • Self-Management • Positive Peer Reporting • Behavior Contracts • Academic skills (pre-teach; re-teach; small group) • Structured peer tutoring • Plans for new students Tier 2 Interventions Requiring Additional Resources • Groups: Social skills, Anger management, Organization • Mentoring (more intensive program) • Homework Club • Newcomer club • Peer tutoring • Academic skill groups Tier 2 Interventions Using Existing Resources SST13 at SWOSERRC Behavior Education Program (BEP) • Morning check-in (Get BEP Form) • Give BEP form to each teacher prior to each period. • End of day check-out – Points tallied – Reward • BEP form copy taken home and signed. • Return signed copy next morning. Check-in • Focus is on academic & social compliance – AM / PM • Teach strategies/objectives to accomplish • All staff must prompt/reinforce student use SST13 at SWOSERRC BEP/Check and Connect Cycle BEP Plan Morning Check-In Weekly BEP Meeting 9 Week Graph Sent Daily Teacher Evaluation Home Check-In Afternoon Check-In Program Update EXIT AWL B ra gg inÕ Dr a gonsÕ Check a nd Conn e ct Da te: ___________________________ Class B E RES P ECT F UL B E RES P ONSI B LE B E A P RO B LE M (de fine) (de fine) SOLVER (de M o r n in g G o al: _____ __ G o al me t?____ _ ____ A fter n o on G o a l: ______ _ G o al me t?____ _ _____ 1. If I m ee t m y g o al of ____ _ in th e m o rn in g, I w ill e ar n ___________. 2. If I m ee t m y g o al of ____ _ in th e after n oo n, I w il l ear n ____________. 3. L o n g -ter m g o al:__________________________ Pare n t sig n ature : _________________________ ___. ______ fine) AWL B ra gg inÕ Dr a gonsÕ Check a nd Conn e ct Da te: ___________________________ 2=Grea t! 1=O K 0=N ot s o grea t Class B E RES P ECT F UL B E RES P ONSI B LE B E A P RO B LE M (de fine) (de fine) SOLVER (de C heck and C onn ec t! 2 1 0 fine) 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 M o rn in g G o al: __/20 p o in ts P oin ts ear n ed: _ _____ _ /20 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 C heck and C onn ec t! A fter n o on G o a l: __/26 p oin ts P oin ts ear n ed: _ _____ _ __/26 P o sitive C o n seq u en ces 1. If I m ee t m y goal of __/2 0 p oints in the m orning, I w ill ear n___________. 2. If I m ee t m y goal of __/2 6 p oints in the afte rnoo n , I w il l ear n____________. 3. L ong -ter m g oal:__________________________ Pare nt signature: _________________________ ___. ______ Mentoring • Focus on “connections” at school – Developing at least one positive relationship with an adult at school – Not monitoring work – Not to “nag” regarding behavior • Staff volunteer – Not in classroom – No administrators • Match student to volunteer – 10 minutes min per week It is important to be ready to meet with a student on a regular, predictable, and consistent basis. Goal is not to become a “friend” but a positive adult role model who expresses sincere and genuine care for the student. Social Skills Instruction • Identify critical skills (deficit or performance problem) • Develop social skill lessons – “Tell, show, practice” – Match language to school-wide expectations • Generalization strategies • Led by the classroom teacher Clear and specific activities for all staff to follow must be provided to promote generalization and make sure that staff use strategies. Self-Management • Teach self-monitoring & targeted social skills simultaneously • Practice self-monitoring until students accurately selfmonitor at 80% or better • Periodic checks on accuracy It is not simply giving students a self-evaluation checklist. You must teach and practice the skills until they are fluent. You must reinforce both accurate self-evaluation and appropriate behavior. Positive Peer Reporting • Train students with specific examples and modeling • Tell students that they will earn points during a certain time period for reporting on the appropriate behavior of targeted peers • Announce the start of the time period • At the end of the time period, prompt students to report on the appropriate behavior of the target students • Provide feedback and reinforcers to students for participating (making the positive comments) Behavior Contracts With the student, collaboratively identify: •Behaviors to work on •Attainable goals •How appropriate behavior will be acknowledged Be havi or C on tract for Joh nn y T his is a contrac t to help supp ort J ohnn y for the rest of the sc hoo l yea r. Johnn y agrees to : D o his hom ew ork eac h da y Ge t his plann er signed by h is teac hers eac h da y A sk for h elp or a break if he ge ts upse t (for exam ple, a desk awa y, ge t a drink, talk to som eone) Teac hers and staff a t A W L a nd Johnn yÕs pare nts agree to : He lp Johnn y w ith h is w ork if he needs it S ign his plann er eac h da y w hen he br ings it to them He lp Johnn y know w hen he is star ting t o ge t upse t He lp Johnn y us e g oo d coping sk ill s w hen he ge ts angr y ____________________________________ ____________ Johnn y S tude nt Da te ____________________________________ ____________ Ms. Ma th Teac her Da te ____________________________________ ____________ Ms. Read ing Teac her Da te ____________________________________ ____________ Ms. M om Da te ____________________________________ ____________ Dr. Sc hoo l Ps ychologist Da te Academic Support • Homework – Is there a way to build support within the school day? Homework check, homework buddy, time to start on homework at school. • Remediation – Direct instruction in addition to the current curriculum • Accommodation – Within instruction • Pre-teaching / Re-teaching Structured Peer Tutoring • Within the classroom • Monitored by the teacher • Use of specific, structured intervention such as repeated readings, previewing, flashcards, cover-copy-compare, etc. • Initially, students will need close and ongoing teacher supervision to ensure success Newcomer students Have a systematic plan to orient new students and teach expectations: • Orientation packet • Orientation program led by students and/or teachers • Video that shows the expectations • Peer or adult buddy Tier 2 Interventions Requiring Additional Resources Support Groups •Classwide or small group •Led by: school psychologist, counselor, social worker, teacher or administrator –Social Skills –Anger Management –Organization –Study Skills Mentoring • Regular contact in school (1:1 adult and student)-at least 10 minutes per week • Monthly/quarterly out-of-school events (picnic, Reds Game, etc.) • More intensive program including out-of-school activities will require leadership and coordination Homework Club • Students remain after school (everyday 1/2 hour) or 1 day per week (1-2 hours) to complete work •Students are paired up with “reminder” buddies who check in on work completion • Provide monitoring of completion and incentives for meeting goals Newcomer Group • Club for students who are new to the school or returning after an extended absence. • Place to review expectations, monitor progress, connect with other students Peer Tutoring • Tutors must be taught how to teach • Tutors must be taught what to do if tutee does not comply • Tutors must be given the option to drop out at any time without penalty • Monitoring to make sure that the intervention is being implemented as planned Academic Skills Groups •Led by IA, teachers, support staff, parent volunteer •2-3 times per week –Small-group reading (PALS, Repeated Readings, 6-minute solution) –Small-group math skill review –Other Data-based Decision Making There is a menu of targeted interventions available. How do you choose the one that matches your data? Just a reminder….. Who Receives Targeted Interventions? • Students identified as “at-risk” for behavior problems by having 2-5 Office Referrals • Small groups of students with relatively homogenous behavior (skipping class, bus referrals)which may be location specific • Students are expected to have a rapid response to intervention Data -> Intervention • If data show location is a concern (i.e.. All referrals are occurring in cafeteria) --> What targeted intervention addresses this need? • If data show a disproportionate percentage of referrals are from new students --> What targeted intervention addresses this need? • If data show most referrals are for fighting --> What targeted intervention addresses this need? Data indicate Social-Behavior Concerns If inappropriate behavior has potential to interfere with friendships and/or academics, you might want to try: • • • • --> Social Skills Training --> Self-Management --> Positive Peer Reporting --> BEP / Check-in Data Indicate Emotional Concerns If students have circumstances that may impact performance (death, frequent mobility) or “feel alone”, are shy, unhappy, isolated, you might want to try: •--> Adult Mentoring •--> Showcasing talents Data Indicate Academic Concerns If students have difficulty mastering academic material, difficulty with organization, or referrals occur in class when trying to “avoid” difficult work, you might want to try: • • • • • --> Academic skill groups --> Peer tutoring --> Pre-teaching / Re-teaching concepts --> Organizational or homework group --> BEP / Check-in Data Indicate New Student Concerns • If students who have recently enrolled or have been away for an extended period of time are having difficulty, you might want to try: • --> Student orientation (student or adult - led) • --> Student orientation materials (expectations, etc.) • --> Newcomer club Useful Resources When Choosing Tier 2 Interventions • Think about the match with your core, ease of implementation, cost, research base, skills targeted • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: www.pbis.org – Includes information about PBS across all three tiers, on-line resource library and links to other websites • Maryland’s PBS website: www.pbismaryland.org – Examples of PBS implementation and tools including middle schools and high schools • Intervention Central: www.interventioncentral.org – Scripted interventions for behavior, and academic skills Examples and Practice You Can Do It K-12 School Using data to make decisions regarding the need for targeted supports. 1. Read through the description of You Can Do It School. 2. As the PBS team, review the attached data and use the questions to guide your discussion around targeted supports. You Can Do It School Designing targeted supports 1. Your PBS team must now design a strong targeted intervention. Use the information from the presentation and questions on the activity sheet to guide your discussion. 2. Select a reporter to share out for your group.