AFRICAN AMERICAN
WOMEN
AND
MUTED GROUP THEORY
THE MUTED VOICES OF ISLAMIC
WOMEN

HEARD MARCH 8, 2005

THEIR DEMANDS ARE BEING HEARD
STILL
!
60 Minutes
Focus on: Hirshi Ali

Film: “Submission”
60 MINUTES TV SHOW
SUBMISSION
A DUTCH MOVIE – BY THEO VAN GOGH/
 Written by – Hirshi Ali
 FILM ABOUT MIS-TREATMENT OF ISLAMIC
WOMEN BY ISLAMIC MEN
 THE FORCE BEHIND FILM – SOMALI REFUGEE
WHO ROSE TO BECOME AN ELECTED
REPRESENTATIVE IN THE DUTCH PARLIAMENT–
HIRSHI ALI

MUTED GROUP THEORY
CONCERNED WITH POWER AND HOW IT IS
USED
 BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT LANGUAGE IS
CULTURE BOUND
 BASED ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT MALE
DOMINATION HAS CAUSED MALE-BIASED
LANGUAGE TO EVOLVE

WOMEN ARE LEFT OUT OF THIS MEANING
CREATION PROCESS
THREE ASSUMPTIONS
THE WORLD IS PERCEIVED DIFFERENTLY
BY MEN AND WOMEN.
 MEN ENACT POWER POLITICALLY, WHILE
SUPPRESSING WOMEN’S IDEAS AND
MEANINGS FROM GAINING PUBLIC
ACCEPTANCE.
 WOMEN MUST CONVERT TO MALE
LANGUAGE IN ORDER TO BE HEARD.

AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AND
MUTED GROUP THEORY
BLACK WOMEN DECISION MAKERS IN THE
ENTERTAINMENT TELEVISION INDUSTRY
PIONEERS WHO HAVE MADE A DIFFERENCE
BLACK WOMEN WHO OVERCAME

FACED SAME BARRIERS TO THEIR SUCCESS AS
OTHER WOMEN –AND MORE:
– HAD DIFFICULTY EXPRESSING THEMSELVES IN
MIXED GENDERED/MIXED RACE GROUPS– AT FIRST
– UNDERSTOOD MEN’S MEANINGS EVEN AS MEN
FAILED TO UNDERSTAND WOMEN’S MEANINGS
– WERE CHALLENGED BY THE DIFFERENCES, ACROSS
RACE AND GENDER, IN HOW THEY EXPRESSED
THEMSELVES
– ROSE TO THE CHALLENGES
BLACK WOMEN DECISION MAKERS
IN ENTERTAINMENT
1960S
 1970S
 1980S
 1990S
 21ST CENTURY

BLACK WOMEN DECISION MAKERS
IN ENTERTAINMENT
1960S
 1970S
 1980S
 1990S
 21ST CENTURY

AT THE DAWN OF THE

ST
21
C.
UNEVENLY AND IN SMALL NUMBERS,
BLACK WOMEN MADE THEIR WAY
TOWARD THE TOP IN ENTERTAINMENT
FIELDS
– INCLUDING CABLE AND BROADCAST
TELEVISION
AT THE DAWN OF THE

ST
21
C.
UNEVENLY AND IN SMALL NUMBERS,
BLACK WOMEN MADE THEIR WAY
TOWARD THE TOP IN ENTERTAINMENT
FIELDS
– INCLUDING CABLE AND BROADCAST
TELEVISION
BROADCAST TELEVISION
BROADCAST TELEVISION
SUZANNE DEPASSE
SUZANNE DEPASSE
BROADCAST TELEVISION
DEBBIE ALLEN
BROADCAST TELEVISION
DEBBIE ALLEN
BROADCAST AND CABLE
TELEVISION

MANY OTHERS:
– MARA BROCK AKIL
– TYRA BANKS
– EUNETTA BOONE
– YVETTE LEE BOWSER
– MICHELLE LISTENBEE BROWN
– TRACEY EDMONDS
– WHOOPIE GOLDBERG
BROADCAST AND CABLE
TELEVISION

MANY OTHERS:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
FELICIA D. HENDERSON
SUSAN FALES-HILL
SARA FINNEY JOHNSON
WINIFRED HERVEY
ERMA-ELZY JONES
JADA PINKETT-SMITH
VIDA SPEARS
ANDREA WILEY
OPRAH WINFREY
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AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN