Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and
Nuts of Temperate Regions
Reading: Textbook, Chapter 3
Collect assignment – Origin of Foods
Quiz
1. What is a fruit? Give an example. Also
give an example of a plant food that we eat
that is not a fruit.
2. In what century, and in what part of our
country did Johny Appleseed live?
Vegetable Fruits and Meaty Nuts
What is a Fruit?
Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)
Flowers to Fruits
Fruit (with 1+ seeds)
Ovary (in flower)
With ovules
Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:
See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy
Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
pages 56-57
Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:
See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy
Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:
See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy
Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:
See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy
Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
- product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers
Fruit Types
Major Distinctions:
See Table 3.1, p. 54
- dry vs. fleshy
Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
pages 56-57
- dehiscent vs. indehiscent
- product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries
- product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers
Pericarp – fruit wall
- endocarp (inside)
- mesocarp (middle)
- exocarp (outside)
Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain
Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate
Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain
Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate
Grain – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall fused Chapter 5
Dry Indehiscent Fruits - Nut
Nut – 1 seeded, enclosed by hard pericarp, surrounded by “husk”
See Figs. 3.15, 3.16, pages 70-71
Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Follicle
Follicle – from simple ovary, splits along 1 seam only
See Figs. 3.4, p. 58
Spiraea Fruits
milkweed
Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Legume
Legume – from simple ovary, splits along 2 seams
Fruit of Fabaceae, only: beans, peas, lentils etc.
Chapter 6
Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Capsule
Capsule = from compound ovary, splits along >2 seams or pores
Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Schizocarp
Schizocarp = from compound ovary, splits into 1-seeded units
Maple Schizocarp
Carrot
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
Seedless fruits – sterile,
so no seeds develop,
but still considered to
be berries
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
Special types of Berries
Pepo – hard rind
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
Special types of Berries
Hesperidium – flesh = juicePepo – hard rind filled hairs
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry
Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp
Special types of Berries
Hesperidium – flesh = juicePepo – hard rind filled hairs
Pome – most of
flesh = hypanthium
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
Fig. 3.12, page 68
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
Fig. 3.12, page 68
Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe
See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also
Fig. 3.12, page 68
Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Ovary
See Fig. 3.8, p. 66
Fleshy Fruits - Comparison
Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Flower
Temperate Fruit & Nut Crops
Rosaceae – Rose Family
- Apples, Pears, and Quinces
See Tables 3.2, p. 55;
Table 3.5, p. 62-63
- Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Almonds
- Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries
Blueberries & Cranberries
Grapes
Olives
Kiwi Fruit
Walnuts & Pecans
Pistachios
Apples, Pears, and Quinces
See Fig. 3.6, p. 64
Apple Production
Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
Apple Production
Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
Apple Production
Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
Apple Production
Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks
Apple Production
Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan
“Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse
Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks
Modern Favorites: Washington State, Oregon – Red Delicious
Being Superseded By: Granny Smith, Gala, Fuji, Braeburn
Economics: production cost = $12/box; wholesale $8-12/box
Stone Fruits – Plums, Cherries,
Peaches, Apricots
Stone Fruits – Plums and Peaches
Plum
Peach
Stone Fruits – Cherries
Berries that are not really berries
Strawberry - Fragaria
See Fig. 3.8, p. 66
Berries that are not really berries
Brambles – raspberries and blackberries
Fruit = aggregate of small drupes (drupelets)
Berries that are not really berries
Raspberry – receptacle stays behind when fruit detached
Blackberry – receptacle detaches with fruit
Black
raspberry
Blackberry
Loganberry
Boysenberry
Berries that are really Berries
Blueberry
See Fig. 3.9, p. 67
Cranberry
Another Popular Berry
Grapes - Vitis
Flowers
See Fig. 3.11,
p. 68
Vineyard grapes
Muscadine grapes
Table grapes
A Berry with an Accent
See Fig. 3.14, p. 70
Kiwi Fruit – Actinidia deliciosa (original
common name = Chinese gooseberry)
Note: some individuals
can be allergic to kiwi
Drupes Again
See Fig. 3.12, p. 68
Olive – Olea europea
Pecans
Nuts to You
See Fig. 3.15, 3.16, p. 70-71
Walnuts
More Nuts
See Figs. 3.17, 3.18, p. 72
Chestnut - Castanea
Hazelnut
Nuts that are not nuts
Fig. 3.19, p. 73;
Figs. 3.20, 3.21,
p. 74
Pistachio – Pistacia vera
Almond - Prunus
Thursday Lecture – Fruits and
Nuts of Warm Regions
Reading: Textbook, Chapter 4
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Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions