Making The Vocabulary Connection in Middle Schools Teaching Students Academic Language Keith Pruitt Is There A Problem? “…what students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content.” Marzano (2004, p.1) “Knowledge of specific terms is, for all intents and purposes, synonymous with background knowledge.” Marzano (2004, p. 62) But most students aren’t bringing much to the table. Telling Studies Nagy, Anderson, & Herman (1987) Bloom (1976) Dochy, Segers, & Buehl (1999) All point to correlation of background knowledge and academic success. How Do We Get This Knowledge? Process and Store Information Fluid or innate intelligence Experience Crystallized or learned intelligence schema Which Intelligence Is Best? What seems to be critical is not sheer amount of experience but rather what one has been able to learn from and do with experience. Sternberg (1985, p.307) …knowledge is more highly associated with crystallized abilities than with fluid abilities. Rolfhus & Ackerman (1999, p.520) Academic Success = Experience So what type of experiences can we provide in the school setting to help insure our students have academic success? The Howard Gardner School of Experiences Reflections- Writing, Thinking, Recording their thoughts. “We need to teach children how to think and let them know that it is ok to do so.” -Roger Farr The Howard Gardner School of Experiences Reflections- Writing, Thinking, Recording their thoughts. For information to be processed from our Sensory Memories to our Permanent Memories, it must first be processed through our Working Memories. - Anderson (1995) The Work of J R Anderson Discards OR Sensory Memory Working Memory Permanent Memory Files Anderson, J.R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons The Howard Gardner School of Experiences Reflections- Writing, Thinking, Recording their thoughts. Interpersonal Communication- Collaborative group projects, dialogue, buddy reads, turn and talks. Games- Monopoly (Economics), Scrabble (Language Arts, Vocabulary), Trivial Pursuit (History, Geography), Brain Gyms The Howard Gardner School of Experiences Reflections- Writing, Thinking, Recording their thoughts. Interpersonal Communication- Collaborative group projects, dialogue, buddy reads. Games- Monopoly (Economics), Scrabble (Language Arts, Vocabulary), Trivial Pursuit (History, Geography), Brain Gyms BRAIN GYMS WHO AM I? I am associated with money. Sometimes I hang out with dead Presidents. Burr was my death. I worked for a President. I was the first at treasury. I helped write federalism into being. Who Am I? BRAIN GYMS WHO AM I? I am associated with money. Sometimes I hang out with dead Presidents. Burr was my death. I worked for a President. I was the first at treasury. I helped write federalism into being. Who Am I? Alexander Hamilton WHAT AM I? I can charge it up. Not a cell phone. I can take on different shapes sometimes being like a thread or even a sphere. I’m in cytoplasm. What am I? WHAT AM I? I can charge it up. Not a cell phone. I can take on different shapes sometimes being like a thread or even a sphere. I’m in cytoplasm. What am I? Mitochondria Back To Gardner Art- Using painting, drawing, diagrams, graphic organizers, music, role plays, presentations, theatre, writing as a means of expression. Some of the greatest expression of ideas comes from visual arts! How can I use visuals to teach vocabulary? USING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS United States Constitution Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch Dallas Ponyboy Johnny S.E.Hinton, author Who? Characters How? When Why? What? Gangs The Outsiders Where? This shows how to use a graphic web to discuss a piece of literature visually. The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction, Michael F. Graves Thinking Tree transportation cars pollution planes boats traffic safety Seat belts Bumpers Padded dash Speed limits police Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension, William Nagy The Usage Of Virtual Tours Reading is a Virtual Experience Language Interaction Virtual Experiences Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Allington (1984) Total Words Read by 1st graders during 1 wk of reading. *Poor Readers- 16 *Good Readers1,933 Other Students Fell in between these two extremes. Nagy and Anderson (1984) Middle Grade Students (words per year) Type A Child- 10-50 m/year Type B Child- 1 m/ y Type C Child100,000/ year HOW MANY TYPE C STUDENTS DO WE HAVE IN OUR MIDDLE SCHOOLS? IT IS NOT UNUSUAL FOR 25% TO 50% OF OUR MIDDLE SCHOOL 8TH GRADERS TO BE BELOW PROFICIENCY IN READING. IN INNER CITY SCHOOLS, IT CAN BE UP TO 80%. THE LOW END READER IN 9TH GRADE IS READING ON PAR WITH THE AVERAGE 3RD GRADER!!! “…a poor reader is likely to have difficulty in all subject matter classes.” –Stallings (1986) The Usage Of Virtual Tours Reading is a Virtual Experience Language Interaction Virtual Experiences Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Language Interaction Have students work in groups with texts. Use leveled text to supplement content areas. Provide lots of reading materials in the classroom. Remember that most learners in your classroom are visual learners! SHOW THEM DON’T JUST TELL THEM! The Usage Of Virtual Tours Reading is a Virtual Experience Language Interaction Virtual Experiences Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Usage of Virtual Reality We can’t expose students to every real life adventure that we would desire. But through the internet, we can expose them to many worlds they might never be able to see. FOR EXAMPLE… You may visit this site at www.thehermitage.com The Smithsonian Institute offers free online help for teachers at their web Address. www.thesmithsonianeducation.org The Usage Of Virtual Tours Reading is a Virtual Experience Language Interaction Virtual Experiences Direct Teaching of Vocabulary The direct Vocabulary To academic teaching of is essential success. Do you know what this says? Why not? You are educated, right? What do you need to know to break the code? The direct Vocabulary To academic teaching of is essential success. The direct teaching of vocabulary is essential to academic success. ---Keith Pruitt Breaking The Code of Language Vocabulary building involves a systematic delivery of words based on experiences in a school setting that provides a schema of explanation in words students can understand. -- Keith Pruitt (2005) What is Academic Language Tier 3 Words are those that are unique to a specific content area. Can be used in several contexts. Are not used in everyday language. DEMOCRACY MEREDIAN PROTOPLASM CAVITY CELL ESTIMATE MIGRATION MITOSIS PHOTOSYTHESIS MITOCHONDRIA HERE IS WHAT IS INVOLVED Jean Piaget’s (1960) Schema Theory You must create a picture! Explaining words in a meaningful context. (Janet Allen, 1999) Repeated usage of words. It takes 6-8 repeated usages in short period for child to make a word a part of vocabulary. Integrate the tactile, visual, and auditory experiences. Understand the importance of Tier 3 words. This is the type of thing one would do to explain words by using words to which students may relate. winsome To describe someone as winsome is to say that her personality is naturally charming, engaging, adorable, winning, etc. (and that she probably has a childlike innocence, too). The word is used more often to describe a female than a male. When I told Phil that the new film comedy starred Meg Ryan, he said, “Let me guess; she plays a winsome young woman who finds love, but not until the last five minutes of the movie.” From Wizard of Oz Vocabulary Builder One of the arguments for ____________ in the first place had been that ________ would increase the wealth of the ______ _______ And lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the __________ theory, she would prosper and grow strong by _________ more and more to __________ and _________ less and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a ______ for her ___________ goods and a source of supply for ___ _________ she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have to exclude ________ (as Spain had done) from her _______ trade. The words in red are great Tier 2 words that can be emphasized for clarity. The blanks represent Tier 3 (Academic Language) that is absolutely necessary to make sense of the text. This is an American History Text. One of the arguments for colonization in the first place had been that colonies would increase the wealth of the mother country and lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the mercantile theory, she would prosper and grow strong by exporting more and more to foreigners and importing less and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a market for her manufactured goods and a source of supply for raw materials she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have to exclude foreigners (as Spain had done) from her colonial trade. One could not access the text without the vocabulary. But unless one has a schema for the words, it is like not having the words printed. What Does This Word Mean? craniopharngioma What Does This Word Mean? craniopharngioma A tumor of the pituitary gland, which if untreated may cause permanent brain damage. Use Vocabulary Games Vocabulary.com Thirdage.com Vocabulary.co.il Vocabulary Connections (Steck Vaughn) SLAM Board Give Students Post It Notes As you read various selected sections of the text book, have students write the words that they don’t know on post it notes. On cue, have them come to a selected spot and post the words on the board. Teacher then uses these in exercises. Marzano’s Characteristics of Effective Direct Vocabulary Instruction Does not rely on definitions. (Explain It) Representations in linguistic and nonlinguistic Multiple exposures Teach word parts. (Roots, affixes) Vary the instructional pedagogy. Have students discuss new vocabulary. Allow students to play with words. Focus on words that impact academic success. Provide purpose for reading Glossary terms are highlighted Terms are defined for the students in words they can understand Pearson Longman, Keystone, Level E This is a typical middle school American history textbook. The publisher has italicized the vocabulary words. What do I need to do to make this text come alive for the student? First, let’s do some explaining? Ship and vessel mean the same thing. What words do I want to emphasize from the text? Highlight those. What does the author mean by band of colonials? If one were resisting what would they be doing? Beck and McKeown’s Method of Instruction Teacher Explains New Word with description, example or explanation. Students Restate. Create Non-linguistic representation. Students engage in activities that support their understanding of the new term. Have students discuss with each other or play games. The Importance of Building Schema t r a n s l u c e n t Exploding the Vocabulary Students need 4,000 new words per year to maintain grade level expectation (Allen, 2007) One way we can explode the vocabulary being taught is by using the same explanation to multiply itself out. translucent TransAcross, through, on the other side, beyond transfer translucent TransAcross, through, on the other side, beyond transfer transferred transferable transference translucent TransAcross, through, on the other side, beyond translation transfer translated transferred transferable transference translucent TransAcross, through, on the other side, beyond translation transfer translated transferred transferable transference transportation translucent TransAcross, through, on the other side, beyond Come up with 10 words for these prefixes: re- and comAlso come up with an explanation http://www.englishclub.com/vo cabulary/prefixes.htm Dilapidated Suggested Reading Bringing Words to Life (Beck, McKeown, Kucan) Inside Words (Janet Allen) Words, Words, Words (Janet Allen) Building Background Knowledge (Robert Marzano) Tools for Teaching Content Literacy (Janet Allen) Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension (William Nagy) The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction (Michael Graves) Greek and Latin Roots: Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension (Trisha Callella) The Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom (Black and Mangieri) In Conclusion It is all about words. Teaching vocabulary is necessary to teaching content. For students to succeed academically, they must learn academic language. Do you as a teacher want SUCCESS!? It Is All About Words, Learning and Students!