Standards-Based IEPs Arkansas Department of Education Special Education July 2013 Standards-Based IEPs Overview of Modules Module 1 Overview and importance of Standards Module 2 Present Level and Student Profile Module 3 Measurable Goals and Objectives Pilot Schools • • • • Springdale Magnolia Bryant Sheridan What are the Common Core State Standards? Aligned with college and work expectations Focused and coherent Rigorous content/application of knowledge, high-order skills Build upon strengths and lessons of current state standards Internationally benchmarked so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society Based on evidence and research State led – coordinated by NGA Center and CCSSO Why is this important? • Currently, every state has its own set of academic standards, meaning public education students in each state are learning to different levels • All students must be prepared to compete with not only American peers, but with students from around the world Common Core State Standards www.commoncorearkansas.org/ Carol B. Massanari firstname.lastname@example.org Standards-Based IEPs Determining & Writing Effective Goals Module 1: IEP Overview – A Plan for Guiding Instruction and Service Provision Product vs. Process Product: An individualized plan reasonably calculated to result in educational benefit (FAPE) Process: Planning to determine what is needed for student to benefit from education IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/ Instructional Results Implement & Monitor Progress General Curriculum Expectations Developing PLAAFP Statements Area of Instructional Need Current Skills and Knowledge Select Instructional Services & Program Supports PLAAFP Statemen ts on IEP Form Write Measurable Goals IEP Development: a “GPS” You: Know where you want to go Enter data about where you are Create a map Adjust to opportunities/barriers Arrive and choose a new long-term goal Planning: Two Critical Components Knowing where you want to go Using data as the basis Assumptions Good IEPs are: Reasonably calculated to result in educational benefit Connected to state standards as a fundamental component to educational benefit Assumptions Good IEPs are: Dependent upon knowledge of curriculum/effective practice Not an isolated event Consistent with regulations The “I” in IEP Requires: Consideration of individualized needs Different goals for different students based on needs Reflect & Note: Why Are standards important? Should we consider them? Standards-Based IEPs? Special educationspecially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent,…to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability… 34 CFR 300.39(a)(1) Specially designed instruction- adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child…the content methodology or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children. 34 CFR 300.39(b)(3)(i); 34 CFR 300.39 (b) (3) (ii) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) “…must include a statement of present levels of academic and functional performance…how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum… 34 CFR 300.320(a)(1)(i)(A) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) “…meet the child's needs . . . to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum . . . ” 34 CFR 300.320(a)(2)(i)(A) Standards Drive Curriculum Provide instructional accountability Drive general education content instruction Support instruction in the least restrictive environment Define the expectations of all students Create a structure for linking the IEP to the general curriculum Why Connect IEPs to Standards? High stakes accountability, performance goals & indicators IDEA – access to the general curriculum Essential for closing the achievement gap Promotes a single system of education – inclusion and a common language Encourage greater consistency across schools & districts It’s best for kids – assumes more, not less Think and Discuss How are you using the standards to develop IEPs? Connecting IEPs to Standards… Does not mean – Writing goals that restate the standards Using the academic standards alone to determine goals Assuming that every student will work only on grade level content Connecting IEPs to Standards… Does mean – Referring to standards to determine expectations at grade level Using the standards as a guide to determine what is important for the student to learn or be able to do Conducting an analysis to determine gap between grade expectations and current skills/knowledge General Steps: 1. Consider the grade-level content standards Discuss expected knowledge and skills Examine benchmarks Consider prerequisite knowledge and skills 2. Examine student data to determine where student is in relation to grade-level standards Compare expectations with student’s current instructional level Gap Analysis Standards-Based IEP’s: Review Content is determined through planning process Development is like using a GPS Knowledge of grade level standards is key ‘Ready’ means ‘never’ if we continuously focus on the lowest-level skills. Maggie McLaughlin, Autumn 2009 It means that all our kids, even the ones our system calls ‘hard to teach’ can learn. Rod Paige, Former Secretary of Education Standards-Based IEPs Determining & Writing Effective Goals Module 2: Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes Or Instructional Results Implement & Monitor Progress General Curriculum Expectatio ns Current Skills and Knowledge Select Instructional Services & Program Supports Developing PLAAFP Statements Area of Instruction al Need PLAAFP Statemen ts on IEP Form Write Measurable Goals Standards Drive IEPs Provide instructional accountability and access to general curriculum Support instruction in least restrictive environment Link the IEP to the general curriculum Standards Drive IEPs Essential for closing the achievement gap Promote a single system of education and consistency across schools and the district Are best for kids – assume more, not less What Does it Mean to Connect IEPs to Standards? Refer to standards to determine expectations at grade level Use the standards as a guide to determine what is important for the student to learn or be able to do Conduct an analysis to determine the gap between grade expectations and the student’s current skills/knowledge Accessing the General Education Curriculum What is meant by the general education curriculum? The full range of courses, activities, lessons, and materials routinely used by the general population What is meant by access? Participation in the knowledge and skills that make up the general education curriculum “PLAAFP”: Present Levels of Academic Achievement & Functional Performance (1) . . .a statement of the child’s Present Levels of Academic and Functional Performance, including— (i) how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children); (ii) for preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child’s participation in appropriate activities; 34 CFR §300.324(a)(1) Developing Present Level Statements General Curriculum Expectations Areas of Instructional Need Current Skills and Knowledge PLAAFP Statements on IEP Form General Curriculum Expectations/Considerations What do I want to know? Expectation standards; classroom/grade level; social/emotional Instructional strategies/approaches used in the general classroom Extracurricular activities of school life for students at this grade level Consider the Whole Child Academic Social emotional/behavior al Communication Recreation/Leisure Physical, Medical Assistive Technology Jobs/job training Post-secondary education Community participation Home/independent living Collect Data Student/family input Classroom reports Work samples Observations Tests/assessments Rating scales Curriculum-based assessment Office referral/discipline records Attendance records Physicals/medical reports Vocational training records Present Performance; Current Skills and Knowledge What: Can the student do in school; at home? Is the student’s performance level on state and classroom assessments? Accommodations are necessary? A Note About Present Levels & Forms There are two places to record present level information on the IEP: Student Profile Page Goal Pages Remember: Gather information; then record it Process first; form second Student Profile The profile should include general statements regarding: Strengths Needs Assessment/Evaluation Status of prior IEP goals Teacher/Parent/Student input Transition needs (at least by age 16) Student Profiles could include: Student’s response to: Learning strategies Accommodations Interventions classroom instruction Ask…“What have we learned about this student’s skills and knowledge?” Must be based on data!! Practice Time • IEP Handout A: Karen • Karen Student Profile Practice identifying Student Profile components. Present Level/IEP Goal Page Part I Description of what the student can do; strengths, based on general curriculum expectations Part II Identify the gaps in skills/knowledge associated with the disability What: Identification of Need Skills/knowledge are expected for the student in the general classroom? Skills/knowledge does the student currently have? Is there a gap, and what skills and knowledge are critical for the student to be able to access the general curriculum at grade level? Do you know about the student’s learning rate? Accommodations have been used successfully to support the student’s learning? Identification of Need Consider other functional skill areas that may not be directly connected to the academic standards, and determine which areas need specialized instruction through the IEP. Selecting the Standard Discuss intent of standards: What are the knowledge and skills necessary for the student to achieve to a level that is expected in the standards? What are the prerequisite skills? Selecting the Standard Determine which standards are most important for each student (based on progress in the general education curriculum) Compare standard(s) with student’s areas of need and the impact of the disability Use data to determine the areas the student will find difficult without additional supports Critical Considerations Which standards are: Leverage-standards in one subject that support student’s success in other subjects? Endurance-standards that help students across the years rather than respond to the testing of a single grade level? Readiness-essential for the next grade/standards that help students prepare for the next level of learning? Critical Considerations Which standards are most essential to: Accelerate the ability to progress in the general curriculum? Result in educational benefit? Critical Considerations Which standards: Can be met with accommodations in the general classroom? Require specialized instruction? Identifying Instructional Need Consider the target grade level standards RI.6.2: Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. Identification of Need 1. Consider the target grade level standards Identify critical knowledge and skills within the standards Use a data analysis process to conduct a drill down Identify the gap Identification of Need 2. Of these skills, where does the student demonstrate proficiency? (These could become descriptors in the Present Level Statements) Formal assessment Informal assessment Identification of Need 3. Can the standard(s) be achieved with an accommodation? For example, can the student: Demonstrate the central idea of a text if given orally rather than being asked to read the items independently? Summarize the text when it is read orally? Identification of Need 4. Given these responses: What skills need to be taught explicitly to demonstrate proficiency on the targeted standard? Which skills/knowledge can be acquired in the general classroom with an accommodation/assistive technology? Activity 2.1 Practice Data Analysis Assignment: 2.1.1 • Expectations and Current Knowledge and Skills • IEP Handout A: Karen 1. Review the selected standard for English/Language Arts 2. Make notes of critical expectations 3. Document the student’s current skills and knowledge specific to the standard 4. Conduct an analysis of data using the process we have just been talking about and document results Hang on to your notes. Well be using them later Writing Present Level Statements Describe performance in academic and nonacademic areas Include relationship between evaluation/assessment data and Present Level Statements Use objective, measurable terms Ensure data is self-explanatory (or provide an explanation of score) Present Level Phrase Examples Specific Verb Phrases Vague Verb Phrases Greets peer appropriately Is friendly Counts to 25 Received a math score of 90 Speaks in one to two word sentences Can’t talk well Solves problems involving double-digit addition Knows his letters Knows about different careers Names five careers, and jobs associated with each Talks excessively Is a loner Writing Present Level Statements Jim is fluent (reads 120 words per minute) when reading material that is written at a 3rd grade reading level. Susie can answer comprehension questions with 90 to 100% accuracy when listening to material that is used in her classroom. When interacting with peers, Paul is quick to get into arguments using inappropriate language (profanity) and a loud voice. Non-Examples of Present Level Statements Receives reading in the resource room STAR reading of 340 The disability impacts progress in the general education classroom Academic Performance Example Use up-to-date descriptive data: Cory reads 24 wpm, while the benchmark for 2nd graders in the regular curriculum is 60-80 wpm. Cory can say 5 out of 10 short and long vowel sounds. He cannot read multi-syllabic words. Functional Performance Students: social/emotional (behavioral) performance communication skills performance in areas of recreation/leisure, selfmanagement, independent living, etc. Ask…“ What have we learned about this student’s ability to function independently and appropriately with peers and adults?” Functional Performance Example Use up-to-date descriptive data: In a classroom observation, Cory sat quietly in his seat for 10 minutes. At the 10-minute mark, he began to look around the room, followed by twirling his pencil and playing with his paper. When placed with a partner to complete his work, he was able to remain on task and complete the assignment… Performance in the General Curriculum How does the disability affect performance? Consider how it affects progress in learning the grade-level content standards – the Impact Statement. Caution Do not use the student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability affects involvement/progress in the general curriculum when developing the Impact Statement. What not to write: Marley’s learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum. What to write: Marley’s weakness in applying strategies, such as making inferences and complex predictions, affect his progress in comprehending sixth-grade literary materials. Activity 2.3 Writing Present Level Statements Strengths, needs and data sources Adverse affect of the disability in the general education curriculum (impact statement) 2.3.1 Writing Present Level Statements Can you improve this Present Level statement? Rosie has trouble controlling her behavior. She gets easily upset when interacting with peers and does not take direction from authority. Once off task it is really hard to reengage her. What did you think? • • • • • Anything missing? Specific? Written in objective, measurable, terms? Data self-explanatory? Make it better? One way… Rosie enjoys socializing with peers, and will play cooperatively with them some of the time. Her teacher reports that more often, Rosie is off task and interacts inappropriately with her peers. Observations of Rosie indicated that when interacting with peers, Rosie became upset (cried, threw material, left the group)55% of the time within the first five minutes of a group activity. Once off task, it took up to 20 minutes for her to reengage in the activity. Putting it all together Rosie has improved in mathematics since last year. She can add and subtract and do some multiplication. She has difficulties solving word problems. Rosie currently has a grade of 71% in math. What did you think? • • • • • Anything missing? Specific? Written in objective, measurable, terms? Data self-explanatory? Make it better? One way… Curriculum Based Assessments indicate Rosie can add and subtract within 100 to solve one-step words problems, involving “adding to”, “taking from”, etc. She has memorized the multiplication facts for 0 – 5 and 10. She is able to use a multiplication table for facts she does not have memorized. Classroom assessments demonstrate that Rosie can a apply the correct operation when presented with the terms or symbols for “multiply”, and “divide”. Rosie cannot describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as a multiplication problem, such 35 = 5 groups of 7 objects. She is not able to interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison when given word problem, such as: “A pack of pencils costs 9 times as much as a single pencil, which costs 5 cents. How much is a pack?” Rosie’s disability impacts her ability to use multiplication equations to solve real world problems. Putting it All Together On the IEP: The Present Level Statements must include: Academic and functional performance: strengths, needs and data sources Adverse affect of the disability in the general education curriculum - The Impact Statement for preschool children, the affect on participation in age appropriate activities Standards-Based Data Sources Strengths/Need s Impact Statement What did you think? • Is the present level describing what Tina can do in relation to the standard (strengths/needs)? Standard: Social Skills, Appropriate Conversation Skills Present Level of Performance (include - Strengths, Needs and Data Sources): Classroom observations indicate Tina often attempts to initiate conversations with peers during small group activities and social situations, and will listen to others talk about topics not directly related to her interests. The data collected on the observation sheets used for social skills lessons show that Tina demonstrates appropriate greeting and conversational skills with peers 70% of the time in role modeling situations, and 40% of the time in real-life situations. Tina’s parents have been recording data on her social skills at home and in the community. Their data show her to be appropriate 30% of the time. When Tina initiates conversation with peers, and they do not immediately respond, she often yells at them to get their attention. She stands very close to others when she is talking with them, sometimes actually pressing her body next to theirs. Tina often grabs the other person’s arm when she is excited, or when they want to end the conversation before she does. Teacher observation checklists indicate that verbal cues and prompts increase Tina’s success rate by 20%. At school, Tina’s social behavior deficits often lead to peers rejecting her attempts to talk or play with them. What did you think? Is there an impact statement? – How does the student’s disability affect learning the standard? Impact Statement Tina’s deficits in social skills decrease the opportunities she has to develop appropriate relationships with peers, and limits her opportunity to practice her social skills in real-life situations. What did you think? Data Sources? – Were assessment types and results included in the present level? Data Sources Present Level of Performance (include - Strengths, Needs and Data Sources): Classroom observations indicate Tina often attempts to initiate conversations with peers during small group activities and social situations, and will listen to others talk about topics not directly related to her interests. The data collected on the observation sheets used for social skills lessons show that Tina demonstrates appropriate greeting and conversational skills with peers 70% of the time in role modeling situations, and 40% of the time in real-life situations. Tina’s parents have been recording data on her social skills at home and in the community. Their data show her to be appropriate 30% of the time. When Tina initiates conversation with peers, and they do not immediately respond, she often yells at them to get their attention. She stands very close to others when she is talking with them, sometimes actually pressing her body next to theirs. Tina often grabs the other person’s arm when she is excited, or when they want to end the conversation before she does. Teacher observation checklists indicate that verbal cues and prompts increase Tina’s success rate by 20%. At school, Tina’s social behavior deficits often lead to peers rejecting her attempts to talk or play with them. Review of Present Level Statements 1. Are they related to the vision (desired outcome) for this student? 2. Do they reflect what the student knows in relation to the general curriculum or standards expectations; strengths/needs? 3. Are they stated in measurable terms? 4. Do they include up to date data sources? 5. Do they include strengths, needs, and disability’s impact on access to the general curriculum? 6. Are they self-explanatory? • Implementation - Present Level Using the IEP Handout A, IEP Handout B, and the information you gathered in activity 2.1.1, discuss and write a Present Level based on: General curriculum considerations Present Level Statements (academic and functional) that describe skills and knowledge Impact Statement (how disability affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum). • • IEP Handout A: Karen Blank IEP Goal Page Karen Student Profile Present Level Remember… The Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance sets the stage for developing IEP goals! Student Profile vs. Present Level Similarities: Data-based Provide a description of the student Provide a sense of where the student is functioning in regard to areas of need Student Profile vs. Present Level Differences: Profile is an overview of where student is functioning in relation to their school experiences Profile is a general picture of the student’s functioning in all areas relevant to the IEP Present level addresses priorities for goal writing Present level provides a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s achievement on specific standards or functional skills We cannot always build the future for our children... …but we can build our children for the future. -- Franklin D. Roosevelt. Standards-Based IEPs Determining & Writing Effective Goals Module 3: Writing Quality Goals and Objectives IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/ Instructional Results Implement & Monitor Progress General Curriculum Expectations Current Skills and Knowledge Select Instructional Services & Program Supports Developing PLAAFP Statements Area of Instructional Need PLAAFP Statements on IEP Form Write Measurable Goals What are… measurable annual goals? Statements that describe what a student can be expected to accomplish within a twelve month period in the student’s special education program. Annual Goals Annual goals are related to needs resulting from the student’s disability that directly affect involvement and progress in the general education curriculum For preschool children, as appropriate, to participate in age-appropriate activities Annual Goals Annual Goals answer the question— “What should the student be doing?” Prioritize If multiple areas of need are identified in the Present Level, the IEP Team must consider how each need impacts the students’ progress in the general education curriculum. Select the need that has the greatest impact on progress, and develop a goal to address that need. Realistic Expectations & Challenging, Attainable Results Are they: Relevant? Reasonable and attainable? Challenging? Attainable in time given? Identifying Priorities for the Student Need to Know Evaluate how an author uses words to create mental imagery, suggest mood and set tone Nice to Know Recognize stylistic elements such as voice, tone and style Target a particular hole and fix it – that’s leverage! SMART Goals • • • • • Specific Measurable Achievable Results-oriented Time-bound Carol B. Massanari email@example.com 5-Point IEP Goals The Student...(Who) Will do what…(Behavior) To what level/degree…(Criterion) Under what conditions…(Context) In what length of time…(Timeframe) Writing Goal Statements Focus on what the student will do: “Janice will read and analyze a short story for the literary elements of main idea, point of view, plot, setting, and characterization.” Not the process: “Janice will use a graphic organizer to analyze a short story.” Writing Goal Statements Use behavioral terminology: “Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements.” Not the process: “Janice will review short stories.” Writing Goal Statements Add the criterion: “Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements of main idea, point of view, setting and characterization with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.” Writing Goal Statements Include the context/timeframe: “By the end of the school year, Janice will read and analyze a short story for literary elements of main idea, point of view, setting, and characterization with 90% accuracy using a literature passage from the sixth grade classroom.” Let’s Review The student (Janice) Will do what (read and analyze a short story) To what level or degree (90% accuracy) Under what conditions (sixth grade literature passage) In what time frame (end of school year) Activity 3.4 Developing SMART Goals Specific based on PLAAFP Measurable progress determined at data points Achievable realistic, related to critical needs Results-oriented developed with outcome in mind Time-bound defined beginning/ending 3.4.1 • Developing SMART Goals • Tina Student Profile and Goal Page Choosing a Measure (Criterion) Refer to Present Level data: Ask what: Are the performance expectations in the general classroom? Has been the rate of growth? Will it take to be successful in the general classroom? Is the gap in current and desired skill? Putting it All Together Activity 3.5 A Present Level Example: “Karen is in the sixth grade; she has challenges with reading fluency which impact her ability to comprehend longer passages and summarize central themes in a text.” 3.5.1 • Reviewing What We Know • Karen Student Profile • IEP Handout A: Karen Activity 3.5 Reviewing What We Know: Area of need Past instruction and progress Experience with similar students/situations Expectations for the next year 3.5.1 • Reviewing What We Know • Karen Student Profile • IEP Handout A 3.5 Putting it all Together SMART Goals/5-Point Goals Clear, concise measurable Measure/criterion well-thought out. What’s Missing? Make it better: When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level. Make it Better When tested, Sara will read at the fifth grade level. New and improved: Given a passage in the fifth grade literature book, Sara will read 130-150 wpm with fewer than 5 errors in one minute, in three consecutive trials over a three week period of time, by the end of 5th grade. What’s Missing? Make it better: June will turn in homework on time, complete in-class assignments, and complete tests given in class. Make it Better: June will turn in homework on time, complete in-class assignments, and complete tests given in class. New and improved: June will meet all required classroom activities (including submitting homework on time, completion of in-class assignments, and completing tests) in accordance with classroom standards for maintaining a “C” or better letter grade for the class consistently for both semesters of her 9th grade year. What’s Missing? Make it better: Randy will have basic needs met by making appropriate requests to a variety of adults. Make it Better: Randy will have basic needs met by making appropriate requests to a variety of adults. New and improved: Across all settings, Randy will use his communication system to indicate 90% of his personal needs (e.g., bathroom, drink or eat, go outside) throughout the school day for five consecutive days by the end of the school year. Practice: Goal Writing • • IEP IEP Handout HandoutAA • • Karen Karen Profile Profile Page Page • • Karen Karen Present Present Level Level Use your data on Karen to write a SMART Goal tied to the reading standard: RI.6.2: Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. Activity 3.6 Review Your IEP 1. Read the IEP goal statements. 3.6.1 • SMART Goals • Karen Goal Page 2. Are they SMART goals? Specific Measurable Achievable Results-oriented Time-bound 3. Are they connected to the Present Level and include a reference to the standards? 4. Will the goal support the student’s ability to meet grade level standards and make progress in the general curriculum? Benchmarks are the interim steps a child will take to reach an annual goal Marla Objectives/Benchmarks Measurable A logical breakdown of the major components of an annual goal Objectives/Benchmarks Short-term objectives and benchmarks are steps that measure the child's progress toward the annual goals in the IEP. When written correctly, short-term objectives provide teachers with a roadmap and a clear mechanism to evaluate the child's progress. These could be incremental steps, or a set of skills that together will lead to meeting the annual goal Adatped from Wright, P. and Wright, P. (2006). Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy, 2nd Edition. Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law Press, Inc. Annual Goal: Increase fluency… Given vowels, consonants, digraphs, and 5 common diphthongs, Jay will say the correct sounds at 30 sounds per minute with no more than 2 errors. Given the 200 most common sight vocabulary words, Jay will read them aloud at 110 wpm with only random error. Given first grade material, Jay will read a passage orally at 50-80 wpm with no more than 5 errors. Annual Goal: Demonstrate comprehension of reading materials by answering ‘”wh” questions… By the end of the first reporting period, JJ will answer 9 of 10 “who” questions. By the end of the second reporting period, JJ will answer 9 of 10 “what” questions. By the end of the third reporting period, JJ will answer 9 of 10 “where” questions. By the end of the fourth reporting period, JJ will answer 9 of 10 “why” questions. Determining & Documenting Progress Consider: How expected progress will be determined? What is the rate of growth expected from initiation of IEP to goal achievement? What will be done if progress is not occurring? Formative Assessment / Progress Monitoring Involves frequent, ongoing, systematic monitoring of performance Occurs in core, supplemental, and intensive instruction with varied frequency Answers whether or not: Student is making progress compared to self, peers and/or the standard? Instructional adjustments are needed? Formative Assessment / Progress Monitoring Periodic Review of IEP Goals: Are we on track? Is student making progress at the expected rate? Yes. Continue No. Adjust Even if you are on the right track, you’re still going to get run over if you don’t keep moving. Will Rogers Formative Assessment / Progress Monitoring Periodic Review of IEP Goals: Are we on track? Is student progressing at a higher rate than expected? Yes. Adjust intervention, continue for a while longer, or discontinue Is student progressing slower than expected? Yes. Adjust frequency/intensity of, or select different intervention Activity 3.7 3.7.1 Assessment Strategies for Tracking and Reporting Progress Assessment: Strategies for Tracking and Reporting Progress IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/ Instructional Results Implement & Monitor Progress General Curriculum Expectatio ns Current Skills and Knowledge Select Instructional Services & Program Supports Developing PLAAFP Statements Area of Instructional Need PLAAFP Statemen ts on IEP Form Write Measurable Goals Questions Please contact us with any questions or with feedback about this training: http://arksped.k12.ar.us firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Resources Arkansas Department of Education Special Education Unit website: www.arksped.k12.ar.us/sections/standar dsBasedIEPs.html Credits The modules used as a basis for developing this training can be found at http://sites.google.com/site/individualedplans/ The Standards-Based IEP module project was funded wholly or in part by the U.S. Department of Education under cooperative agreement S283B050024. The views expressed do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Education and no official endorsement should be inferred. Credits Alabama Department of Education http://www.alsde.edu/html/sections/doc uments.asp?section=65&sort=16&footer= sections Democracy does not guarantee equality, only equality of opportunity. -- Irving Kristol.