Early Identification and Intervention
• What does it mean to have a good start in this
Today we will talk about:
The people behind the labels
Identification and Interventions
Early success in school is necessary but not
sufficient to success in later schooling.
Who are people with disabilities
• http://adaptiveenvironments.org/neada/site
• Are they so very different from those
without disabilities?
• What about the social and academic sides
of disabilities? They are both behaviors.
Just a few of many examples of
people with disabilities
Einstein (physicist), Edison (inventor), Washington
(President), Wilson (President), Rockefeller (Vice
President), Cruise (actor), Bell (inventor), Disney
(corporate entertainer), Patton (General), Glover (actor),
Von Braun (rocketry), Wright brother (inventors), Lennon
(singer), Winkler (director), Ford (actor), Smith (actor,
singer), Leno (comedian), Bush (President), Flagg
(author), “Stonewall” Jackson (General) ...
Listed in such work as “Blessed With Dyslexia” by Stacy
Poulos and LDA-Ontario by Eve Nichols.
Types of Disabilities (SC)
• Mental Disabilities (MD or ID)
• Emotional Disabilities (ED)
• Learning Disabilities (LD)
• Some extras
Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit
Hyperactive Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder...
Characteristics of high-incidence
Reading Problems Written Language Deficits Math Underachievement Nonverbal / Social Skills Deficits Attention Problems and Hyperactivity Behavioral Problems –
Physical / Motor Delays
Processing and memory
LD prevalence data
• 5.6% of all people
• Estimates as high as 15%
• Over half (52%) of all students in special education are
– Widely varies across US (RI=63%; AL=26%)
• Placement (as of 1998)
43.8% served in general education class
39.3% in resource rooms
18.8 in a separate class
<1% in separate school, hospital, residential facility
• 98% of states exclude below average intelligence and
environmental disadvantage
• 52-70% of children identified do not meet state and
federal criteria (MacMillan & Speece, 2000). Many could
be labeled MR (Gottlieb et al., 1994).
Why the increased number of
students with disabilities?
• Environmental concerns
• Changes in the home
• Instructional lapses
• Lyon said that LD is simply a “sociological
sponge to wipe up the ills of general
education” (Bolick, 2001).
Some Possible Causes of Disabilities
(no one cause exists)
• Brain Damage Some students with learning disabilities show
definite signs of brain damage, which may be the cause of their
learning problems. Some professionals believe that all children with
LD suffer from some type of brain injury or dysfunction of the central
nervous system.
• Biochemical Imbalance Some researchers believe that
biochemical disturbances within a child's body are the cause of
learning disabilities.
• Heredity Siblings and children of persons with reading disabilities
have a slightly greater than normal likelihood of having reading
problems. There is growing evidence that heredity may account for at
least some of family linkage with dyslexia (Pennington, 1995).
• Environmental Factors Some educators believe that the
majority of children labeled LD are the products of poor instruction,
cultural differences and misunderstandings, or disproportionate
Acknowledging a Disability
Parental Conflict
“Doctor” Shopping
Find the Cause
Find the Cure
Acceptance v Rejection
Parent Help
• Family Stress
Conferencing with Parents
• Trust of educators varies upon parents
• Meetings
– Take A L A P
• Avoid barriers to communication
– Watch your educational vocabulary but still explain
– avoid distance
– do not blame
– work with parents
– avoid labeling, just describe
Legal support for young children
• Head Start (1964)
• 92-424 required Head Start to include 10% of
enrollment to children with disabilities
• 99-457extends 94-142 increases support to ages 3-5
(sets intervention or econ support) and adds support 0-2
• 101-476 IDEA brings services to infants who are
exposed to substance abuse.
• 102-119 expanded 99-457 to include comprehensive
services to students with disabilities ages 3-5 and begin
IFSP and multidisciplinary evals for ages 0-2
Identification and Prediction Issues
• Prenatal
– Alpha-fetoprotein blood test to determine birth defects or Down
– Sonography (Ultrasound) to see proportions and body
– Amniocentesis to test placenta to determine a number of
• Postnatal screening
– Apgar test to determine weaknesses
• Heart rate, respiratory effect, muscle tone, physical state (e.g.
skin color)
– Evaluations with Curriculum (presented later)
• What is the predictability of such tests and evals?
Interventions: Services
• Hospital
– May provide interventions from first day
• Home and Family
– In-home interventions to account for in-home routines
• Early Childhood Intervention Center
– Aimed at working with children at center and in home
– Therapists to work with children up to 45 min/day
– Use developmentally appropriate practices (e.g. exploration)
• Day-Care and Early Childhood Center
– Usually not designed for students with disabilities
– Teachers usually need additional training
– Lead to many positive personal and social effects long term due
to abilities to make decisions
• School possible between ages 3-5
Intervention: Curriculum
• Assessments:
– Type- motor development, fine motor, speech and language,
social and emotional, self-help
– Format- transdisciplinary play (assesses in a natural setting)
• Curriculum
– Special Equipment (wheelchair, hearing aid ..)
– Segmentation and task analysis (drinking, eating ..)
– Exposure to a variety of educationally sound
experiences (phonemic and phonological)
– Highly interactive
– Explicit strategies both behaviorally and academically
Do not underestimate people
with exceptional learning needs
• http://www.stservicemovie.com/
• Will you be a Johnny for life????????
• What are the possible placements where an
infant with a disability can be served?
• How is a child assessed before birth to
determine if a disability may be present?
• How is a child tested after birth?
• What is needed to help struggling children
prepare for school?
• What is the job of the early childhood teacher?

Early Identification and Intervention