Candy – How Sweet It Is, and
Was!
A Multidisciplinary, Project-based, and Critical
Exploration of the World of Candy.
Theobroma Cacao means “food
of the gods”
. . . as it was used in the Mayan and Aztec
ceremonies.
Big Questions about Candy
What is the history of candy?
What were the first sweets in
the world?
What are some different ways
candy and cacao have been
used by people through time,
and around the world?
Holidays and Cultures
What role has candy
played in various
holiday celebrations
through time and
through various
cultures?
Economics
What role does the
candy industry play in
the economy?
Examine this question
from ancient history
through present day.
Hershey’s plant
Social Issues
What social issues, past
and present, are related
to the candy industry?
•Sustainable cocoa farming
•Biodiversity
•Agroforestry
•Labor issues
Critical Pedagogy
Where do we find
evidence of the “isms”,
such as race, class,
gender, etc., within our
studies of the candy
industry? How can we
effect change?
Health and Fitness
Is candy good for
you? What are the
connections among
candy, nutrition, and
fitness?
The Sciences
What roles do the sciences
play in candy-making –
from the plantation to the
shelf in the store?
Media Culture
What is the role of candy in
the media culture?
How can we use multiple
forms of media to effect
change in the world, as in
social issues related to candy
or fundraising with candy?
Connections
Language Arts
The Arts
Science
Multimedia
Health
Big Project Ideas
Social Studies
Global Classroom
Mathematics
Multiple Literacies
Service-Learning
Multiple Intelligences
Language Arts
• Research
• Writing
• Literature –
nonfiction, fiction,
legends, myths, poetry
• Media – film,
commercials, music
Connections
Science
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Connections
Health/Nutrition
Agriculture
Biodiversity
Nutrition
Environment
Chemistry
Physics
Microbiology
Engineering
Health/Nutrition/PE
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Connections
Carbs and fats
Nutrition bars
Obesity in children
Reading nutrition labels
Health benefits of
chocolate
Social Studies
• History –
– United States,
European, World,
Ancient Civilizations
• Geography
• Government/Law
• Social Issues Slavery, Child labor,
Environment
MONTEZUMA, the Aztec emperor, was said to drink up to 50 goblets of
chocolate per day.
Connections
Mathematics
• Economics
• Weights and
Measurements
• Graphing
Connections
The Arts
• Music
• Art
• Film
• Dance
Connections
Willy Wonka and the
Chocolate Factory
Multimedia
Alton Brown and his show, Good Eats, on
the Food Network.
Connections
• Documentaries – science,
history, social issues, etc.
• Advertising - TV, Radio
and Print Ads
• Cooking Show
• “The Apprentice”
• Make a movie
• DVD – recipes ($$$)
• Web site
• Power Point
Service-Learning
Candy sales to raise
money for a cause – for
example, Hurricane
Katrina victims, or for
children who are
victims of slavery or
forced labor on cacao
plantations.
Connections
Global Classroom
• Collaborate with
students in other
countries
• Write to candy makers
and get samples from
around the world –
compare wrappers for
same candies
• Global research
Connections
Big Project Ideas
• Candy Fair & Museum
• Film Festival – premiere
student-made films of
various genre
•Apprentice-style project
•Cookbook – print & DVD
Connections
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Documentaries
TV commercials
Cooking Show
TV show
Cooking Show
I always encourage teachers to
have their students create,
videotape, edit, save on DVD
and then sell their shows just
the way Alton Brown of Good
Eats does.
His shows incorporate sciences,
history, geography, math and so
much more!
This would be a great project
for the Candy theme.
Read more at
www.21stCenturySchools.com/Cooking_Show.htm
The Thermochemical Joy of Cooking - This bud’s for
you: Brown suits up to show how plant sugars are
released as starch during cooking.
The Apprentice
Mar’s Candy Bar Sale “As a chocolate lover, Trump took
great pleasure in describing the
next task. The candidates were
challenged to work with M&M/Mars
to sell M-Azing, their new M&Msfilled candy bar. “
http://www.nbc.com/nbc/The_Apprentice_2/omarosas_commentary/index.shtmlhttp
://www.lewrockwell.com/latulippe/apprentice.jpg
Resources
Research:
How Sweet It Is (and Was) – the History of Candy, by Ruth Freeman Swain. Fascinating
book, illustrated as a children’s book, but filled with extremely interesting stories of the
history of candy, explaining how candy plays an important part in holiday celebrations and
day-to-day life. I recommend this book as an introduction to a unit on candy. 2003, Holiday
House, New York.
Candy, the Sweet History, by Beth Kimmerle – a beautiful book, must-have for a unit on
candy, has lots of information on hard-to-find local favorites made by small, family-owned
factories, filled with timelines and fun candy facts. Beautiful pictures. 2003, Collector’s
Press, Inc.
Chocolate – the Sweet History, by Beth Kimmerle - details chocolate’s history, highlighting
long-standing companies, tales of family recipes, company mergers, and advent of chocolate
marketing. Historical details, including chocolate’s Aztec origins and the mythology
surrounding the cocoa plant, a timelines depicting the development of the chocolate trade.
Beautiful photos. 2005, Collector’s Press, Inc.
The New Taste of Chocolate – a Cultural & Natural History of Cacao with Recipes, by
Marieel E. Presilla. A rich history of the science and history of the cacao bean. Includes a
collection of recipes from internationally renowned pastry chefs and chocolatiers.
Beautifully illustrated. 2001, Ten Speed Press.
Sweets – a history of candy, by Tim Richardson. This book considers the question of crosscultural confections. Each section ends with a special section devoted to a traditional flavor
favorite, such as Marshmallows, Marzipan, Licorice, Turkish delight, Baklava, and
Chewing Gum. An excellent resource, full of details about the science, history, etc., of
candy. A must-have resource for a unit of study on candy.
Candy freak – a journey through the chocolate underbelly of America, by Steve Almond.
Another excellent must-have for research on the history and science of candy. 2004, A
Harvest Book, Harcourt, Inc.
Very Fun, Slightly Sticky Stuff to do with Candy – Projects, Recipes, Games, by Barbara
Kane. 2002, Klutz, Inc. www.klutz.com
Children’s Literature
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, by Roald Dahl
More to come . . . .
Films
Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, starring Gene Wilder, 1971.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, starring Johnny Depp, 2005.
More to come . . .
Economics of Candy
Economic Impact related
to –
• Agriculture
• Marketing
• Transportation –
– Shipping raw products
– Transport from factory
Confectioners
Jelly Belly
Hershey’s
Mars
Cadbury
Nestle
Kraft
Factories
The machines, the processes, the people.
From Factory to Consumer
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Trucks
Roads
Taxes
Labor
Marketing
Natural resources –
steel, oil, rubber
Agroforestry: Cultivated
Biodiversity
Agroforestry is the intentional
cultivation of trees and shrubs in
combination with agricultural crops or
forage. It also includes tree and shrub
plantings on farms and ranches that
improve habitat value for humans and
wildlife, or that provide woody plant
products in addition to crops and forage.
Agroforestry provides income for the
landowner as well as conservation and
environmental benefits for the land.
Common Agroforestry Practices
Riparian buffer strips
Stream bank
bioengineering
Specialty crop
systems
Alley cropping;
windbreaks
Forest farming
Living snow
fences
Grazing and timber
systems
Wildlife habitat
plantings
Waste disposal
systems
Multiple Literacies
for the 21st century
Connections
Visual
Literacy
Use of flow charts, graphic organizers,
photography, video, web sites, clip art,
photos, drawings, works of art, . . . .
Aural Literacy
Incorporating speech,
music, song, and sound
effects into products.
Cyberliteracy
Using the Internet to locate valid
information in their research.
Using Internet to connect with other
students, factories, agencies,
organizations, and other experts via
email.
Ecoliteracy
Cacao Tree (above) and inside
the ripe pods are the cacao
tree's seeds: the cocoa beans
(right).
Emotional Literacy
We all have strong emotional
connections to candy. What are
some of your favorite childhood
memories of candy ? Where did
you buy it? What was your
favorite candy? What was your
grandmother’s favorite?
Financial Literacy
• Candy industry – bigger than the steel
industry!
•Labor issues on cacao plantations
•Production, distribution and
transportation
•Employment
•Advertising and marketing
Media Literacies
The ability to analyze, evaluate, critique
and produce media messages:
•Candy in the movies and television
•Commercials – TV, radio, print, etc.
•Create your version of The
Apprentice –
•Cooking show and DVD
Information Literacy
•Sorting through and identifying valid information.
•Knowing how to find and use primary and secondary
information
•Interpreting data.
•Creating and dispensing information
Multicultural Literacy
Exploring candy from
cultures around the world –
they are NOT the same!
Various cultural uses of
candy through time.
Collaborative research with
students from other cultures
and countries.
See http://www.21stcenturyschools.com/Global_Classroom.htm
A Quiz for Those Who Think They Know Their
Chocolate
Go to http://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/chocolate/chocolate_facts.php or view it on our Chocolate Quiz PowerPoint
Multiple Intelligences
Connections
http://www.multi-intell.com//MI_chart.html
Vocabulary
This is a tiny beginning of a list . . . There will be many categories.
Nutrition/Health Vocabulary
Antioxidants
Stearic acid
Carbohydrates
Cocoa butter
Blood vessel
Saturated fats
Cardiovascular system
Trans fats
Flavonoids
Neurotransmitters
Metabolism
Serotonin
Artery
Endorphin
Blood platelet
Sucrose
Lipoproteins
Cholesterol
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Candy – How Sweet It Is, and Was!