Allegory
Story, poem, fable, song, or play
that also acts as an extended
metaphor for a larger concept
For example: Harry Potter series
is an allegory of the eternal
struggle between good and evil
Alliteration
Alliteration involves the
repetition of the same first
sound in a group of words
or line of poetry:
The sun sank slowly
Allusion
A reference, explicit or
implicit, to a place, person,
or event. The reference may
be historical, literary,
religious, or mythological
Assonance
Assonance is the repetition
of similar vowel sounds in
neighboring words.
An example is sweet dreams
Connotation
The emotional associations
implied or suggested by a
word: these associations
extend the meaning of a word
beyond its dictionary meaning
to have a positive or a
negative effect on the meaning
Consonance
Consonance is the
repetition of similar
consonants within words.
An example is
wonder/wander
Denotation
The precise, literal
meaning or limited
dictionary meaning of
a word
Diction
The choice of words
an author uses to
reflect the audience or
voice of character
Flashback
Authour interrupts the plot
of the story to recreate an
incident of an earlier time.
Often used to provide
additional information to the
reader.
Foreshadowing
Future events are suggested
by the authour before they
happen
Hyperbole
A deliberate
exaggeration for effect
She died a thousand
deaths
Imagery
Language which describes in
great detail and paints a
vivid picture in the reader’s
mind.
Jane gulped down a clear, cool,
refreshing glass of ice-water.
Situational Irony
When the expected outcome
of a situation is different from
the actual outcome.
In To Kill A Mockingbird, Boo
Radley, formerly feared, becomes
a hero.
Dramatic Irony
Contrast between what the
character thinks to be true and
what we (reader) know to be
true.
In Finding Nemo, the viewer
knows that Marlin is on his way to
save Nemo, even though Nemo is
giving up hope.
Verbal Irony
Contrast between what is
said and what is meant
(sarcasm).
A student arrives late to Ms.
Gorska’s English class.
Ms. Gorska: “Thanks for
arriving on time, Johnny.”
Metaphor
A metaphor is a comparison
that likens one thing to
something else, suggesting
that they share a common
quality
Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia refers to
words that imitate sounds.
Hiss, thud, crash, hush, and
twitter are examples of
onomatopoeic words
Oxymoron
The deliberate side by
side placement of words
that seem contradictory in
meaning
Ex: jumbo shrimp
Pathetic Fallacy
The attribution of human
emotions or
characteristics to
inanimate objects or to
nature
Personification
Personification occurs
when non-human things
(animals, objects, and
ideas) are described as if
they were human
Simile
A simile is a
comparison that uses
the words “like” or “as”
Symbol
A symbol is a person,
place, thing or event
that stands for or
represents an abstract
idea
Syntax
The deliberate way in
which the author
arranges certain words,
phrases or sentences to
create a desired effect
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Allegory Story, poem, fable, song, or play that also acts