TEACHING PROCESSES AND YOUNG
CHILDREN
(Chapter 6)
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani
LANGUAGE-LEARNING AND
CHILDREN LEARNING STRATEGIES

Although there are many variation in the way
strategies that are used by most of the children.
Those strategies differ with the langue level of a
child.
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children learn the language, there are underlying
TODDLER LANGUAGE-LEARNING
STRATEGIES
Receptive Strategies: When is a word a word??

Before children can recognize words, they must
gain a sense of how sounds go together to form
syllables of the native language.
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani


Infants may use lexical, syntactic, phonological and
stress-pattern cues in combination to break the
speech down and aid interpretation.

As a result, children will be able to locate word
boundaries and hence speech can be recognized as a
series of distinct units, but still meaningless words.
( around 11 months old)
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani
(e.g. Clusters n English and Korean)
IT IS NOT ENOUGH!! HOW CHILDREN
LEARN WORDS ????

Linguistics do not really know but they tried to
that certain lexical principles or assumptions are
being used.
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infer from the language behaviors of toddlers
 Three
fundamental assumptions for
toddlers:

1) People use words to refer to entities. (i.e.
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Reference Principle)
- People refer to entities. Words do not just “go with”
but “stand for” entities to which they refer.
- As a result, a toddler must be able to determine the
speaker’s intention to refer, the linguistic patterns used,
and the entities.
a subprinciple is the mutual exclusivity
assumption.
presupposing that each referent has a unique
symbol.
For example, a reference can not be both a “cup” and
a “spoon”
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani
It guides initial word learning by

toddlers assumes that there is some similarity,
such as shared perceptual attributes that enable
use of one symbol for more than one referent.

For example,

A “cup” will refer to the child’s cup and those
other cups for other children.
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani

2) Words are extendable. (i.e. Extendability
Principle)


3) A given word refers to the whole entity,
not its parts. ( i.e. Whole-object Principle)
A word refer to a whole entity rather than to a
lexicon.
For example,
“doggie” refer to the dog not his fur, leg or color.
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part or attribute. In fact parts are rare in toddler
Three additional assumption may be needed for the
toddler to form hypothetical definitions quickly and
to use syntactic information.
4) Categorical Assumption.
(18 months old) infants extend a word to related entities.

They classify those entities based on the perceptual
attributes, function, and communication characteristics
such as shortness and length.
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

Unlike the Extendibility Principle, the
Categorical Assumption goes beyond the basic-
entities.
For example, a “cup” might be extended to all the
objects that hold liquid.
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level referents of the same kind to categories of


5) Novel Name-nameless Assumption.
Infants will link a symbol and referent after only

In other words, a child assumes tat a novel (new)
word is linked to a previously unnamed referent.

Patents aid this by pointing to, holding, etc.
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a few exposures.


The Conventionality Assumption.
Infants expect meanings to be expressed by

in other words, adults do not change the symbol
with each use. As a result, a ‘car’ will be called
car all the time.
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others in consistent conventional forms.
EXPRESSIVE STRATEGIES
Children use FOUR expressive strategies to
acquire the language.
Hypothesis testing
Interrogative utterances
Selective imitation
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Evocative utterances

Evocative utterance

It is a toddler learning strategy in which the child

After the child did that, the adult should either
confirm or negate the child’s selection of words.

As a result, the child either maintain or modify her
speech.
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name entities.


Hypothesis-testing
It is a toddler language learning strategy in
which a child seeks confirmation of the name of
then posing a yes/no question.

A responding adult may confirm or deny the
hypothesis.
For example,
“Doggie
“
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the entity by naming it with raising intonation,

Interrogative testing
It is a toddler learning strategy in which a child
attempts to learn the name of an entity by asking

Those requests for confirmation are often found
in the pointing and vocalizing behavior of infants
prior to first words.
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“What? That? Wassat?”

Selective Imitation
Why selective??
Because children do not imitate indiscriminately.
Adult: Daddy home.
Child: Daddy home.
===
Adult: The doggie is sick.
Child: Doggie sick
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For example;

Role of the selective imitation

It is a toddler learning strategy in which a child
repeat part or a whole utterance of another speaker.
Imitation is used to acquire morphemes, words,
syntactic-semantic structures.

Usually, imitation is more mature than production
capacities of children and this why it is used as a
learning strategy.
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

The role of imitation as an aid in acquisition of
language is very complex.
Why?
Imitation of other is important for vocabulary
growth.

Self-imitation is important for the transition
from single-word utterance to multiple-word
language production.
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
After age 2, the amount of imitation decreases.

At the single-word level, selective imitation is
important for vocabulary growth.
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

Imitation may also serve as a conversational role,
enabling the child to relate his/her utterance to
those of more mature language users.
Adult: See Johnny ride his bike?
Child: Ride bike. Bike fall.
Adult: No. He won’t fall.
Child: No Fall. No go boom.
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani
For example;

The child uses two strategies of revision: focus
operation and substitution operation.

Focus Operation: When a child focuses on one
- requires minimal linguistics skills.
- predominate till age 3

Substitution Operation: when the child
repeats only a portion of the utterance and
replaces words.
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or more words and repeat them

Formulas: memorized verbal routine or
unanalyzed chunk of language often used in
everyday conversation.
When the child ends all his conversation in :See yea,
bye!”
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For example;

Both selective imitation and formulas provide
“scaffolding” for a child and reduce the langue
process load because they aid linguistic analysis.
Evocative, interrogative hypothesis testing
enable the child to further participate in
conversation and to explore and test new words
and utterances.
Miss. Mona AL-Kahtani

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Language-learning and teaching processes and young …