Teaching English Writing
張芳琪
國立嘉義大學外國語言學系
October 3, 2007
Contents
1.Writings by EFL learners
2. The best method
of teaching writing
2
Contents
3.Writing in Grade One Classes
4. How do we teach writing
in Mandarin?
3
Contents
5. Basic elements needed for writing
6. English writing activities
letter→word →sentence →paragraph
4
1. Writing by EFL learners
5
Writing is an activity of
我手寫我口
我口說我想
6
“what next”
strategy
Sharples (1999)
7
“what next” strategy
作者將不正式的口語敘述
直接轉化成書面字
成為一篇文章
8
Things writers need
in order to write
9
Four things writers need
in order to write
Ideas
Words
Spelling Abilities
Structures
10
2. The best way
of teaching writing
11
How should we teach writing?
No cut-and-dried answer
However, starts from listening,
speaking, reading and then writing.
Integrating four skills at the beginning?
12
Patterns
Learners need to hear patterns.
Learners need to say patterns.
Learners need to read patterns.
Learners will write patterns.
13
Integrating writing earlier
In order to produce to express ideas,
they will be more aware of the print.
This is to raise the print awareness,
to benefit reading and writing.
14
3. Writing in Grade-one Classes
15
Production shared for i + 1
Krashen
The input hypothesis
Comprehensible input
i+1
16
Share
i+1→i
Drawing → initial letter
Letter → word & mechanics
word → sentence & mechanics
sentence → paragraph & mechanicals
17
The best way
of teaching writing
The teacher’s best methods are
flexibility and support.
This means responding to the specific
instructional context, particularly the
age, first language and experience of
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peer involvement, prior texts,
useful feedback and guidance
in the writing process.
19
Though not all students compose
in the same way, they need realistic
strategies for generating plans,
researching topic information,
rough drafting, and gradually
refining both content and form.
20
How to learn?
Writing is learned, rather than taught.
21
Learn from reading
Be a good reader to learn to write!
22
Q: read a lot, how come cannot write well?
Two kinds of Reading
Reading for message
Reading for forms—
spelling, grammar and language use
23
Two kinds of Listening
Listening for message
Listening for forms—
pronunciation, grammar
and language use
24
4. How do we teach
writing in Mandarin?
25
寫作的語法語用知覺
國語語文活動為例(寫作)
語詞抄寫
造詞
造句— 短句克漏字 連一連
段落克漏字 短句加長
單詞造句
重組
先造詞再造句
26
寫作的語法語用知覺
國語語文活動為例
認識句型
認識標點符號
*用字知覺
段落結構和課文組織
27
寫作的語法語用知覺
用字知覺
還好
東西
經過這次事件 那個人比較看清
自己的那個什麼東西的
他的父母從來不對他說 不可以
等等等等的
28
Passive vocabulary
vs.
Active vocabulary
被動詞彙: 聽懂的 看懂的
主動詞彙: 說出的 寫出的
29
Speaking Retell
and
Writing Retell
30
寫作的語法語用知覺
國語語文活動為例
認識詞性
作文指導
(*題眼 主題句 論述)
認識文體
文章病句
31
寫作的語法語用知覺
題眼 (theme)
My father and I
My angry teacher
My teacher
Ways to avoid having too much sun
32
寫作的語法語用知覺
主題句 (topic sentence)
To avoid having too much sun,
you can wear a hat, a long-sleeved
shirt, sun glasses and sun block.
33
寫作的語法語用知覺
論述 (supporting details)
1. Wearing a hat can avoid having
too much sun.
1.1 Hat can prevent your face
from having too much sun.
1.2 Some hats can prevent your
neck from having too much sun.
34
寫作的語法語用知覺
論述 (supporting details)
2. Wearing a long-sleeved shirt can
prevent having too much sun.
2.1 Long-sleeved T-shirts can cover
more area.
2.2 Long-sleeved T-shirts can suck
more sweater and won’t let you
feel sticky.
35
寫作的語法語用知覺
論述 (supporting details)
3. Wearing sun glasses can avoid
having too much sun.
3.1 Wearing sun glasses can prevent
your eyes from sun.
3.2 You can see clear in the sun.
36
寫作的語法語用知覺
論述 (supporting details)
4. Wearing sun block can avoid
having too much sun.
4.1
4.2
37
5. Things writers need
in order to write
38
Four things writers need
in order to write
Ideas
Words
Spelling Abilities
Structures
39
For Ideas
40
口述作文
•
You help
generating ideas
Instill ideas
Sorting ideas
Organizing ideas
Presenting ideas
41
Using Senses
Concrete
Description (memory of senses)
Sense of Sight (colors, shapes)
Senses of Feeling and Hearing
Senses of Direction (using maps)
Abstract
42
Concrete
1.Description
2.Description + Imagination
3.Research + Imagination
4.Role-playing + Imagination
Abstract
43
For Words
44
Oral Period for Ideas/Words
1.Group discussion
2.Record ideas on the board
3.Record words on the board
4.Record sentences on the board
45
They need words, so you record
group discussion on the board
as the preceding examples, or
you provide word banks.
46
A Topic Web
big
fun
rain
running
umbrella
47
Writing on rain
The rain is big.
I have an umbrella.
I am running.
It is fun.
48
A paragraph on rain
The rain is big,
but I have an umbrella,
and I am running.
It is fun to run in the rain
with an umbrella.
49
Word Writing
Brainstorming and Listing
50
Story Mapping
for
Word Writing
51
Word Banks
1. A noun vocabulary bank
2. A manipulative language
vocabulary bank
3. A vocabulary bank for
memorization
63
Vocabulary Bank 1
A noun vocabulary bank:
A word list with a particular theme:
color words, family-members,
animals, seasons, etc.
64
Vocabulary Bank 2
A manipulative language
vocabulary bank:
Verbs, adjectives, prepositional
phrases, adverbial phrases, etc.
for creating sentences
65
Vocabulary Bank 3
A vocabulary bank for
memorization:
the full text of poems,
song lyrics, chants, etc.
66
Vocabulary for memorization
A class list
A personal list
67
A personal list
personal choice
(advanced/slow learners)
words (of wrong spelling)
in personal writing
68
For structures
sentence structure
paragraph structure
69
Structure 1
Lists: the simplest writing
structures
70
List
Example 1
A Shopping List
71
“I can…”
by
__________
In this circle, draw what you can do.
I can ________________________.
I can ________________________.
I can ________________________.
72
Structure 2
Frame Sentences:
the second simple writing structure
Frame sentences are the children’s
responses to simple questions.
73
Frame Sentences
The question:
The frame response:
What can you see? I can see (a, an, the) __.
What can you do?
I can __________.
What’s this?
It’s (a, an) ______.
How many…are there? There are _______.
74
Frame Sentences
I have…
I don’t have…
I like…
I don’t like…
Brown Bear, what do you see?
This is the way I wash my face…
75
Some Activities
76
My Hands by __________
Trace your hand in the box.
These are things that I can do
with my hands.
I can _______.
I can________.
touch
dance
run
?
77
“I like to…”
by
_________
In this circle, draw something you like.
I like to ________________________.
I like to ________________________.
I like to ________________________.
78
Word Writing—
Activities on name
1.Write their names on
their belongs.
2. Make a class book with
photos and names.
79
3. Make a class birthday book
with names and birth dates.
4. Make a class book with photos,
names and a short description
of each child.
(description in words
or in a short sentence,
e.g. He is tall. She has long hair.)
80
Use questions for
generating ideas and seeing
the sentence structure
81
A writing on ‘rain’
Rain, rain, go away.
Come again some other day.
Little Johnny wants to play.
Rain, rain, go away.
82
Questions
1.Who doesn’t like rain?
Johnny doesn’t like rain.
2. Why doesn’t he like rain?
He wants to play.
3. What does he tell the rain?
_______________________
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Write something about the chant.
Little Johnny doesn’t like the rain
because he wants to play. He tells
the rain to go away and come
again some other day.
84
Pal Survey 1
1.Think about your best friend.
My best friend is Tom________.
2. How old is he or she?
He is 5 years old.____________.
3. What is her or his favorite food?
His favorite food is fish.______.
4. What is her or his favorite game?
*baseball
.
85
Pal Survey 3
Now use your answers to the
questions to write a short
paragraph about your best friend.
86
Advanced Writing 1
Reading for writing
(paragraph structure)
87
Reading for writing
Read to learn the writing pattern
88
Read for the main idea
Not all honey tastes the same. This is
because bees use flower nectar to make
honey. The flavor depends on what type
of flower the bee used. Some honey
tastes like clovers. Honey can also taste
like orange blossoms. There are as many
flavors of honey as there are types of
flowers.
89
Sentence
Main Detail
idea
1. Bees use flower nectar
to make honey.
2. The flavor of honey
depends on what type of
flower the bee used.
3. Some honey tastes like
clovers.
90
Recycling
Cross out the sentence that does
not go with the main idea.
Main idea: Recycling helps us to
reuse things.
1. Throwing everything away creates too much trash.
2. It’s important to take the trash out every day.
3. There is no place to keep all the trash, so we
need to recycle.
91
Read and Write
(find the theme and the topic sentence)
My playful pet dog
I like my pet dog because he is playful.
If I throw a ball, my dog runs to get it.
My dog enjoys going for walks and
running in the park. My dog has lots
of energy and is always ready to play.
He is a lot of fun.
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(find the topic sentence and write the topic)
Title: _________________________
I like my pet bird because he is funny.
I can teach my pet bird to say funny
things. My bird makes funny noises
and flaps his wings. He really makes
me laugh.
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Themed Journals
My delicious breakfast
My angry teacher
94
Learning logs
Today in math class, we learned the
time tables, for example, …
95
Reading logs
This story is about three pigs and
The big bad wolf…
96
Question and Discussion
97
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