Unit 12 Time to Take It Easy Lesson One Overview • • • • Pre-reading questions Getting to know the new words Background information A global picture Pre-reading Questions • What is time? • What is leisure? • What is the Chinese’s attitude towards work and leisure? • What’s the Chinese’s attitude towards time? • How is the Chinese’s attitude different from that of the westerners? Patterns of Time • Linear Pattern past present • Cyclical Pattern heaven earth hell future Quotes on Time • Time is money. — Occidental saying • No man in a hurry is quite civilized. — Oriental saying • Time is human; nature knows only change. — Occidental saying • Consider the past and you will know the present. — Oriental saying Getting to know the new words • • • • • Reading aloud (pa.168) Meaning and use Word derivation Word association Word differentiation Meaning & Use • Siesta: <n.> an afternoon rest or nap, esp one taken during the hottest hours of the day in a hot climate (usu considered longer than a ‘nap’) – After lunch they would take a ~. – I went upstairs for my afternoon ~. • Synonyms: catnap; snooze; forty winks; a bit of shut-eye; <infml.> zizz; <fml.> slumber Meaning & Use • Easy-going: <adj.> relaxed and tolerant in attitude or manner – Brown was friendly and ~. – I don’t like his laziness and his ~ ways. 我不喜欢他那种懒惰的松松垮垮的样子。 – The book was written in a simple and ~ form. 这本书写得质朴而流畅。 • Cf: out-going Meaning & Use • Govern: <v.> control, influence or regulate – Income must ~ expenditure. – Chance sometimes ~s the outcome of the game. – In Britain the sovereign reigns but does not ~. 在英国，君主称王，但不治理国事。 • Government: the system or the group of people with the authority to govern • Governance: [U] the action or manner of governing a state, or organization Meaning & Use • The Continent: <n.> western Europe not including Britain and Ireland 欧洲大陆 • Continental: <n./adj.> 欧洲大陆的/人 This expression is based on the old idea that Britain is separated from, and very different from, the rest of Europe. It is typically used when talking about European countries as a place for holidays, but it is now becoming less common. Meaning & Use • Unstructured: <adj.> without formal organization or structure – The discussion was ~. 讨论不是预先组织好的。 – We danced in completely ~ groupings. 我们完全随意地结对跳舞。 • Antonym: structured – As the trip wore on, I worried less and less about ~ time. 随着旅程的进展，我对严格安排 的时间越来越不在乎了。 Meaning & Use • Downtime <n.> = down time : time when one is not working or active – Downtime in Hollywood can cost a lot of money. – Everyone needs down time to unwind. 每个人都需要闲暇时间来放松自己。 • Antonym: uptime <U> time during which a machine, esp a computer, is in operation Meaning & Use • Consume: <v.> use up – This process ~s enormous amounts of energy. – These factories ~d 600,000 tons of coal a day. • Contemplation: <n.> deep reflective thought 沉思；深思熟虑；盘算 – The road is too busy for leisurely ~ of the scenery. – He would retire to his room for study or ~. Meaning & Use • Account: <n.> – The ~s show that they have spent more than they received. 账面显示 – He has ~s with several banks. – She opened a savings ~ at the building society. • Spiritual: <adj.> of the spirit rather than the body (with religious connotation) • Spiritualism: the belief that the dead may send messages to living people usually through a medium Word Association • 物质文明 • Material civilization; High living standards; Sound economic development • 精神文明 • Cultural and ideological progress; Advanced culture and ethics Word Association • ill afford; ill-treated; ill-equipped; ill served; ill at ease ill at ease and not his usual self • He seemed __________ during the party. ill-equipped to cope with the • He seems to me ____________ responsibility. ill served • They live in an area __________ by public transport. ill-treated • These animals had been grossly ___________. ill afford • We can ___________ to lose another member of staff. Word Derivation N. contemplation V. contemplate account account rebel rebel edition/ editor edit A. contemplative accountable rebellious editorial N. government consumption relaxation structure /governor V. govern consume relax structure A. governing consuming relaxing structured Word Derivation N. Europe France Spain A. European French Spanish N. Italy Britain America A. Italian British American N. Sweden Switzerland Norway A. Swedish Swiss Norwegian Word Differentiation • Poll vs. Toll poll • The latest opinion ______ puts the Democrats in the lead. • Half the people polled ______ said they would pay more for environmentally-friendly food. • There is usually heavy death _____ on the toll roads at Christmas. Word Differentiation • Consume vs. Use • Arguing about details consumed _________ many hours of the committee’s valuable time. • The fire soon consumed _________ the wooden buildings. uses a computer to do its • The company ______ accounts. • The crowd refused to move, so the police use had to ______ tear gas. Word Differentiation • Idealistic vs. Spiritual • He was full of youthful _________. idealism • He’s too much of an ________ idealist for this government. • She’s English, but India is her spiritual _______ home. • We are concerned about your ________ spiritual welfare. Word Differentiation • Staff vs. Stuff • The manager turned a blind eye when his ______ staff were late. • It is a hospital ______ staffed with 20 doctresses. • What’s this sticky ______ stuff on the floor? • Have you brought your swimming _____? stuff stuff of • Such experiences are the (very) _____ life. Word Differentiation • Contemplation vs. Meditation • He reached his decision after a good deal of ______________. contemplation • She bought three dresses in __________ contemplation of her trip. • She found peace through yoga and ____________. meditation • He was deep in meditation ___________ and didn’t see me come in. Background Information • European/Continental work ethic: • Traditionally the Continental Europeans consider easy life very important and they take vacation or holidays as their holy right which should never be taken away. Once they feel the right being intruded, they will regain it through/on strikes. • The European Union Directive authorizes the continentals to enjoy at least 4 weeks paid-leave annually. And in many European countries, the actual paid holidays are longer than this. Background Information • American work ethic: • Continental American work ethic largely derives from puritanical belief based on strict moral and religious principles, including hard work, selfreliance and using time for practical purposes. • This puritanical influence seems still to persist in Anglo-Americans. They are brought up hearing people saying, “Time is money” and “Don’t waste so much time.” • That might help explain why fast food restaurants, one-stop gas stations, and microwave ovens originated in the United States. Background Information • In Britain: • Britain is the only country which has increased its weekly working hours in the past decade. • Every worker in the UK work 1673 hours yearly, which means about 100 hours more than that of the European Union. • A research done in 2003 shows that 16% of the British workers complained them overworking for 48 hours a week. A Global Picture • What type of writing is the text? • What is the author’s purpose of writing? • What do you think of the nationality of the author? • Who are the intended readers? • How many parts does the text fall into? • What is the main idea of each part? Structure of the Text • Part I (para.1-2): – Introduction — a sharp contrast • Part II (para.3-4): – Work ethic — a major difference • Part III (para.5-8): – Analysis of the American attitude to work • Part IV (para.9-12): – Oliver James’s view about time • Part V (pa.13-14): – Conclusion Poem Appreciation • The following poem was said to be written by a 7-year-old girl named Amy Bruce dying of lung cancer and a brain tumor, though some people claimed that it was actually written by a doctor in New York Hospital. Slow Dance Have you ever watched kids on a merry-go-round Or listened to the rain slapping on the ground? Ever followed a butterfly’s erratic flight? Or gazed at the sun into the fading night? You’d better slow down Don’t dance so fast Time is short The music won’t last Poem Slow Dance Do you run through each day on the fly? When you ask “How are you?” do you hear the reply? When the day is done, do you lie in your bed With the next hundred chores running through your head? You’d better slow down Don’t dance so fast Time is short The music won’t last Poem Slow Dance Ever told your child, We’ll do it tomorrow And in your haste, not see his sorrow? Ever lost touch, Let a good friendship die ‘Cause you never had time to call and say “Hi”? You’d better slow down Don’t dance so fast Time is short The music won’t last Poem Slow Dance When you run so fast to get somewhere You miss half the fun of getting there When you worry and hurry through your days, It is like an unopened gift… Thrown away… Life is not a race. Do take it slower Hear the music Before the song is over. If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Thank you! Lesson 2: Overview • • • • • Word review Comprehension check Notes on the text Language points Sentence highlights Word Review • In a Newsweek poll p___ last week, 85 percent of Americans said there should be equal rights for gays and lesbians in terms of job opportunities . • The interview was noisy and unstructured u_________. • She was lost in contemplation c______________ of the scene in front of her. siesta • Lots of people were taking a short s_____ in the shade. Word Review • He sees no signs of improvement in the continental economy. UK and c__________ • Network and server downtime d________ is costing companies hundreds of thousands of dollars in business and productivity losses. accounts show we have spent more • The a________ than we received. easygoing teacher often allowed his • The e_________ student extra time for assignments. Word Review • Her __________ rebellious (rebel) attitude is just a reaction against her strict upbringing. Governor (govern) George welcomed • _________ the Queen to Hawaii with a lei of orchids. • He worked on the paper for fifty years, editor (edit). latterly as its political _______ • Industrialized countries should reduce consumption (consume). their energy ____________ Word Review • Hard work is essential. But there's also a time for rest and _________ relaxation (relaxing). • An accountant __________ (account) is a person whose job is to keep financial accounts. • Mr. Simpson is a dedicated ________ and thoughtful teacher. • Some customers need 99% or better uptime ____ (downtime) from their mainframe computers. 主机运行时间 Idiom Review • The whole company ___________ shuts down for 3 weeks' summer holiday. • Now no use getting fussed. Take ___________. it easy average I receive five emails each day. • On __________ • Johnny had never been to a big party before and he was ___________. ill at ease in nature to be • It is not really ____ her _______ aggressive. Idiom Review waste time on trifles. • Don't ______ • ______ Take time to pull yourself away from all the noise and just look around you. killed time • While I was waiting for her, I ______ by looking in the show window. • It is ______ high time that the legal profession reformed itself. • Even in group activities, there is always unstructured time left for individuals to ____________ do what they please. Comprehension Check • What does summer mean to the continental Europeans? • Do the British and the Americans have the same idea? • The first two paragraphs draw a picture of sharp contrast between busy Americans (and Britons) and easy-going continental Europeans. Europe Notes • Europe – Britain – Spain – Italy – Sweden The Department of Labor • The US Department of Labor（劳工部）is the US government department concerned with how workers are treated by employers. It examines subjects such as fair wages, safety, and the number of hours worked each week. Language Points • Take it easy (title) – Take it easy. If you don’t rest enough, you won’t perform. – Take it easy, we’ve got plenty of time. • Shut down (para.1) – The factory was ~ down for lack of funds. – The power station has been ~ down for essential maintenance. Language Points • Sleep through (para.1) – I don’t know how you could have slept through that dreadful noise – The alarm clock went off, but I just slept through it. 闹钟响了，但我没醒，仍在睡觉。 • Cool (para.1) – He loved the ~ of the early morning. – She left the midday sun for the ~ of the shade. Language Points • On average (para.2) – We receive 20 letters a day on ~. – On ~, people who don’t smoke are healthier than people who do. • Compare with (para.2) – Sales were modest and cannot ~ with the glory days of 1999. – A pencil is not to be ~d with a knife. Metonymy 借代 • Summer is coming, and much of Europe is getting ready to… France spends… • Metonymy means to substitute one thing for another with which it is closely associated. – A pen is mightier than a sword. – The blue eye is coming. – He had to earn his daily bread by doing odd jobs. Comprehension Check • What do you know about the American work ethic? • How do American people feel about their hard work? • What is one of the big arguments within the European Union? • According to the Americans, your work represents yourself. If you pay little attention to your work, you’re neglecting yourself. Note: Britons (para.4) • The British people seldom use “Briton” or “Britisher”, the former is mainly used in the titles of newspaper articles, such as “THREE BRITONS DIE IN AIR CRASH”, whereas the latter is used only by the Americans and people in other countries. In fact, there is no such a word that may be used to address people of the UK as a whole, so the British people would rather refer to themselves as the Whales, the Irish or the English. If necessary, they would use the adjective, as in “He’s British”. Language Points • Ethic (para.3) – It is against medical ~s for physicians to advertise. – There should be a code of business ~s which indicates how clients are to be served. • Govern (para.4) – You should ~ your temper. – The rights of our citizens are ~ed by charter. Comprehension Check • What issue are Americans finding time to think about? • What does Al Gini mean when he says “…my future is shorter than my past… I’ve got to take time now because, like it or not, time will be taken away from me”? • According to Professor Gini, what is the Americans’ view about free time? And does he agree with them? Professor Al Gini • What is the nationality of Professor Al Gini? • What is his book mainly about? • Refer to note 5 on page 169. • …the fine / art of doing nothing. Loyola University Chicago • It is a private Jesuit（耶稣会） university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. • The university was established in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College by the Roman Catholic religious order of the Society of Jesus and bears the name of the Jesuit patron, Saint Ignatius of Loyola（圣依纳爵）. • It is the largest Jesuit University in the United States. • The University as a whole was ranked the 50th best value in the country. School Gate Saint Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) • A Spanish priest (missionary) who used to be a military man • He established the Catholic Society of Jesus and became the first head of it. Statue of St Ignatius Loyola Sentence Highlight • … my future is shorter than my past… I’ve got to take time now because, like it or not, time will be taken away from me. (para.5) • I’ve already spent most of my life in this world… I have to do things leisurely now because, no matter whether I like it or not, my time will soon run out. Sentence Highlight • The real problem… is not so much work but the Western attitude to time. (para.6) • The real problem has less to do with work than with the Western attitude to time. Sentence Highlight • Unstructured time, dead time, downtime, wasted time — it makes us ill at ease. (para.7) • Either time spent without proper planning or without doing anything or simply wasted makes us nervous and uncomfortable. Sentence Highlight • Yet the idea that time should be spent doing something runs very deep in Anglo-American culture. (para.8) • Yet the idea… is deep-rooted in… • Anglo-American: American who is descended from a British family • Here we have a metaphor in which “AngloAmerican culture” is compared to a river, and “the idea” is compared to “a kind of curent”. – Still water runs deep. 静水深流。 Language Points • Take time (para.5) – The workmen seem to be taking their time over repairing the road! – There’s no hurry; take your time! • Like it or not (para.5) – Like it or not, the Internet is becoming an indispensable part of our life. – He should be made to realize, like it or not, that he is already a bit too old for the job. Language Points • Take away from (para.5): remove – His refusal to accept the prize does not ~ away from his success in winning it. – Supermarkets are taking business away from small local shops. – Take these chairs away — we don’t need them. – If you ~ 4 away from 12 you get 8. Language Points • Call (para.6) – There have been ~s for the government to release the detainees. • Not so much… but (para.6): = not… as much as 与其说……不如说 – It wasn’t so much his appearance I like as his personality. – He is not so much unintelligent as uneducated. – He was treated not so much negligently as disrespectfully. Language Points • In one’s nature (para.7) – It is not in her ~ to be rude; she’s polite by ~. – It is not really in her ~ to be aggressive. – He is by ~ inclined to be rather lazy. • Ill at ease (para.7) – With two sons bedridden, Mrs Smith was ill at ease. – She was a bit ill at ~ when she first met her boyfriend’s parents. Comprehension Check • How does the British psychologist Oliver James relate people’s happiness with the increase of wealth? • What do those “anti-work” campaigners believe in? • Who is Bian Dean? What is his suggestion? • How does Professor Gini define “being lazy”? Oliver James • A British psychologist who has published four books • In one of his books Britain on the Couch, he intends to tell the reader why the British people today are unhappier compared with 1950, despite being richer. Anxiety Culture • Website: www.anxietyculture.com • Anxiety Culture is a web tricks magazine with a wealth of 妄想/偏执/多疑的 ideas and gimmicks for navigating the crazy, paranoid, 暴饮暴食的/无节制的 work-obsessed, mediacrapulent times we live in. Sentence Highlight • …the citizens of the richest are no more likely to say they are happier than those… (para.9) • …the citizens of the richest nations are no more likely than those from the poorest nations to say that they are happy. Sentence Highlight • …people should work to live, not live to work (para.11) • Socrates: “Other men live to eat, while I eat to live.” • …people should work in order to live, not live in order to work. • We work because we need to keep ourselves alive, but work is not the most important thing, let alone the only thing, in life. Sentence Highlights • As well as publishing guides on how to do nothing creatively, these work rebels organize events like “national phone in sick day”… (para.11) • Besides offering suggestions in their magazines on how to spend one’s free time in a creative way, these “anti-work” advocates organize events like “national phone in sick day”… Sentence Highlight • …how you feel going into work on Monday morning. (para.12) • People are likely to feel sick on Monday morning. • Researchers in depression studies have found that after vacations, holidays, or weekend breaks, people tend to have letdown. This minor depression is technically termed as “holiday syndrome”. Sentence Highlight • The message seems to be getting through. (para.12) • It seems that the idea is getting across to people. • People are beginning to understand the message. Language Points • Meet… need (para.10) – The workers’ demands for higher pay were not met by the management. – They’ll only agree to sign the contract if certain conditions are met. – Do you think we will be able to ~ our deadline? • Dedicate to (para.11) – The novel is ~d to the memory of his mother. – He ~s his Saturdays to football. Language Points • As well as (para.11) – I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin. – They sell book as well as newspapers. – She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. • Rebel (para.11) – The ~s took control of the capital. – She insists she never started out to be a ~. – This painting is a best representation of the modernist concept of the artist as a ~, challenging society’s norms. Language Points • Phone in (para.11): to telephone to report – He ~d in the results of the poll. – How many of our salesmen have ~d in so far? – Over 300 people ~d in to complain. – She ~d in sick this morning. • Take … off (pa.11) – I’m ~ing a week off over Christmas. – I’ve decided to ~ a few days off next week. – The show was ~n off because of poor audience figures. Language Points • Get through (para.12) – Her father has been trying to ~ it through to her that she must work harder if she wants to pass the exam. – When he’s in this strange mood, I just can’t ~ through to him. • Admit to (para.12) – He cheerfully ~s to being the wrong side of fifty. Language Points • Work at (para.13) – Most couples would agree that for a marriage to succeed, both parties have to ~ at it. – You need to ~ at improving your writing. • Carry on (para.13) – We can ~ on our discussion after lunch. – Carry on with your work. – Even after the music started, they carried on talking. Sentence Highlight • They will seemingly have to work hard at learning to be lazy.absurd (para.13) humorous or selfcontradictory or playful • In this sentence, the author raises a paradoxical problem in a jocular way. – It’s a paradox, but the older she gets the more active she is. – There is the apparent paradox of simultaneous unemployment and skilledlabour shortages. Sentence Highlight • It is something you have to prepare for. (para.14) • This is the advice for those who “often forget to relax”. Sentence Highlight • According to Professor Gini, what is “the gentle art of doing ‘nothing’? (para.14) • Stop working, doing something you would rather be doing. • The relaxed way of doing something that is not related to one’s work. Expansion • She's never shown any sign of having a mind of her own. Sill waters run deep. 她从不流露自己有什么想法,深藏不露。 • On Monday I was still upset and I phoned in sick to work. • She took part in a BBC radio phone-in programme. • He deals in antiques and fine art. 他经营古董和艺术品。 Expansion • Modesty is the gentle art of enhancing your charm by pretending not to be aware of it. 谦虚是不露痕迹地提高个人魅力的艺术。 • How I wished that I could just sleep through Christmas! 我多么希望能在圣诞节时呼呼大睡一整天! • I can’t get it through to him that smoking is bad for his health. 我没法说服他接受吸烟有害健康的道理。 Time works wonder. Thank you! Lesson 3: Overview • • • • Students’ duty report Translation practice Exercises Oral practice Students’ Report • European Union • Message of Mime Note Member States of the European Union Notes • Growth of European Union Message of Time • Two Cultural Modes of Time: • Monochronic-time (M-time) – the custom of handling events sequentially or one by one • Polychronic-time (P-time) – the ability to attend to multiple events simultaneously — from The Silent Language (1959) by Edward T. Hall (anthropologist) Sentence Translation • • • • Compare Meet Contemplate On average • • • • Shut down Dedicate to Carry on Make a comparison Translation Practice • The report compares the different types of home computers currently available. • Life is poetically compared to the morning dew. 在诗歌中，人生被比喻为朝露。 • She was pleased to discover that her work compared favorably with her older sister’s. 她高兴地发现自己的作业比姐姐的好。 Translation Practice • 我的个人问题和人民 的利益比起来似乎微 不足道。 • 她可爱得无与伦比。 • Standards in health care have improved enormously compared to 40 years ago. • My own problems seem insignificant compared with people’s. • She is lovely beyond compare. • 和40年前相比，医疗 保障水平已经得到了 极大的改善。 Translation Practice • 他们的价格比竞争者的要优惠。 • Their prices compare favorably with those of their competitors. • 这所学校堪比该国最好的学校。 • This school compares with the best in the country. Translation Practice • You could make a comparison between schools in China and in America, but it wouldn’t be fair. • He tried to make a comparison between religion and superstition. • It is difficult to make a comparison with her previous book — they are completely different. Translation Practice • Until these conditions are met we cannot proceed with the sale. • Do you think we will be able to meet our deadline? • The workers’ demands for higher pay were not met by the management. 工人们要求加薪的请求没有得到资方的满足。 Translation Practice • 在世界许多地方，没有足够的食物来满 足所有人的需求。 • In many parts of the world, there is not enough food to meet everyone’s needs. • 加入某些条件得不到满足，他们是不会 同意在合同上签字的。 • They’ll only agree to sign the contract if certain conditions are met. Translation Practice • The thought of war is too awful to contemplate. • You are too young to be contemplating retirement. • She contemplated him in silence. • He reached his decision after a good deal of contemplation. Translation Practice • Women are still paid less than men — earning on average about three quarters of men’s pay. • On average, Mary’s mother has to ask her three times before she helps with the dishes. • 平均每年有400人死于这种疾病。 • 一辆新车平均要花费5500美元. • A new car costs, on ~, about $5500. Translation Practice • On Monday, the power supply will be shut down for the whole building. • The company has threatened to shut down the mine if the strike is not resolved. • If an accident occurs, the safety device The theatre shut down after automatically shuts down the assembly more than half a century. The factory was shut line. down for lack of funds. • 这家剧场经营半个多世纪后倒闭了。 • 这家工厂因缺乏资金而倒闭。 Translation Practice • The doctor dedicated much of his time and energy to finding a cure for the disease. • 他毕生致力于帮助穷人。 • He dedicated his life to helping the poor. • A monument was dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who had died there. • He dedicates his weekends to karate（空 手道）. Translation Practice • The struggle for liberation will carry on long after I am dead. • It was almost too dark to see properly, but he carried on to the end of the book. • Carry on the good work! 干得不错，继续努力吧。 • After he left They I justcarried tried to on as oncarry the discussion normal. late into theCarry night.on with your work • 我不在时你们接着干。 while I’m away. • 他们一直讨论到深夜。 Vocabulary Exercises • • • • Refer to Exercise V on page 171. uniform unicorn; unicycle; unify; unity uni-: one; single monopoly monotone; monologue; monolingual; monogamy • mono-: one; single; alone • bicycle bilateral; bilingual; biweekly • bi-: two Vocabulary Exercises • di-: two; double diphthong; dioxide • multilateral multicolored; multistorey; multimedia; multiracial; multicultural • multi-: many; more than one • homophone homograph; homosexual • homo-: same • panacea panorama; pantheism; panPacific • pan-: including all Grammar Exercises • Exercise II on page 172 • Exercise IV on page 173 Oral Activity • Group Work – First do the following questions. Then compare your choices with other members of the group and see if there are any individual differences. Discuss what effects such differences may have upon your interaction with each other. – Get ready to share your findings in a group presentation. Question 1 • If you were invited to another family’s house for dinner when would you arrive? A. Just on time. B. A few minutes before the scheduled time. C. 10 minutes later. D. 20 minutes later. E. Half an hour later. Question 2 • How long would you have to wait in a line in the post office before you became upset? A. 5 minutes. B. 10 minutes. C. 15 minutes. D. 20 minutes. E. Half an hour. Question 3 • How long do you think a party at which dinner is served should last? A. 1 to 2 hours. B. 3 hours or so. C. 4 hours or so. D. 5 hours or so. E. As long as people involved like. Question 4 • If you were having a party in your class, how many days in advance would you invite your friends from another college? A. Just on the day of the party. B. One day in advance. C. Several days in advance. D. More than one week in advance. E. Three or four weeks in advance. Question 5 • When first meeting a newcomer to your class or a friend’s parents, an appropriate amount of time to talk with them would be A. 5 minutes. B. 10 minutes. C. 20 minutes. D. Half an hour. E. 1 hour or more. Question 6 • If you had an appointment with a professor at 8:00 and arrived at 8:45, how would the professor react? A. He wouldn’t care. B. He would refuse to talk with you. C. He would excuse you if you had called. D. He would consider you irresponsible. E. He would be insulted. Time is, time was, and time is past. Thank you!