Unit 12
Time to Take It Easy
Lesson One
Pre-reading questions
Getting to know the new words
Background information
A global picture
Pre-reading Questions
• What is time?
• What is leisure?
• What is the Chinese’s attitude
towards work and leisure?
• What’s the Chinese’s attitude
towards time?
• How is the Chinese’s attitude
different from that of the
Patterns of Time
• Linear Pattern
• Cyclical Pattern
Quotes on Time
• Time is money.
— Occidental saying
• No man in a hurry is quite civilized.
— Oriental saying
• Time is human; nature knows only change.
— Occidental saying
• Consider the past and you will know the
— Oriental saying
Getting to know the new words
Reading aloud (pa.168)
Meaning and use
Word derivation
Word association
Word differentiation
Meaning & Use
• Siesta: <n.> an afternoon rest or nap, esp
one taken during the hottest hours of the
day in a hot climate (usu considered
longer than a ‘nap’)
– After lunch they would take a ~.
– I went upstairs for my afternoon ~.
• Synonyms: catnap; snooze;
forty winks; a bit of shut-eye;
<infml.> zizz; <fml.> slumber
Meaning & Use
• Easy-going: <adj.> relaxed and tolerant in
attitude or manner
– Brown was friendly and ~.
– I don’t like his laziness and his ~ ways.
– The book was written in a simple and ~ form.
• Cf: out-going
Meaning & Use
• Govern: <v.> control, influence or regulate
– Income must ~ expenditure.
– Chance sometimes ~s the outcome of the
– In Britain the sovereign reigns but does not ~.
• Government: the system or the group of
people with the authority to govern
• Governance: [U] the action or manner of
governing a state, or organization
Meaning & Use
• The Continent: <n.> western Europe not
including Britain and Ireland 欧洲大陆
• Continental: <n./adj.> 欧洲大陆的/人
This expression is based on the old idea
that Britain is separated from, and very
different from, the rest of Europe. It is
typically used when talking about
European countries as a place for holidays,
but it is now becoming less common.
Meaning & Use
• Unstructured: <adj.> without formal
organization or structure
– The discussion was ~.
– We danced in completely ~ groupings.
• Antonym: structured
– As the trip wore on, I worried less and less
about ~ time. 随着旅程的进展,我对严格安排
Meaning & Use
• Downtime <n.> = down time : time when
one is not working or active
– Downtime in Hollywood can cost a lot of
– Everyone needs down time to unwind.
• Antonym: uptime <U> time during which
a machine, esp a computer, is in operation
Meaning & Use
• Consume: <v.> use up
– This process ~s enormous amounts of energy.
– These factories ~d 600,000 tons of coal a day.
• Contemplation: <n.> deep reflective
thought 沉思;深思熟虑;盘算
– The road is too busy for leisurely ~ of the
– He would retire to his room for study or ~.
Meaning & Use
• Account: <n.>
– The ~s show that they have spent more than
they received. 账面显示
– He has ~s with several banks.
– She opened a savings ~ at the building
• Spiritual: <adj.> of the spirit rather than
the body (with religious connotation)
• Spiritualism: the belief that the dead may
send messages to living people usually
through a medium
Word Association
• 物质文明
• Material civilization;
High living standards;
Sound economic
• 精神文明
• Cultural and
ideological progress;
Advanced culture and
Word Association
• ill afford; ill-treated; ill-equipped; ill served; ill at
ill at ease and not his usual self
• He seemed __________
during the party.
ill-equipped to cope with the
• He seems to me ____________
ill served
• They live in an area __________
by public
• These animals had been grossly ___________.
ill afford
• We can ___________
to lose another member of
Word Derivation
N. contemplation
V. contemplate
A. contemplative accountable rebellious editorial
N. government consumption relaxation structure
relaxing structured
Word Derivation
Word Differentiation
• Poll vs. Toll
• The latest opinion ______
puts the
Democrats in the lead.
• Half the people polled
______ said they would
pay more for environmentally-friendly food.
• There is usually heavy death _____
on the
roads at Christmas.
Word Differentiation
• Consume vs. Use
• Arguing about details consumed
_________ many
hours of the committee’s valuable time.
• The fire soon consumed
_________ the wooden
uses a computer to do its
• The company ______
• The crowd refused to move, so the police
had to ______
tear gas.
Word Differentiation
• Idealistic vs. Spiritual
• He was full of youthful _________.
• He’s too much of an ________
idealist for this
• She’s English, but India is her spiritual
• We are concerned about your ________
Word Differentiation
• Staff vs. Stuff
• The manager turned a blind eye when his
staff were late.
• It is a hospital ______
staffed with 20 doctresses.
• What’s this sticky ______
stuff on the floor?
• Have you brought your swimming _____?
stuff of
• Such experiences are the (very) _____
Word Differentiation
• Contemplation vs. Meditation
• He reached his decision after a good deal
of ______________.
• She bought three dresses in __________
of her trip.
• She found peace through yoga and
• He was deep in meditation
___________ and didn’t
see me come in.
Background Information
• European/Continental work ethic:
• Traditionally the Continental Europeans consider
easy life very important and they take vacation
or holidays as their holy right which should never
be taken away. Once they feel the right being
intruded, they will regain it through/on strikes.
• The European Union Directive authorizes the
continentals to enjoy at least 4 weeks paid-leave
annually. And in many European countries, the
actual paid holidays are longer than this.
Background Information
• American work ethic:
• Continental American work ethic largely derives
from puritanical belief based on strict moral and
religious principles, including hard work, selfreliance and using time for practical purposes.
• This puritanical influence seems still to persist in
Anglo-Americans. They are brought up hearing
people saying, “Time is money” and “Don’t
waste so much time.”
• That might help explain why fast food
restaurants, one-stop gas stations, and
microwave ovens originated in the United States.
Background Information
• In Britain:
• Britain is the only country which has increased
its weekly working hours in the past decade.
• Every worker in the UK work 1673 hours yearly,
which means about 100 hours more than that of
the European Union.
• A research done in 2003 shows that 16% of the
British workers complained them overworking for
48 hours a week.
A Global Picture
• What type of writing is the text?
• What is the author’s purpose of writing?
• What do you think of the nationality of the
• Who are the intended readers?
• How many parts does the text fall into?
• What is the main idea of each part?
Structure of the Text
• Part I (para.1-2):
– Introduction — a sharp contrast
• Part II (para.3-4):
– Work ethic — a major difference
• Part III (para.5-8):
– Analysis of the American attitude to work
• Part IV (para.9-12):
– Oliver James’s view about time
• Part V (pa.13-14):
– Conclusion
Poem Appreciation
• The following poem was said to be written
by a 7-year-old girl named Amy Bruce
dying of lung cancer and a brain tumor,
though some people claimed that it was
actually written by a doctor in New York
Slow Dance
Have you ever watched kids
on a merry-go-round
Or listened to the rain
slapping on the ground?
Ever followed a butterfly’s erratic flight?
Or gazed at the sun into the fading night?
You’d better slow down
Don’t dance so fast
Time is short
The music won’t last
Slow Dance
Do you run through each day on the fly?
When you ask “How are you?”
do you hear the reply?
When the day is done,
do you lie in your bed
With the next hundred chores
running through your head?
You’d better slow down
Don’t dance so fast
Time is short
The music won’t last
Slow Dance
Ever told your child,
We’ll do it tomorrow
And in your haste, not see his sorrow?
Ever lost touch,
Let a good friendship die
‘Cause you never had time
to call and say “Hi”?
You’d better slow down
Don’t dance so fast
Time is short
The music won’t last
Slow Dance
When you run so fast to get somewhere
You miss half the fun of getting there
When you worry and hurry through your days,
It is like an unopened gift…
Thrown away…
Life is not a race.
Do take it slower
Hear the music
Before the song is over.
If a man does not keep pace with
his companions, perhaps it is
because he hears a different
Thank you!
Lesson 2: Overview
Word review
Comprehension check
Notes on the text
Language points
Sentence highlights
Word Review
• In a Newsweek poll
p___ last week, 85
percent of Americans said there should be
equal rights for gays and lesbians in terms
of job opportunities .
• The interview was noisy and unstructured
• She was lost in contemplation
c______________ of the
scene in front of her.
• Lots of people were taking a short s_____
in the shade.
Word Review
• He sees no signs of improvement in the
continental economy.
UK and c__________
• Network and server downtime
d________ is costing
companies hundreds of thousands of
dollars in business and productivity losses.
accounts show we have spent more
• The a________
than we received.
easygoing teacher often allowed his
• The e_________
student extra time for assignments.
Word Review
• Her __________
rebellious (rebel) attitude is just a
reaction against her strict upbringing.
Governor (govern) George welcomed
• _________
the Queen to Hawaii with a lei of orchids.
• He worked on the paper for fifty years,
editor (edit).
latterly as its political _______
• Industrialized countries should reduce
consumption (consume).
their energy ____________
Word Review
• Hard work is essential. But there's also a
time for rest and _________
relaxation (relaxing).
• An accountant
__________ (account) is a person
whose job is to keep financial accounts.
• Mr. Simpson is a dedicated
________ and thoughtful
• Some customers need 99% or better uptime
(downtime) from their mainframe computers.
Idiom Review
• The whole company ___________
shuts down for 3
weeks' summer holiday.
• Now no use getting fussed. Take
it easy
average I receive five emails each day.
• On
• Johnny had never been to a big party
before and he was ___________.
ill at ease
nature to be
• It is not really ____
her _______
Idiom Review
waste time on trifles.
• Don't ______
• ______
Take time to pull yourself away from all
the noise and just look around you.
killed time
• While I was waiting for her, I ______
by looking in the show window.
• It is ______
high time that the legal profession
reformed itself.
• Even in group activities, there is always
unstructured time left for individuals to
do what they please.
Comprehension Check
• What does summer mean to the
continental Europeans?
• Do the British and the Americans have the
same idea?
• The first two paragraphs draw a picture of
sharp contrast between busy Americans
(and Britons) and easy-going continental
• Europe
– Britain
– Spain
– Italy
– Sweden
The Department of Labor
• The US Department of
Labor(劳工部)is the
US government department
concerned with how workers
are treated by employers.
It examines subjects such as fair wages,
safety, and the number of hours worked
each week.
Language Points
• Take it easy (title)
– Take it easy. If you don’t rest enough, you
won’t perform.
– Take it easy, we’ve got plenty of time.
• Shut down (para.1)
– The factory was ~ down for lack of funds.
– The power station has been ~ down for
essential maintenance.
Language Points
• Sleep through (para.1)
– I don’t know how you could have slept
through that dreadful noise
– The alarm clock went off, but I just slept
through it.
• Cool (para.1)
– He loved the ~ of the early morning.
– She left the midday sun for the ~ of the shade.
Language Points
• On average (para.2)
– We receive 20 letters a day on ~.
– On ~, people who don’t smoke are healthier
than people who do.
• Compare with (para.2)
– Sales were modest and cannot ~ with the
glory days of 1999.
– A pencil is not to be ~d with a knife.
Metonymy 借代
• Summer is coming, and much of Europe is
getting ready to… France spends…
• Metonymy means to substitute one thing
for another with which it is closely
– A pen is mightier than a sword.
– The blue eye is coming.
– He had to earn his daily bread by doing odd
Comprehension Check
• What do you know about the American work
• How do American people feel about their hard
• What is one of the big arguments within the
European Union?
• According to the Americans, your work
represents yourself. If you pay little attention to
your work, you’re neglecting yourself.
Note: Britons (para.4)
• The British people seldom use “Briton” or
“Britisher”, the former is mainly used in the titles
of newspaper articles, such as “THREE
latter is used only by the Americans and people
in other countries. In fact, there is no such a
word that may be used to address people of the
UK as a whole, so the British people would
rather refer to themselves as the Whales, the
Irish or the English. If necessary, they would use
the adjective, as in “He’s British”.
Language Points
• Ethic (para.3)
– It is against medical ~s for physicians to
– There should be a code of business ~s which
indicates how clients are to be served.
• Govern (para.4)
– You should ~ your temper.
– The rights of our citizens are ~ed by charter.
Comprehension Check
• What issue are Americans finding time to
think about?
• What does Al Gini mean when he says
“…my future is shorter than my past… I’ve
got to take time now because, like it or not,
time will be taken away from me”?
• According to Professor Gini, what is the
Americans’ view about free time? And
does he agree with them?
Professor Al Gini
• What is the nationality of
Professor Al Gini?
• What is his book mainly
• Refer to note 5 on page
• …the fine / art of doing
Loyola University Chicago
• It is a private Jesuit(耶稣会) university located
in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
• The university was established in 1870 as Saint
Ignatius College by the Roman Catholic religious
order of the Society of Jesus and bears the
name of the Jesuit patron, Saint Ignatius of
• It is the largest Jesuit University in the United
• The University as a whole was ranked the 50th
best value in the country.
School Gate
Saint Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
• A Spanish priest
(missionary) who
used to be a military
• He established the
Catholic Society of
Jesus and became
the first head of it.
Statue of
St Ignatius Loyola
Sentence Highlight
• … my future is shorter than my past… I’ve
got to take time now because, like it or not,
time will be taken away from me. (para.5)
• I’ve already spent most of my life in this
world… I have to do things leisurely now
because, no matter whether I like it or not,
my time will soon run out.
Sentence Highlight
• The real problem… is not so much work
but the Western attitude to time. (para.6)
• The real problem has less to do with work
than with the Western attitude to time.
Sentence Highlight
• Unstructured time, dead time, downtime,
wasted time — it makes us ill at ease.
• Either time spent without proper planning
or without doing anything or simply wasted
makes us nervous and uncomfortable.
Sentence Highlight
• Yet the idea that time should be spent doing
something runs very deep in Anglo-American
culture. (para.8)
• Yet the idea… is deep-rooted in…
• Anglo-American: American who is descended
from a British family
• Here we have a metaphor in which “AngloAmerican culture” is compared to a river, and
“the idea” is compared to “a kind of curent”.
– Still water runs deep. 静水深流。
Language Points
• Take time (para.5)
– The workmen seem to be taking their time
over repairing the road!
– There’s no hurry; take your time!
• Like it or not (para.5)
– Like it or not, the Internet is becoming an
indispensable part of our life.
– He should be made to realize, like it or not,
that he is already a bit too old for the job.
Language Points
• Take away from (para.5): remove
– His refusal to accept the prize does not ~
away from his success in winning it.
– Supermarkets are taking business away from
small local shops.
– Take these chairs away — we don’t need
– If you ~ 4 away from 12 you get 8.
Language Points
• Call (para.6)
– There have been ~s for the government to
release the detainees.
• Not so much… but (para.6): = not… as
much as 与其说……不如说
– It wasn’t so much his appearance I like as his
– He is not so much unintelligent as uneducated.
– He was treated not so much negligently as
Language Points
• In one’s nature (para.7)
– It is not in her ~ to be rude; she’s polite by ~.
– It is not really in her ~ to be aggressive.
– He is by ~ inclined to be rather lazy.
• Ill at ease (para.7)
– With two sons bedridden, Mrs Smith was ill at
– She was a bit ill at ~ when she first met her
boyfriend’s parents.
Comprehension Check
• How does the British psychologist Oliver
James relate people’s happiness with the
increase of wealth?
• What do those “anti-work” campaigners
believe in?
• Who is Bian Dean? What is his suggestion?
• How does Professor Gini define “being
Oliver James
• A British psychologist who
has published four books
• In one of his books Britain on
the Couch, he intends to tell
the reader why the British
people today are unhappier
compared with 1950, despite
being richer.
Anxiety Culture
• Website:
• Anxiety Culture is a web
magazine with a wealth of 妄想/偏执/多疑的
ideas and gimmicks for
the crazy, paranoid,
work-obsessed, mediacrapulent times we live in.
Sentence Highlight
• …the citizens of the richest are no more
likely to say they are happier than those…
• …the citizens of the richest nations are no
more likely than those from the poorest
nations to say that they are happy.
Sentence Highlight
• …people should work to live, not live to work
• Socrates: “Other men live to eat, while I eat to
• …people should work in order to live, not live in
order to work.
• We work because we need to keep ourselves
alive, but work is not the most important thing,
let alone the only thing, in life.
Sentence Highlights
• As well as publishing guides on how to do
nothing creatively, these work rebels
organize events like “national phone in
sick day”… (para.11)
• Besides offering suggestions in their
magazines on how to spend one’s free
time in a creative way, these “anti-work”
advocates organize events like “national
phone in sick day”…
Sentence Highlight
• …how you feel going into work on Monday
morning. (para.12)
• People are likely to feel sick on Monday
• Researchers in depression studies have
found that after vacations, holidays, or
weekend breaks, people tend to have
letdown. This minor depression is
technically termed as “holiday syndrome”.
Sentence Highlight
• The message seems to be getting through.
• It seems that the idea is getting across to
• People are beginning to understand the
Language Points
• Meet… need (para.10)
– The workers’ demands for higher pay were
not met by the management.
– They’ll only agree to sign the contract if
certain conditions are met.
– Do you think we will be able to ~ our deadline?
• Dedicate to (para.11)
– The novel is ~d to the memory of his mother.
– He ~s his Saturdays to football.
Language Points
• As well as (para.11)
– I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin.
– They sell book as well as newspapers.
– She is a talented musician as well as being a
• Rebel (para.11)
– The ~s took control of the capital.
– She insists she never started out to be a ~.
– This painting is a best representation of the
modernist concept of the artist as a ~,
challenging society’s norms.
Language Points
• Phone in (para.11): to telephone to report
– He ~d in the results of the poll.
– How many of our salesmen have ~d in so far?
– Over 300 people ~d in to complain.
– She ~d in sick this morning.
• Take … off (pa.11)
– I’m ~ing a week off over Christmas.
– I’ve decided to ~ a few days off next week.
– The show was ~n off because of poor
audience figures.
Language Points
• Get through (para.12)
– Her father has been trying to ~ it through to
her that she must work harder if she wants to
pass the exam.
– When he’s in this strange mood, I just can’t ~
through to him.
• Admit to (para.12)
– He cheerfully ~s to being the wrong side
of fifty.
Language Points
• Work at (para.13)
– Most couples would agree that for a marriage
to succeed, both parties have to ~ at it.
– You need to ~ at improving your writing.
• Carry on (para.13)
– We can ~ on our discussion after lunch.
– Carry on with your work.
– Even after the music started, they carried on
Sentence Highlight
• They will seemingly
have to work hard at learning to
be lazy.absurd
or selfcontradictory
or playful
• In this sentence, the author raises a
paradoxical problem in a jocular way.
– It’s a paradox, but the older she gets the more
active she is.
– There is the apparent paradox of
simultaneous unemployment and skilledlabour shortages.
Sentence Highlight
• It is something you have to prepare for.
• This is the advice for those who “often
forget to relax”.
Sentence Highlight
• According to Professor Gini, what is “the
gentle art of doing ‘nothing’? (para.14)
• Stop working, doing something you would
rather be doing.
• The relaxed way of doing something that
is not related to one’s work.
• She's never shown any sign of having a
mind of her own. Sill waters run deep.
• On Monday I was still upset and I phoned
in sick to work.
• She took part in a BBC radio phone-in
• He deals in antiques and fine art.
• Modesty is the gentle art of enhancing your
charm by pretending not to be aware of it.
• How I wished that I could just sleep
through Christmas!
• I can’t get it through to him that smoking is
bad for his health.
Time works wonder.
Thank you!
Lesson 3: Overview
Students’ duty report
Translation practice
Oral practice
Students’ Report
• European Union
• Message of Mime
States of
• Growth of
Message of Time
• Two Cultural Modes of Time:
• Monochronic-time (M-time)
– the custom of handling events sequentially or
one by one
• Polychronic-time (P-time)
– the ability to attend to multiple events
— from The Silent Language (1959)
by Edward T. Hall (anthropologist)
Sentence Translation
On average
Shut down
Dedicate to
Carry on
Make a
Translation Practice
• The report compares the different types of
home computers currently available.
• Life is poetically compared to the morning
dew. 在诗歌中,人生被比喻为朝露。
• She was pleased to discover that her work
compared favorably with her older sister’s.
Translation Practice
• 我的个人问题和人民
• 她可爱得无与伦比。
• Standards in health
care have improved
compared to 40 years
• My own problems
seem insignificant
compared with
• She is lovely beyond
• 和40年前相比,医疗
Translation Practice
• 他们的价格比竞争者的要优惠。
• Their prices compare favorably with those
of their competitors.
• 这所学校堪比该国最好的学校。
• This school compares with the best in the
Translation Practice
• You could make a comparison between
schools in China and in America, but it
wouldn’t be fair.
• He tried to make a comparison between
religion and superstition.
• It is difficult to make a comparison with her
previous book — they are completely
Translation Practice
• Until these conditions are met we cannot
proceed with the sale.
• Do you think we will be able to meet our
• The workers’ demands for higher pay were
not met by the management.
Translation Practice
• 在世界许多地方,没有足够的食物来满
• In many parts of the world, there is not
enough food to meet everyone’s needs.
• 加入某些条件得不到满足,他们是不会
• They’ll only agree to sign the contract if
certain conditions are met.
Translation Practice
• The thought of war is too awful to
• You are too young to be contemplating
• She contemplated him in silence.
• He reached his decision after a good deal
of contemplation.
Translation Practice
• Women are still paid less than men —
earning on average about three quarters
of men’s pay.
• On average, Mary’s mother has to ask her
three times before she helps with the
• 平均每年有400人死于这种疾病。
• 一辆新车平均要花费5500美元.
• A new car costs, on ~, about $5500.
Translation Practice
• On Monday, the power supply will be shut
down for the whole building.
• The company has threatened to shut down
the mine if the strike is not resolved.
• If an accident occurs, the safety device
The theatre shut down after
automatically shuts down
the assembly
more than
half a century.
The factory was shut
down for lack of funds.
• 这家剧场经营半个多世纪后倒闭了。
• 这家工厂因缺乏资金而倒闭。
Translation Practice
• The doctor dedicated much of his time and
energy to finding a cure for the disease.
• 他毕生致力于帮助穷人。
• He dedicated his life to helping the poor.
• A monument was dedicated to the memory
of the soldiers who had died there.
• He dedicates his weekends to karate(空
Translation Practice
• The struggle for liberation will carry on
long after I am dead.
• It was almost too dark to see properly, but
he carried on to the end of the book.
• Carry on the good work! 干得不错,继续努力吧。
• After he left They
I justcarried
tried to
on as
the discussion
late into theCarry
night.on with your work
• 我不在时你们接着干。
while I’m away.
• 他们一直讨论到深夜。
Vocabulary Exercises
Refer to Exercise V on page 171.
uniform unicorn; unicycle; unify; unity
uni-: one; single
monopoly monotone; monologue;
monolingual; monogamy
• mono-: one; single; alone
• bicycle bilateral; bilingual; biweekly
• bi-: two
Vocabulary Exercises
• di-: two; double diphthong; dioxide
• multilateral multicolored; multistorey;
multimedia; multiracial; multicultural
• multi-: many; more than one
• homophone homograph; homosexual
• homo-: same
• panacea panorama; pantheism; panPacific
• pan-: including all
Grammar Exercises
• Exercise II on page 172
• Exercise IV on page 173
Oral Activity
• Group Work
– First do the following questions. Then
compare your choices with other members of
the group and see if there are any individual
differences. Discuss what effects such
differences may have upon your interaction
with each other.
– Get ready to share your findings in a group
Question 1
• If you were invited to another family’s
house for dinner when would you arrive?
A. Just on time.
B. A few minutes before the scheduled
C. 10 minutes later.
D. 20 minutes later.
E. Half an hour later.
Question 2
• How long would you have to wait in a line
in the post office before you became upset?
A. 5 minutes.
B. 10 minutes.
C. 15 minutes.
D. 20 minutes.
E. Half an hour.
Question 3
• How long do you think a party at which
dinner is served should last?
A. 1 to 2 hours.
B. 3 hours or so.
C. 4 hours or so.
D. 5 hours or so.
E. As long as people involved like.
Question 4
• If you were having a party in your class,
how many days in advance would you
invite your friends from another college?
A. Just on the day of the party.
B. One day in advance.
C. Several days in advance.
D. More than one week in advance.
E. Three or four weeks in advance.
Question 5
• When first meeting a newcomer to your
class or a friend’s parents, an appropriate
amount of time to talk with them would be
A. 5 minutes.
B. 10 minutes.
C. 20 minutes.
D. Half an hour.
E. 1 hour or more.
Question 6
• If you had an appointment with a professor
at 8:00 and arrived at 8:45, how would the
professor react?
A. He wouldn’t care.
B. He would refuse to talk with you.
C. He would excuse you if you had
D. He would consider you irresponsible.
E. He would be insulted.
Time is, time was, and time
is past.
Thank you!

Time to Take It Easy