The Future of College
Computer Literacy
The Impact of K-12 Educational
Technology Standards
Ken Baldauf
Florida State University
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Session Outline


The DoE 2005 National Education
Technology Plan
National Educational Technology
Standards (NETS)




Performance Indicators
Implementation
Results of College Student Tech Survey
College Computer Literacy Action Plan
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Professional Profile
Ken Baldauf




FSU Computer Science faculty member
MS in Computer Science
Nine years as director of Computer Literacy @ FSU
Over 5,000 students annually
 CGS2060: Computer Literacy
(Classroom & Webbased)


CGS2064: Computer Lit II
CGS2100: MicroApps for Business
(Classroom & Webbased)

Assisted by 30 CS grad teaching assistants
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Teaching Challenges
Q: What is the biggest challenge in designing and
teaching a college computer literacy course?
A: Meeting the needs of students with varying levels of
skills –keeping the course interesting for the techsavvy without losing the novices.
If only the computer knowledge
and skills of incoming students
were consistent!
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Examining K-12 Computer Ed

Florida’s Sunshine State Standards

The Sunshine State Standards were approved by the
State Board of Education in 1996 to provide expectations
for student achievement in Florida.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Language Arts
Mathematics
Science
Social Studies
Foreign Languages
The Arts
Health and Physical Education
K-12 standards allow
Colleges to function
more efficiently
and effectively
Computer Lit teachers
watch and wait
No mention of technology in any of the above areas.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
2005 National Educational
Technology Plan
A New Golden Age in
American K-12
Education?
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
2005 National Educational
Technology Plan


Produced by the US Department of
Education as a requirement of the No
Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001
Studies the current state of technology
use in the K-12 curriculum, and
provides an action plan for
improvement
http://www.nationaledtechplan.org/
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
2005 National Educational
Technology Plan
“As the field work progressed, it became obvious that
while the development of educational technology was
thriving, its application in our schools often was not.
Over the past 10 years, 99 percent of our schools have
been connected to the Internet with a 5:1 student to
computer ratio. Yet, we have not realized the promise
of technology in education. Essentially, providing the
hardware without adequate training in its use – and in
its endless possibilities for enriching the learning
experience – meant that the great promise of Internet
technology was frequently unrealized.”
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
“Today’s students, of almost any age, are far ahead of their
teachers in computer literacy.”
Some Conclusions Reached in the
National Educational Technology Plan




There is no dispute over the need for America’s
students to have the knowledge and competence to
compete in an increasingly technology-driven world
economy.
This need demands new models of education
facilitated by educational technology.
In the realm of technology, the educational
community is playing catch-up. Industry is far ahead
of education. And tech-savvy high school students
often are far ahead of their teachers.
This “digital disconnect” is a major cause of
frustration among today’s students.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Some Conclusions from the National
Educational Technology Plan

Public schools that do not adapt to the technology
needs of students risk becoming increasingly
irrelevant. Students will seek other options.
60%
50%
39%
40%
28%
30%
21%
20%
10%
0%
School work is often or always
meaningful
1983
Courses are quite or very interesting
1990
1995
School learning will be quite or very
important in later life
2000
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Some Conclusions from the National
Educational Technology Plan


The current ferment within the education community
will lead to major changes in the way we teach,
learn and manage public education.
With the benefits of technology, highly trained
teachers, a motivated student body and the
requirements of No Child Left Behind, the next 10
years could see a spectacular rise in achievement –
and may usher in a new golden age for American
education.
Student Video
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Recommendations from the National
Educational Technology Plan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Strengthen Leadership
Consider Innovative Budgeting
Improve Teacher Training
Support e-Learning and Virtual Schools
Encourage Broadband Access
Move Toward Digital Content

7.
A move away from reliance on textbooks to the
use of digital content
Integrate Data Systems
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
No Child Left Behind

Goals Include



Every child can read by the 3rd grade.
Students are technology literate by the 8th
grade.
requires states and school districts across
the country to reexamine their standards,
set targets for improvement, and introduce
rigorous testing.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
National Educational Technology
Standards (NETS)
A Catalyst for
No Child Left Behind
“We cannot assume that our schools will naturally drift toward
using technology effectively. We must commit ourselves to
staying the course and making the changes necessary to reach
our goals of educating every child. These are ambitious goals,
but they are goals worthy of a great nation such as ours.
Together, we can use technology to ensure that no child is left
behind.”
-George W. Bush
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
NETS



Developed by the International Society for
Technology in Education (ISTE)
Established in 1998, the primary goal of the
ISTE NETS Project is to enable
stakeholders in Pre K-12 education to
develop national standards for educational
uses of technology that facilitate school
improvement in the United States.
The endorsed standards for NCLB
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
NETS Supports a New
Learning Environment
Traditional Learning Environments
New Learning Environments
Teacher-centered instruction
Student-centered learning
Single sense stimulation
Multisensory stimulation
Single path progression
Multipath progression
Single media
Multimedia
Isolated work
Collaborative work
Information delivery
Information Exchange
Passive learning
Active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning
Factual, knowledge-based learning
Critical thinking and informed decisionmaking
Reactive response
Proactive/planned action
Isolated, artificial context
Authentic, real-world context
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Adoption of NETS

As of May 2004, 49 states have
adopted, adapted, aligned with, or
otherwise referenced NETS in their
state technology plans, certification,
licensure, curriculum plans,
assessment plans, or other official
state documents.
http://cnets.iste.org/docs/States_using_NETS.pdf
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Three NETS
NETS for Students
NETS for Teachers
NETS for Administrators
(37 states)
(37 states)
(36 states)
The National Educational
Technology Standards for
Students is designed to
provide teachers,
technology planners,
teacher preparation
institutions, and
educational decisionmakers with frameworks
and standards to guide
them in establishing
enriched learning
environments supported
by technology.
The International Society for
Technology in Education
(ISTE) NETS for Teachers
Project, a US Department of
Education, Preparing
Tomorrow's Teachers to Use
Technology grant facilitated a
series of activities and events
resulting in a national
consensus on what teachers
should know about and be
able to do with technology.
The National Educational
Technology Standards
(NETS) for Administrators
developed through the
Technology Standards for
School Administrators (TSSA)
Collaborative identifies
knowledge and skills
constituting the "core" of what
every P-12 administrator
needs to know about and
be able to do with
technology regardless of
specific job role.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
NETS for Students
The new educational
paradigm of fully integrated
technology
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
NETS for Students

NETS technology foundation standards for
students are divided into six broad
categories






Basic operations and concepts of tech systems
Social, ethical, and human issues
Technology productivity tools
Technology communications tools
Technology research tools
Technology problem-solving and decisionmaking tools
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
NETS for Students

Provides performance indicators,
curriculum examples, and scenarios in
categories:




PreK - 2
Grades 3 - 5
Grades 6 - 8
Grades 9 - 12
Curriculum
Example
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
PreK-2

Prior to completion of Grade 2, students will

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
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Use educational software, interactive books, etc.
Develop a basic technology vocabulary
Practice responsible use of technology systems and software
Create developmentally appropriate multimedia products with
assistance
Use technology resources for problem solving, communication,
and illustration of ideas
Use the Web and Email
Demonstrate positive social and ethical behaviors when using
technology.
Work collaboratively using technology
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
PreK-2
Mostly accomplished
through Integrating technology
into daily lessons!
Teachers as
Technology Mentors
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
P-2 Software

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Assorted Educational
Concept-mapping
Desktop Publishing
Drawing/Painting
Email
Graphing
HyperStudio
Kid Pix Studio
Mapping






Multimedia-authoring
Multimedia
encyclopedia
Presentation
Web browsing
Web page creation
Word-processing
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
Grades 3-5

Prior to completion of Grade 5, in addition to previously
addressed skills, students will:




Discuss advantages and disadvantages of common uses of
technology in daily life.
Discuss basic issues related to responsible use of technology
and information and describe personal consequences of
inappropriate use.
Use technology tools for individual and collaborative writing,
communication, and publishing activities to create knowledge
products for audiences inside and outside the classroom.
Use telecommunications efficiently to access remote
information in support of direct and independent learning, and
pursue personal interests.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
Grades 3-5

Prior to completion of Grade 5, in addition to previously
addressed skills, students will:



Use telecommunications and online resources (e.g., e-mail,
online discussions, Web environments) to participate in
collaborative problem-solving activities
Determine which technology is useful and select the
appropriate tool(s) and technology resources to address a
variety of tasks and problems.
Evaluate the accuracy, relevance, appropriateness,
comprehensiveness, and bias of electronic information sources.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Grades 3-5 Software






Previously mentioned software +
Database
Spreadsheet
Geometry
Rendering or illustration
Digital audio recording
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
Grades 6-8

Prior to completion of Grade 8, in addition to previously
addressed skills, students will:




Apply strategies for identifying and solving routine hardware
and software problems that occur during everyday use.
Demonstrate knowledge of current changes in information
technologies and the effect those changes have on the
workplace and society.
Design, develop, publish, and present products (e.g., Web
pages, videotapes) using technology resources that
demonstrate and communicate curriculum concepts to
audiences.
Demonstrate an understanding of concepts underlying
hardware, software, and connectivity, and of practical
applications to learning and problem solving.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Grades 6-8 Software





Previously mentioned
software +
digital art
CAD or home design
The Geometer's
Sketchpad
video-production
By this time students
will have had experience
with:

PCs

Printers

Scanners

Digital Cameras

Digital Camcorders

Laserdisc Players

CD’s DVD’s

VCR

And many other
peripherals
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
Grades 9-12

Prior to completion of Grade 12, in addition to previously
addressed skills, students will:




Make informed choices among technology systems, resources,
and services.
Analyze advantages and disadvantages of widespread use and
reliance on technology in the workplace and in society as a
whole.
Demonstrate and advocate for legal and ethical behaviors
among peers, family, and community regarding the use of
technology and information.
Use technology tools and resources for managing and
communicating personal/professional information (e.g.,
finances, schedules, addresses, purchases, correspondence)
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Performance Indicators
Grades 9-12

Prior to completion of Grade 12, in addition to previously
addressed skills, students will:




Routinely and efficiently use online information resources to
meet needs for collaboration, research, publications,
communications, and productivity.
Select and apply technology tools for research, information
analysis, problem-solving, and decision-making in content
learning.
Investigate and apply expert systems, intelligent agents, and
simulations in real-world situations.
Evaluate technology-based options, including distance and
distributed education, for lifelong learning.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Observations Re: NETS



NETS fully integrates technology in all
aspects of the curriculum –all teachers
become, in essence, computer literacy
teachers (technology mentors).
If and when NETS for Students is effectively
implemented, graduating 12th graders will
be more computer literate than today’s
graduating college students.
There is increasing pressures on public
schools to align with these standards.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Implementing NETS
Requirements and
Challenges
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Requirements for Effective
Implementation of NETS

Technology Infrastructure


Over the past 10 years, 99 percent of our schools have
been connected to the Internet with a 5:1 student to
computer ratio. Maintaining and improving infrastructure is
an ongoing challenge.
Teacher Training

States like Florida are adding technology requirements to
program approval for colleges of education, teacher
performance evaluations, and certification. The situation
will improve as the Web generation takes over faculty
positions.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Requirements for Effective
Implementation of NETS

Revising State Standards to Align with NETS



Florida is revising its Sunshine State Standards to comply
with NETS.
Florida is also implementing portions of NETS through its
School Technology and Readiness (STaR) Chart.
Student and Teacher Assessment



Assessment for NETS is in development on state and local
levels.
FL teachers to be tested Dec 2006.
National Educational Technology Standards Rubrics are
being developed by the North Central Regional Educational
Lab (http://www.ncrel.org/tech/nets/rubrics.htm) and others.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
When Will We See Results?


Deadlines exist for NCLB which hopes to be
fully implemented by 2014.
NETS relies on a computer competent
faculty:




continuing ed classes for existing faculty
improved teaching degree programs
and generational transition
…may take until 2014.
Implementing new standards with
assessment may take until 2014.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
When Will We See Results




Assume NETS is fully and effectively
implemented in all states by 2014.
The first class of students to fully experience
a NETS education from P-12 would enter
college in 2028 (14 years later).
From now until then we should experience
an increasing amount of students who enter
college fully computer literate.
We are already seeing results….
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Transitions in College
Computer Literacy Programs
Preparing for the Millennials
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Today’s Students
Results of FSU Technology Survey (3,252 Comp Lit Students)

97% of FSU students surveyed
own a computer




Only 4% own an Apple
87% own a cell phone
43% own a digital camera (up 22%
from last year)
26% own a portable MP3 player or
iPod (up 15%)
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Today’s Students
Results of FSU Technology Survey (3,252 Comp Lit Students)
Digital Communications Use
100%
99%
88%
80%
87%
67%
3,252
60%
FSU
Students 40%
20%
0%
Email
Instant
Messaging
Cell Phone
Texting
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Today’s Students
Results of FSU Technology Survey (3,252 Comp Lit Students)
Student Experience with Software
2003-04
Students
Program
2004-05
Students
Difference
Word
99.15%
99.35%
↑
0.20%
Excel
52.88%
75.80%
↑
22.92%
Access
13.05%
51.20%
↑
38.15%
PowerPoint
69.36%
84.69%
↑ 15.33%
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Pre-college Skills Aquisition
Formal training
Computer Programming
Self-taught
Web Design
None
Apple Computer
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Access
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Works
Microsoft PowerPoint
Computer Concepts
File Management
Web Research
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Windows
Email
0%
10% 20%
30%
40%
50% 60%
70%
3,252 FSU Students
80% 90% 100%
The Important Question
What happens to the
college computer literacy class
when survey results look like this?
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Pre-college Skills Aquisition
Formal training
Self-taught
Computer Programming
Web Design
None
Apple Computer
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Access
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Works
Microsoft PowerPoint
Computer Concepts
File Management
Web Research
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Windows
Email
0%
10% 20%
30%
40%
50% 60%
70%
80% 90% 100%
Planning for the Future
College Computer Literacy programs must
begin transitioning now to accommodate
increasing numbers of computer competent
students.

Pre-college Skills Aquisition
Pre-college Skills Aquisition
Self-taught
Web Design
Self-taught
Web Design
None
Apple Computer
Formal training
Computer Programming
Formal training
Computer Programming
None
Apple Computer
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Access
Microsoft Access
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Excel
TRANSITION
Microsoft Works
Microsoft PowerPoint
Computer Concepts
Microsoft Works
Microsoft PowerPoint
Computer Concepts
File Management
File Management
Web Research
Web Research
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
Email
Email
0%
10% 20%
30%
40%
50% 60%
70%
80% 90% 100%
0%
3,252 FSU Students
2005
10% 20%
30%
40%
50% 60%
70%
80% 90% 100%
3,252 FSU Students
2010
2015
2020
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Plan of Action
Accommodating Increasing
amounts of Computer
Competent Students
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Action Step 1:
Provide College-level Knowledge



There should be a difference between what
is considered high school computer
competency and college computer
competency.
Increase the demands of the Intro course to
focus on college-level problem solving and
issues.
Add an advanced course for students who
are already computer literate with a focus on
marketable skills for the job market.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Computer Lit
& Comp Lit II
@ FSU
Computer Skills
COMP LIT
Using Microsoft Windows
X
Managing Files
X
E-mail
X
Web Research
X
Microsoft Word
X
Microsoft Excel
X
Microsoft PowerPoint
X
Microsoft Office Application Integration
X
Creating a Webpage with Word
X
Microsoft Access
X
COMP LIT II
X
X
Digital Photo Editing: Adobe Photoshop
X
Computer Graphics: Adobe Illustrator
X
Computer Animation: Macromedia Flash
X
Basics of Unix (for Web publishing)
X
Web Authoring: Intro to HTML
X
Web Development: Macromedia DreamWeaver
X
Microsoft Data Access Pages
X
Basics of Web Programming with JavaScript
X
Computer Lit
& Comp Lit II
@ FSU
Computer Concepts
COMP LIT
Digital Data Representation
X
Hardware
X
Software
X
Telecommunications and Networking
X
Internet/Web
X
Societal, Ethical, and Security Issues
X
COMP LIT II
X
Digital Media (Graphics, Video, Music,
Games)
X
Database Systems
X
E-commerce and Transaction
Processing
X
Information Systems in Businesses &
Organizations
X
Systems and Software Development
X
Action Step 2:
Assessment and Placement

Implement computer skills and
knowledge assessment for all
incoming Freshmen for placement into
appropriate level class.
Comp Lit
Comp Lit II
Exempt
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Action Step 2:
Assessment and Placement

Over time, as increasing numbers of
students enter college already computer
competent, enrollment levels in Comp Lit
and Comp Lit II should invert
Comp Lit
Comp Lit II
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Action Step 3:
Servicing Degree Programs

Offer special-focus classes that cater
to the needs of specific degree
programs.


departments can “outsource” specialfocus computer lit classes
At FSU the CS dept. offers MicroApps for
Business and Economics as a service to
the College of Business
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Conclusion
In the not too distant future, there will be no
such thing as “College Computer Literacy” and
no need for an “Intro Computer Course”. Those
of us teaching such a class today, if we are not
retired, will be involved in testing, remedial
teaching, perhaps teaching a general ed
advanced technology class to prepare students
for professional life, or advanced teaching for
Tech majors, or specific degree programs.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Conclusion
Until that day, our job is to provide the
essential technical training and
understanding that are so very important
in today’s careers and that still many
students lack, while implementing
systems that provide paths for students
around topics and skills that they have
already acquired.
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
Thanks for your time.
Ken Baldauf
Florida State University
[email protected]
850-644-5832
http://lit.cs.fsu.edu
http://www.kenbaldauf.com
Sources


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

National Technology Educational Technology Plan Website:
http://www.nationaledtechplan.org/
ISTE NETS Website: http://cnets.iste.org/index.shtml
NETS Rubrics, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
Website: http://www.ncrel.org/tech/nets/rubrics.htm
Netday Speak Up Day (K-12 Student Survey) Website:
http://www.netday.org/
“Q&A: Ruben Lopez, Florida's Chief Technology Officer”, Matthew
Miller, The Journal, May 2003:
http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A4417.cfm
© 2004 Ken Baldauf, All rights reserved.
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Computer Literacy: A New Approach