Centre for Remote Health
A joint centre of
• Flinders University and
• Charles Darwin University
Evaluation Of
AFL Central Australia Living With
Alcohol
2005 – 2007
Presented by Ricky Mentha
Evaluation Stakeholders Collaborators
• Alcohol Education Rehabilitation
Foundation (AERF)
• Australian Football League Central
Australia (AFLCA)
• Centre for Remote Health, a joint
centre of Flinders University and
Charles Darwin University
• National Drug and Alcohol Research
Institute. Curtin University
• Tangentyere Council
Background
• The evaluation documents the impact
of the AFLCA living with alcohol
program on anti-social behavior at
AFLCA football games:
• 2005-2007
• Alcohol strategy
• Transport strategy
• Healthy lifestyles strategy
AFLCA Alcohol Reduction Strategy
Perceived Outcomes
• Increase crowd numbers & canteen sales
• Eliminate antisocial behavior at matches
• Eliminate binge drinking at matches
• Promote the living with alcohol message
• Show AFLCA as proactive & responsible
Transport Strategy
Perceived Outcomes
• Decrease number of people staying
in town following major events
• Provide remote communities a
subsidized transport strategy
Healthy Lifestyle Strategy
Perceived Outcomes
• Aus-kick and Kick-start programs in
remote Indigenous communities and
major Towns
• Increased participation in sport
• Football Camps for remote children
to develop skills and encourage a
healthy lifestyle
Evaluation Methodology
Mixed methods Approach!
Utilizing Multiple data sources and triangulation
Data sources:
• AFL Central Australian routine data
• Police custody & general disturbance data
• Alice Springs Hospital injury data
• Key informant interviews
• Security data
• Direct unobtrusive observations
Results
PROMIS items
Assault*
Other incidents**
Arrests
Totals
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Footy season
6
5
1
3
2
Not footy season
2
1
1
3
2
Footy season
26
19
36
10
4
Not footy season
26
19
23
11
10
Footy season
3
15
1
3
1
Not footy season
1
2
2
2
0
Footy season
35
39
38
16
7
Not footy season
29
22
26
16
12
* Assaults include aggravated assault
**This category comprises: general disturbances, drunkenness, and vehicles
interfered with..
Police Data Shows a Decrease in
Incidents and Arrests Since the
Implementation
P olic e da ta inc ide nts a nd a rre s ts 2 0 0 2 -2 0 0 6
N u m b e r o f In c id e n t s a n d A rre s t s
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
A FLCA s eas on
10
Out of s eas on
5
0
2002
2003
2004
Ye ar
2005
2006
Alice Springs Hospital Injury
Admission Data
• Alice Springs Hospital data included selected ICD10 injury
codes relevant to this evaluation.
• Each episode related to the admission of one patient. Injuries
sustained during the in-season (April-September) and offseason (October-March) was stratified by Indigenous and nonIndigenous status for the period 2002-2006.
• We selected data for weekends, which consisted of FridayMonday inclusive.
Alice Springs Hospital Injury
Admissions 2002-2006 by Football
Season & Indigenous Status
Indigenous
Status
Season
In
Total
Off
Sea
son
Indigenous
Year
Pre Intervention
Post
2002
366
436
802
2003
723
822
1545
2004
833
1060
1893
1079
1151
2230
1109
1341
2450
4110
4810
8920
2002
535
443
978
2003
1036
868
1904
2004
1041
959
2000
1037
1061
2098
1082
1100
2182
4731
4431
9162
2005
Interventio
n
2006
Total
Not Indigenous
Year
Pre Intervention
Post
2005
Interventio
n
2006
Total
seas
on
Injury Admissions to Alice
Springs Hospital, 2002-2006 by
Indigenous Status and Football
Season Football Season
•
For the non-Indigenous
data there was a significant
positive year effect, there is
an increasing trend in the
number of hospitalisations.
Season
In Seas o n
1 ,2 5 0
O ff s eas o n
S e a s o1n, 0 0 0
•
•
•
However the season effect is
non-significant, there is no
strong evidence that the
number of hospitalisations
differs between in and off
seasons.
It was very similar for the
Indigenous data: a
significant year effect
showing an increasing trend
over time.
However not enough
evidence to show a
difference between seasons.
The season effect was closer
to being significant in this
data though, with p=0.06.
N on- Ind igen o us
750
500
250
Count
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,0 0 0
750
Ind igen o us
500
250
2002
2003
2004
C a se s w e ig h te d b y E piso de s
2005
Year
2006
2002-2006 AFLCA Alcohol Sales
• Alcohol sales decreased 91% in the
number of units of alcohol sold for full
strength beer between the 2003 and 2004
AFLCA seasons.
• The number of units of alcohol for midstrength beer has increased over the time
period shown.
• Sales of light strength beer have remained
fairly stable at a relatively low level.
AFLCA Alcohol Sales 2003-2006
Individual Containers
•Standard Drink Units
Standard Drink Units 2003-2006
•30,000
30000
25000
•25,000
•Full strength
20000
•20,000
Light strength beer
Mid-strength beer
15000
•15,000
Full strength beer
Total
10000
•10,000
5000
•5,000
0
•-
2003
2004
•2003
2005
Year
2006
•2004
•2005
•Year
Units of alcohol sold at AFLCA events by type of beer; 2003, 2004,2005 & 2006 AFCLA seasons
AFLCA Spectator Attendances
• Decreasing spectator attendances
• 2005 $165,827
• 2006 $121,064
• Increased gate entry fee $5.00 to
$7.00 plus $5.00 vehicle fee
2005-2006 AFLCA Retail Sales
• Canteen revenue 2005 $192,412
• Canteen revenue 2006 $121,064
• Alcohol sales inclusive in these
figures
2005-2006 AFLCA Sponsorship
• Total sponsorship 2005 $196,729
• $86,168 awards & advertisements
from local business
• $110,561 grants & sponsorship from
AERF & AFLNT
• Total sponsorship 2006 $109,690
• $49,865 awards & sponsorship from
local business and advertisements
• $59,834 grants & Sponsorship from
AERF & AFLNT
AFLCA Alcohol Evaluation Key
Informant Surveys
• We conducted 44 key informant interviews in the
off-season (September-April 2006 & 2007). The
surveys generated both qualitative and
quantitative data that reflected on the previous
seasons. Key informants included:
• AFLCA administration/officials.
• Umpires.
• Security employees.
• Five town-based club representatives.
• Six remote community-based club representatives.
Survey Results
• 95.5% (n =42) of the respondents were were aware that
alcohol restrictions existed.
• 54.5% (n=24) of the respondents described all of the
alcohol restrictions.
• 86.4% (n=38) of the respondents stated they felt
extremely safe at all AFLCA events, 9.1% (n=4) stated
they felt reasonably safe and only 4.5% (n=2) of
respondents felt unsafe while attending AFLCA events
and fixtures.
Survey Results
• 84.1% (n=37) of the respondents believed there has
been an attendance shift.
• Most 72.7% (n=32) answered that there were less
people attending when asked to estimate numbers
attending.
• 61.4% (n=27) thought that on a weekly basis
between 100-500 less spectators were attending
AFLCA events and fixtures since the
implementation of the alcohol reduction strategy.
Survey Results
• 63.6% (n=28) of the respondents did not witness
any alcohol related anti-social incidents.
• 68.2% (n=30) of the respondents said that there
were, on average, less than one incident at each
game since 2004.
• 93.2% (n=41) of the respondents said fewer
incidents have occurred since the alcohol reduction
strategy was implemented.
Qualitative Survey Responses

“As we prevent intoxicated
spectators from entering the
ground we cop a fair bit of abuse
& are threatened a lot. Intoxicated
people were being abusive and
fighting. There were 1-2 incidents
throughout the whole season”.

(Security personal 2006).
Qualitative Survey Responses

“In the remote community
competition people won’t risk
drinking & fighting because their
clubs might get kicked out of the
competition”.

(Remote community football club
representative 2006).
Qualitative Survey Responses

“AFLCA are giving Aboriginal
communities responsibility to
manage people and educate
people about going to the football
drunk. We are providing local
knowledge with the night patrol
and community police to ensure
public safety”.

( Remote community football Club
Representative 2007).
Qualitative Survey Responses

“Prior to the restrictions there
were common alcohol related
incidents. Those days were most
uncomfortable due to the abusive
language and expected violence
fuelled by alcohol. Being a women,
I have felt extremely safe since
the alcohol restrictions”.

(AFLCA administrator 2007).
Qualitative Survey Responses

“Spectators are more focused on
the game than prior to the
restrictions due to the fewer crowd
disturbances and incidents due to
the restricted alcohol availability”.

(Town based club representative
2007).
Direct Observations
• Noted decreased crowd attendance.
• RAS intervention has impacted
positively on alcohol related antisocial behavior at games.
• AFLCA ensured the Zero tolerance
policy on Anti-social behavior was
enforced. Clubs were made an
example of through suspension.
Security Data – Number of Complaints,
Incidents and Ejections
2005 AFLCA Season
• 250 weapons seized
(digging sticks, shovels, and axes)
• 17 females and 32 males physically
escorted from the grounds
• 33 females and 49 males asked to leave
the grounds
• 97 females and 165 males refused entry
due to intoxication
Aus-kick and Kick-start Programs
Promote Family and Community
Activity
•“It Surely Is a Pleasure to Observe”
Health lifestyle promotion activities by AFLNT staff
or players in schools
Type
Location
Participants
Program
School
Larapinta Primary
113
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
Braitling Primary
415
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
Gillen Primary
277
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
Ross Park
Primary
216
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
OLSH Sadadeen
143
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
ASHS
52
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
School
OLSH - Traeger
138
AFL NT School Clinic Promotion
Community
Sports Fest
200
AFLNT Community Supported Event
Community
Health expo
100
AFLCA Community Supported Event
Community
CAAMA &
Congress
200
AFLNT Community Supported Event
Community
Ntaria Sports
Gala
150
AFLNT Community Supported Event
Community
Ti Tree Bush
Sports
250
AFLNT Community Supported Event
Community
Croc Fest
221
AFLNT Community Supported Event
Community &
school
Harts Range
27
KickStart Community Visit
Community &
school
Docker River
40
KickStart Community Visit
Community &
school
Santa Teresa
137
KickStart Community Visit
Community &
school
Ti Tree
123
KickStart Community Visit
Healthy Lifestyles Strategy Results
• Two camps were held in 2005 and 2006
• 2 day camp for invited children from
remote communities and in town in
December 2005
• The children were aged 15-17 years
• Fitness testing conducted on children to
test their fitness
AFLCA Auskick Program
Participating teams
Registrations for
2005
Registrations for
2006
Ross Park
87
0
Sadadeen
59
61
North side
63
55
Larapinta
52
65
Bradshaw
67
60
Flynn Park
63
0
Tennant Creek
50
16
Yulara
38
22
Traeger Park
0
88
Albrecht oval
0
71
Total
479
438
Registrations for the Auskick Program, actual numbers for 2005, as provided in early 2006
Remote Community Kick-start
Program
Kick-Start in Remote
Communities
Hearts Range
Registrations
for 2004
24
Registrations
for 2005
0
Registrations
for 2006
35
Ti Tree
0
0
64
Mutitjulu*
0
22
0
Kintore*
94
0
0
Papunya
19
0
0
Yuendumu
68
16
33
Hermansburg
65
63
103
Santa Teresa
0
69
0
Docker River
0
31
47
Alcoota
0
24
28
Amblutawidj
0
15
0
Imanpa*
12
0
0
Fink
33
0
0
Titjikala
36
0
0
Ali Curung*
41
0
99
Willowra*
21
0
0
Total
413
240
409
References
1. Kellhear A. 1993 Unobtrusive Research in Health Social Sciences, Annual Review
of Health Social Sciences 3: 46-59.
2. Palmer C & Thompson K. 2007 The Paradoxes of Football Spectatorship: On field
and Online Expressions of Social Capital Among the "Grog Squad", Sociology of
Sport Journal 24 (2): 187-205.
3. Allsop S, Pascal R, Chikritzhs T. Management of Alcohol at Large-Scale Sports
Fixtures and other Public Events, Perth: National Drug Research Institute, Curtin
University of Technology, September 2005.
4. D’Abbs P, Togni S, Dequemin A. Evaluation of Restrictions on the Sale of Alcohol
from Curtin Springs Roadside Inn, Northern Territory: A Report Prepared for the
Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Darwin: Menzies School of
Health Research, 1998.
5. Gray D, Saggers S, Atkinson D, Sputore B, Bourbon D. 2000, Beating the grog: an
evaluation of the Tennant Creek liquor licensing restrictions, Australian and New
Zealand Journal of Public Health 24 (1): 39-44.
6. Gray, D., Saggers, S., Atkinson, D. and Strempel, P. Substance misuse and primary
health care among Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Primary Health Care Review: Consultant Report No. 7. Canberra: Australian
Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2004.
Evaluation Acknowledgements
Alcohol Education & Rehabilitation Foundation.

Julie D’Arx.
Curtin University.

•
Professor Dennis Gray.
AFLCA.

Brett O’Farrell, General Manager.

Kable Kellerway, Regional Development Manager.
Talice Security.

Walter Turnbull, Director/Manager.
NT Police.

Lance Goodwin, Alice Springs Superintendent.

Rob Burgoyne, Admin. Support Officer.

Lloyd Kornelson, ICT - Corporate Analysis and Reporting, Northern Territory Police, Fire and
Emergency Services.
Alice Springs Hospital.

Vicky Taylor.

Mick Arundell.
Flinders University.
Kylie Lange, for statistical support.
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